Project

Karyology, Population genetic and Molecular phylogeny of some special Turkish Plants

Goal: We interest mainly now above new generation sequences and their efficiency. Additionally we go on population genetic and phylogenetic analyses of some Turkish endemic sepecies and in some taxonomical groups(Centaurea and Muscari, Ornithogalum, Psephellus, Cousonia, Rhaponticoides, Consolida).

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Meryem Bozkurt
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Bu çalışmada, morfolojik ve moleküler çalışmalar ışığında Orta Anadolu’dan (Türkiye) yeni bir “peygamberçiçeği” türü, Centaurea ankarica (sek. Centaurea), tanımlandı. Yeni tür morfolojik olarak C. olympica ve C. polyclada ile benzer olmasına rağmen, gövde boyu, görünümü ve dallanması, yaprak tipi, involukrum boyu, sil rengi, aken tüylülüğü ve boyu gibi karakterler nedeniyle bu türlerden kolayca ayrılır. Centaurea ankarica, Ankara ilinde yaklaşık 1300–1880 metreler arasındaki bozkırlarda yetişir. Oysaki C. olympica ve C. polyclada Bursa, Kütahya, Çanakkale, Balıkesir ve İzmir illerinde 0–1200 metre aralığındaki orman ve maki açıklıklarında yetişir. Yeni türün detaylı betimlemesi, habit ve çiçek resimleri, korolojisi ve bazı ekolojik özellikleri verilmiştir.
Tuna Uysal
added a research item
In this study, Turkish Cousinia species were examined in point of chromosome number and morphology. According to our known, this work is the first comprehensively chromosomal study regards to Turkish Cousinia as a whole, especially for endemics. As consistent with previous reports, the chromosome numbers are mostly 2n=26 and have been determined also as 2n=24 for only the members of Cynaroideae and Sphaerocephalae sections. It is one of interested result of this paper that there is no any polyploid species in this taxonomic group and all of them are diploids. On concern the chromosomes evolution of the Cousinia species, we concluded that merely dysploidy is effective within the genus and evolutionally a unipolar reduction goes on in the basic chromosome number in speciation (from 13 to 12). In terms of general chromosomal information, the chromosomes of the genus consist of metacentric and submetacentric types and they could be categorized in small category according to Lima De Faria classification (0.67-3.43). According to chromosomal indices in used this paper, while the most species have the symmetrical chromosomes and fewer has asymmetrical ones. From this point, it could be said that Cousinia stapfiana could be assessed as the most evolved taxa in karyomorphology according to the average of all index used in here. Besides with this, Cousinia bicolor, Cousinia birandiana and Cousinia sintenisii are species having the most primitive chromosome within the genus.
Meryem Bozkurt
added a research item
Özet: Bu çalışmada, Centaurea pseudoscabiosa türüne ait alt taksonların altı farklı popülasyonunun karyotipleri aseto-orsein yöntemi ile incelenmiştir. Tüm popülasyonlar aynı kromozom sayısına (2n=22) ve temel kromozom sayısına (x=11) sahiptir. Alt taksonların karyotipleri C. pseudoscabiosa subsp. pseudoscabiosa ve C. pseudoscabiosa subsp. araratica 22m, C. pseudoscabiosa var. sipikorensis, 20m+2sm ve C. pseudoscabiosa subsp. glehnii 16m+ 6sm olarak tespit edilmiştir. Alt taksonların karyolojik özelliklerini değerlendirmek için beş kantitatif asimetrik indeks kullanılmıştır. Asimetri indekslerine göre, C. pseudoscabiosa subsp. glehnii en asimetrik kromozomlara sahiptir (CVCI:10, AI:1,8). Taksonomik açıdan karyolojik veriler C. pseudoscabiosa’nın önceki tür altı sınıflandırmasını doğrulamaktadır. Ayrıca karyolojik sonuçlar, Türkiye Florası’nda sinonim olarak kabul edilen C. pseudoscabiosa var. sipikorensis taksonunun alt tür olarak yeni bir taksonomik düzenlemeyle canlandırılması gerekliliğini desteklemektedir. Abstract: In this study, karyotypes of six different populations of sub-taxa belonging to Centaurea pseudoscabiosa Boiss. & Buhse were investigated by aceto-orcein method. All populations have the same chromosome number (2n=22) and basic chromosome number (x=11). Karyotypes of sub-taxa C. pseudoscabiosa subsp. pseudoscabiosa and subsp. araratica, C. pseudoscabiosa var. sipikorensis, and C. pseudoscabiosa subsp. glehnii has been identified as 22m, 20m+2sm and 16m + 6sm, respectively. Five quantitative asymmetric indices were used to evaluate the karyological characteristics of sub-taxa. According to the asymmetry indices, C. pseudoscabiosa subsp. glehnii has the most asymmetric chromosomes (CVCI:10, AI:1.8). From a taxonomic point of view, karyological data confirm the previous subspecies classification of C. pseudoscabiosa. In addition, the karyological results support the necessity of reviving the taxon C. pseudoscabiosa var. sipikorensis, which is accepted as a synonym in the Flora of Turkey, with a new taxonomic arrangement as a subspecies.
