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In this paper, we investigate decompositions of the partition function p(n) from the additive theory of partitions considering the famous Möbius function μ(n)\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\mu (n)$$\end{document} from multiplicative number theory. Some combinatorial interpretations are given in this context. Our work extends several analogous identities proved recently relating p(n) and Euler’s totient function φ(n)\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\varphi (n)$$\end{document}.

We prove new variants of the Lambert series factorization theorems studied by Merca and Schmidt (2017) which correspond to a more general class of Lambert series expansions of the form $L_a(\alpha, \beta, q) := \sum_{n \geq 1} a_n q^{\alpha n-\beta} / (1-q^{\alpha n-\beta})$ for integers $\alpha, \beta$ defined such that $\alpha \geq 1$ and $0 \leq \beta < \alpha$. Applications of the new results in the article are given to restricted divisor sums over several classical special arithmetic functions which define the cases of well-known, so-termed "ordinary" Lambert series expansions cited in the introduction. We prove several new forms of factorization theorems for Lambert series over a convolution of two arithmetic functions which similarly lead to new applications relating convolutions of special multiplicative functions to partition functions and $n$-fold convolutions of one of the special functions.

We consider relations between the pairs of sequences, $(f, g_f)$, generated by Lambert series expansions, $L_f(q) = \sum_{n \geq 1} f(n) q^n / (1-q^n)$, in $q$. In particular, we prove new forms of recurrence relations and matrix equations defining these sequences for all $n \in \mathbb{Z}^{+}$. The key ingredient to the proof of these results is given by the statement of Euler's pentagonal number theorem expanding the series for the infinite $q$-Pochhammer product, $(q; q)_{\infty}$, and for the first $n$ terms of the partial products, $(q; q)_n$, forming the denominators of the rational $n^{th}$ partial sums of $L_f(q)$. Examples of the new results given in the article include applications to the Euler phi function, $\phi(n)$, the M\"obius function, $\mu(n)$, the sum of divisors functions, $\sigma_1(n)$ and $\sigma_{\alpha}(n)$, for $\alpha \geq 0$, and to Liouville's lambda function, $\lambda(n)$.

We prove several new variants of the Lambert series factorization theorem established in the first article "Generating special arithmetic functions by Lambert series factorizations" by Merca and Schmidt (2017). Several characteristic examples of our new results are presented in the article to motivate the formulations of the generalized factorization theorems. Applications of these new factorization results include new identities involving the Euler partition function and the generalized sum-of-divisors functions, the M\"obius function, Euler's totient function, the Liouville lambda function, von Mangoldt's lambda function, and the Jordan totient function.

A relationship between the general linear group GL(n,m) and integer partitions was investigated by Macdonald in order to calculate the number of conjugacy classes in GL(n,m). In this paper, the author introduced two different factorizations for a special case of Lambert series in order to prove that the number of conjugacy classes in the general linear group GL(n,m) and the number of partitions of n into k different magnitudes are related by a finite discrete convolution. New identities involving overpartitions, partitions into k different magnitudes and other combinatorial objects are discovered and proved in this context.

We summarize the known useful and interesting results and formulas we have discovered so far in this collaborative article summarizing results from two related articles by Merca and Schmidt arriving at related so-termed Lambert series factorization theorems. We unify the matrix representations that underlie two of our separate papers, and which commonly arise in identities involving partition functions and other functions generated by Lambert series. We provide a number of properties and conjectures related to the inverse matrix entries defined in Schmidt's article and the Euler partition function $p(n)$ which we prove through our new results unifying the expansions of the Lambert series factorization theorems within this article.