added 2 research items
Psychological distress, crime features, and help-seeking behaviors of homophobic bias incidents were explored using a convenience sample of 290 lesbian, gay, and bisexual participants. A majority of the sample (73%) indicated they had been the target of at least one homophobic incident. Participants provided a detailed account of their most serious incident of homophobic victimization. Victims of homophobic sexual assaults reported significantly more posttraumatic stress symptoms than victims of bias threats, victims of other bias acts, or nonvictims. Bias sexual assaults also were more likely to involve a known perpetrator, multiple perpetrators, and previous bias incidents. Bias physical assault victims more often had a history of at least one incident of nonbias violence. Sexual and physical assault victims were more likely to report the incident and to seek other types of help. The results indicate that certain crime types and features result in more psychological distress for bias victims.
Homophobic violence and same-sex domestic violence against lesbians are described in this paper based on survey research and hotline calls conducted by a community anti-violence project. A community survey of 229 lesbians indicated that during a one-year period, about fifteen percent had been the target of homophobic violence and twelve percent had been the victim of same-sex partner violence. Violence was defined as including assault with a weapon, physical assault, sexual assault, stalking, and property destruction. The prevalence study was contrasted with actual hotline calls from lesbians during a five-year period. Examples illustrate how interventions based on these findings were used to influence police response, victim services, and legislation.