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“Knowledge exchange and academic cultures in the humanities. Europe and the Black Sea Region, late 18th – 21st centuries” (KEAC-BSR), funded by the European Commission, project number: MSCA-RISE 734645

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Petar Vodenicharov
added a research item
"Decent Intellectual Work and Enlightenment of the Russian Society" Biographical Trajectories of the First Women Professional Translators in Russia.
Mariyana Piskova
added 2 research items
Abstract: The paper is concerning the Soviet seizure of the cultural space of Transcaucasia and the establishment of "nationa"l cinematography in the Soviet republics of Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan in 1920s – 1930s. The Soviet power realizing the influential potential of cinema turned it into instrument of state propaganda. The three Transcaucasian film studios (in Tiflis, Yerevan, Baku) had a common task – to change the image of the East as exotic world and to alternate it with the image of the Soviet East. At the same time each of the film studios was entrusted a specific role in the Soviet cinema: The Georgian film studio as the first established Transcaucasian studio initiated the earliest agitation films glorifying the Soviet republic and the earliest heroic – adventure (western) films "Krasnye dyavolyata" [Red Devils] (1923). But as the most prominent success of the Georgian cinema was labelled the movie „Eliso“ (1928), which according to the Soviet critique was considered as "historically realistic narrative about the struggles against the colonial politics of Tsar’s autocracy". The role of the non-Muslim Armenia and the Armenian film studio was to contribute for the removing the yashmaks from the face of the East. About the highly evaluated from the Soviet propaganda film „Namus“ (1925) „the father of the Transcaucasian cinema“ Hamo Bek-Nazarov received the recognition of being the first one to show the true image of the East without make-up. Another task of the Armenian cinema which was successfully done was to ridicule and relegate the independent Armenian republic, governed by the party of Dashnaktsutyun (1918-1920). Baku film studio was called upon to turn into a center of movies influencing ideologically and artistically the audience of Azerbaijan, Dagestan, Persia, Turkey and other Eastern countries. It was proclaimed to be national proletarian center for export of socialism to "the foreign countries of the East". By Azerbaijan movies anti-Islamic Soviet propaganda was implemented denouncing "the reactionary essence of the Muslim priesthood". Such are movies "Bismillah" (1925) and "Sevil" (1929, co-production with Armenian film studio). The movie "Sevil" came out during the campaign for removing the yashmaks which was organized and controlled by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. It got the recognition of contributing for the "liberating of women of the East". The movie is significant of the cooperation between the Azerbaijani playwright, poet and screenwriter Jafar Jabbarli, the film studio in Baku today is named after him, and the Armenian director Hamo Bek-Nazarov, the film studio in Yerevan is also named after him. In the conclusions some myths about the Soviet Transcaucasian cinema are mentioned, myths already demystified. The Transcaucasian cinema from 1920s – 1930s was not a result of free and creative exchange of knowledge and experience but it was created in a capsulated world under the control of the Soviet power. That is way the whole story of this cinema from the beginning of the 20th century is full of examples for its use for narrow political aims.
Mariyana Piskova
added a research item
The paper is a biographical narrative about Archavir Chakatouny (1882-1957) – an Armenian, whose life ended as a Russian emigrant in France. His life is presented by tracing his artistic development that started in the Armenian drama team in Baku in 1905-1910 and continued in the Moscow Artistic theatre where he learnt from Stanislavski and became close with Vakhtangov. He was invited to Moscow by Akop Usunyan who was a representative of the Film Company “Khanzhonkov and Co”, and suggested him the role of Kazbich in the movie “Bela” based on Lermontov’s work. The success of the movie was tremendous and in 1913 he was personally invited by Khanzhonkov and offered a new role – of Shamil in the movie “The capture of Caucasus”. Other successful film roles followed in 1914. The First World War interrupted the film carrier of Chakatouny; he was sent to the Caucasus front taking part in the great war conflicts in Sardarabad (1918) which were of great importance for East Armenia. After the war Chakatouny had a totally different role: he participated in the administration of the new proclaimed independent Republic of Armenia. In the period 1918 – 1920 he was a commandant of the capital of the Armenian Republic Yerevan; also, he was in charge of the mobilization and the fight against deserters. When Armenia became a Soviet Republic, Chakatouny left his native land for ever. He came to Constantinople for a while (the Armenian Dramatic theater) and after that he was in Sofia and other Balkan towns (1922 - 1924). Finally, he came to Paris where he played in the theatre and he was one of the most famous actors in the last years of the silent films (1924 - 1934). He founded the French cinema make-up school. The paper is based on archive documents and publications: Chakatouny’s personal documents, correspondence, as well as on visual sources.
Mariyana Piskova
added a research item
Аннотация. Первый и пока единственный художественный фильм об Андранике Озаняне (1865–1927) снят летом 1928 г. в Болгарии. Кто обес�печил финансирование, кто создал фильм, почему именно в Болгарии, почему не показывали фильм в советской Армении… – это часть вопросов, на которые будем искать ответы. С этой целью и проведен поиск источни�ков в архивах и музеях в Армении и Болгарии. Самым богатым источником о нем является личный фонд армян�ского эмигранта в Париже Аршавира Шахатуни (1882–1957). После его смерти документы были переданы в Музей литературы и искусства им. Егише Чаренца в Ереване. Среди них особое место занимают биографи�ческие документы, документы о театральных ролях и ролях в кино, кото�рые он исполнял, материалы о раннем кино и истории создания фильма «Андраник». В Национальном архиве Армении хранятся документы, которые рас�крывают участие Шахатуни в Первой мировой войне, а также в управле�нии Первой Армянской Республикой (1918–1920) в качестве коменданта и начальника города Эривана. Ценнейшим источником является сам худо�жественный фильм «Андраник», который поступил в Государственный архив Армянской ССР в 1972 г. В этот период имя Андраника было под запретом: до конца 80-х гг. ХХ в. существовала цензура, и противоречи�вые оценки Андраника со стороны армян и азербайджанцев («герой» или «враг») «затушевывались». Поэтому, по всей вероятности, фильм попал в Армению через Армян�ское общество дружбы и культурной связи с зарубежными странами, которое было создано по решению ЦК КП Армянской ССР. Официаль�ная деятельность общества была связана с культурными событиями за рубежом, но на самом деле общество искало информацию о политических эмигрантах. В болгарских архивах находятся «следы» выступлений Шахатуни на театральных сценах, а также переписка с артистом Георгием Стаматовым (1893–1965), в которых содержатся ценные сведения об истории и процес�се создания фильма. Ключевые слова: Аршавир Шахатуни, художественный фильм «Андра�ник», архивные документы, Первая мировая война