Meryem Bozkurt
added a research item
While the existence of Muscari commutatum is known from Sicily (Italy), Lesbos and Samos Islands (Aegean Sea), it was collected from two different localities at the borders of Antalya Province (Turkey). In this study, besides the description and distribution of the newly recorded species for Turkey, the seed surface taken by SEM and karyotype analysis were included. According to morphological findings, the taxonomically closest relative of the species is M. filiforme, which naturally occurs in Israel and Jordan. At first glance, M. commutatum appears like M. latifolium for perigonal structure and M. inconstrictum with its concolorous flowers. The chromosome number of the species is 2n=18, as in most other members of the genus, and it is diploid. Seed surface ornamentations are reticulate.
Tuna Uysal
added a research item
In this study, chromosome length, karyomorphology and chromosome asymmetry of six Turkish Muscari species; Muscari muglaensis, M. nazimiyensis, M. pallens, M. pamiryigidii, M. inundatum and M. fatmaceranie were evaluated. The somatic chromosome number of all examined taxa was determined as 2n=18. The basic chromosome number was x=9. Chromosomes consist of metacentric, submetacentric, and subtelocentric chromosomes. This is the first report on chromosome number and morphology for five of the six taxa studied. Studies on the karyotype and chromosomal diversity of Muscari may provide insight into taxonomic relationships and differences within the genus.
Meryem Bozkurt
added a research item
Three close endemic species of Psephellus section Odontolophoidei were compared with regard to their micro- and macromorphological characters to explore their taxonomic circumscription and relationships. In the scope of detailed morphologic studies, the deficiences found in the species descriptions in Flora of Turkey were corrected. Detailed descriptions and a useful key were prepared in light of newly obtained morphologic data. During the numerical studies, 96 qualitative and quantitative characters were converted into numerical values. The obtained data and their matrices were used in the phenetic analyses. Following this process, a phenogram was created based on the similarity index, and the spatial distributions of the taxa were assessed using nMDS (non-metric multidimensional scaling). The findings indicated that the microstructural features of the achenes observed using scanning electron and light microscopy are very important for the classification of Psephellus, and they can be used as effective taxonomical tools to determine the relationships of closely related taxa. As a result of these studies, Psephellus aucherianus could be characterized as the most variable and relatively common species when compared to the remaining relatives within the section. Psephellus yusufeliensis was found near Ps. aucherianus and it had a fairly local and narrow distribution. In light of the micromorphological data and phenetic analyses, Psephellus sintenisii is accepted at species rank as a new combination for Flora of Turkey. Morphological descriptions and nomenclatural types are indicated for all accepted taxa, including designation of a lectotype for Ps. sintenisii. Data on phenology, ecology, and distribution are also reported.
