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Micro-and macromorphological achene features of 20 knapweeds taxa from Turkey were searched using light and scanning electron microscopy. The achene surface was examined in detail for each taxon and a dendogram was established by numerical analyses derived from the observed micromorphological features. Cyanus pinardii was distinguished by epappose while Cyanus depressus was distinguished by longer pappus than achene. The results indicated that the examined taxa had very high variations in their achene surface. According to the results, pericarp texture and color, hilum position and pappus hairs could be used for taxonomical diagnosis of the Cyanus taxa. The hairiness of the surface and elaiosome in the basal of pericarp were characteristic in all Cyanus taxa.
Objective / Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine karyomorphological characteristics of Cy. eflanensisand Cy. lanigerus. Material and Methods: Herbarium materials belonging to Cy. eflanensis and Cy. lanigerus were collected from the field between 2014 and 2016. Mature achenes were selected and periodically germinated for chromosomal analyses. Chromosome counts were made on somatic metaphases in root tips using the squash technique. After germinating, the root tips were pretreated by 8-hydroxyquinoline and fixed by the Carnoy solution. Before staining, root tips were hydrolyzed with 5-N HCl, and stained with 1% aceto-orcein. At least 10 metaphases were examined per taxa; the best metaphase plate was photographed. Moreover, the coefficient of variation of the chromosome length (CVCL), coefficient of variation of the centromeric index (CVCI) and mean centromeric asymmetry (MCA) were calculated. Idiograms and karyograms of these taxa were made by using the KAMERAM analysis system. Results:The Karyotypes of two endemic Cyanus species (Cy. eflanensis and Cy. lanigerus) naturally growing in Turkey were analyzed in detail. The somatic chromosome number was counted as 2n=20 for both species. In Cy. eflanensis the karyotype formula consist of 18m + 2sm pairs; total haploid chromosome length (THL) is 12. coefficient of variation of the chromosome length (CVCL), coefficient of variation of the centromeric index (CVCI) and mean centromeric asymmetry (MCA) are 9.89, 6.88and 10.94 respectively, whereas in Cy. lanigerus; the karyotype formula consist of 20m pairs; total haploid chromosome length coefficient of variation of the chromosome length (CVCL), coefficient of variation of the centromeric index (CVCI) and mean centromeric asymmetry (MCA) are 18.6, 5.5 and 9.88 respectively. In this study, the karyotype analysis and the asymmetry indices of Cy. eflanensis and Cy. lanigerus were determined for the first time.