Meryem Bozkurt
added a research item
Centaurea uysalii Şirin & Çeçen, a new Asteraceae species from the province of Karaman, in Turkey, is described and illustrated herein. It is morphologically similar to C. bourgaei Boiss. (Subgen. Cyanus), but it mainly differs from its relative in terms of the involucre and achene lengths. The achene micromorphological features and karyomorphology of C. uysalii and C. bourgaei were examined in this study. The IUCN conservation status is the Critically Endangered [CR B2 a b (i, iii)] category.
Tuna Uysal
added a research item
In this study, chromosome number and karyomorphologic features of Onosma sieheana Hayek (Ak emcek in Turkish) which is the endemic taxon for Turkey were investigated for the first time. Performed by squashing method in the root tips with Acetoorcein, the chromosome number were counted 2n=24, and karyotype formula of the taxon were determined to be and 24 m. Basic chromosome numbers of the genus Onosma ranged from 6 to 11. According to this finding, it is thought that the species would be tetraploid (2n=4x=24). Besides with, it is founded that the chromosomes of O. sieheana is symmetric according to the used different karyotype indices in this paper.
Tuna Uysal
added a research item
The chromosome numbers and karyotypes belonging to populations of Psephellus aucherianus complex were discussed by this paper. The chromosome numbers of all populations were determined as 2n=30. Karyomorphological results indicated that the populations of Ps. aucherianus complex display a broad variation and differ from each other in some aspects. Mainly, the karyotype formula could be evaluated as very specific and discriminative for each taxa, even their populations. Otherwise, the chromosomal indices indicated that all populations had largely symmetrical karyotypes and low chromosomal heterogeneity as a common chromosomal pattern within this complex. As a general result, we can infer that the species of these complex can be clearly characterized and separated according to karyomorphologic features and more importantly, chromosome pattern and rearrangements are very useful and informative to explain theirs evolutionary interactions as well changes.
Kuddisi Ertuğrul
added a project reference
Tuna Uysal
added 2 research items
The composition of the essential oils of ten Centaurea species from Turkey, Centaurea aladaghensis, C. antiochia var. prealta, C. antitauri, C. babylonica, C. balsamita, C. cheirolepidoides, C. deflexa, C. iconiensis, C. lanigera, C. ptosimopappoides have been studied. Multivariate statistical analyses (Principal Component Analysis, Multidimensional Scaling, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) applied to GC-MS data, seem to be very useful to investigate and establish the natural taxonomic delimitation of this very difficult genus. The groupings resulted independent from the ecological similarities (i.e. plants that live in the same habitats or share similar morphological characteristics), so it seems that the environment has no influence on the biosynthesis of the volatiles of these plants.
Conservation of biodiversity is the main concept to provide sustainability. There are various methods to identify diversity of living organisms. SDS-PAGE is one the most reliable method to classification of plants. Dry bean is the most im-portant pulse crop over the world besides Konya has the highest production in Turkey which is expected as the widest genetic variation among the genotypes. In the present study, a total of 22 bean genotypes (20 populations from Konya and 2 certificated varieties) were used to obtain the protein patterns by using SDS-PAGE methods. Diversity of the genotypes and their relatives were evalu-ated with dendrogram. Results implicated that protein profiles of the investigated beans provided a clear classification by view of selection criteria. Similarity den-drogram presented two main groups that showed the ranges nearly 20-75% and 50-90%, respectively. Furthermore, two of the local populations (PV 19 and PV 20) showed a subgroup with certified varieties (Akman-98 and Gina). A com-parison of SDS-PAGE method showed that, the method could be used to find solutions for the taxonomic and evolutionary problems of the bean genotypes. Therefore, this method may be a useful tool for plant breeders to simplification of selection and classification on genotypes.
Tuna Uysal
added a project goal
We interest mainly now above new generation sequences and their efficiency. Additionally we go on population genetic and phylogenetic analyses of some Turkish endemic sepecies and in some taxonomical groups(Centaurea and Muscari, Ornithogalum, Psephellus, Cousonia, Rhaponticoides, Consolida).