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Invasive plants in Hungary

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Lajos Balogh
added a research item
A szerzők két, korábban Magyarországról nem ismert, a Rubiaceae családhoz tartozó faj első adatát közlik. A Délnyugat-Ázsiából származó, dísznövényként Európában szórványosan ülte­tett piros szálkanyak (Phuopsis stylosa) a Vas megyei Csákánydoroszló község közúti árkának degradált mezofil gyepjében telepedett meg. A Mediterráneumban őshonos kőfali galaj (Galium murale) kis állo­mánya a budapesti Keleti pályaudvar egyik használaton kívülimellékvágánya mentén került elő. Előbbi faj feltételezhetően ültetésből vadulhatott ki, míg utóbbi jelenléte a vasúti forgalomnak köszönhető. Mindkét faj egyelőre csak kis egyedszámban van jelen élőhelyén, így inváziós képességük csak több éves megfigyelést követően értékelhető. A fajok beillesztésre kerültek a hazai határozókulcsba.
Lajos Balogh
added 3 research items
(Abstract of oral presentation in Hungarian) — In: A Magyar Biológiai Társaság Botanikai Szakosztályának 1404. szakülése, Budapest, 2004. nov. 22. — http://www.mbt-biologia.hu/gen/pro/mod/let/let_fajl_megnyitas.php?i_faj_azo=475
1. Az Apium repens (Jacq.) Lagasca új előfordulása a Szigetközben 2. A Limonium gmelinii (Willd.) Kuntze subsp. hungaricum (Klokov) Soó alkalmi megjelenései útpadkákon 3. Az Asparagus verticillatus L. elvadulásának első hazai adatáról 4. A Digitalis lanata Ehrh. új előfordulása Kemencén (Börzsöny) 5. Balkáni csillagvirág (Prospero paratheticum Speta) első előfordulási adata a Duna–Tisza-közén 6. Néhány érdekesebb növényfaj megjelenése a Duna 2013. évi nagy árvize után a Szigetköz hullámterében 7. Az adventív ágas falgyom (Parietaria judaica L.) újabb előfordulási adata Debrecenből 8. Kindbergia praelonga (Hedw.) Ochyra Sopron város mohaflórájában 9. Adatok a Plantago coronopus L. hazai elterjedéséhez 10. A csipkés gyöngyvessző (Spiraea crenata L.) egykori kunpeszéri előfordulásáról 11. A Spiraea crenata L. sas-hegyi (Budai-hegység) felfedezésének története
Lajos Balogh
added 12 research items
The relatively good germination ability and the special biochemical characteristics of the rhizome also contribute to the invasive tendency of the aggressive alien Solidago gigantea. From the germination ability studies of achene samples collected at 16 different places in West-Hungary (county Vas) it is clear that the germination ability of achenes is good especially in spring, but its also makes abundant germination possible following total maturation, to an equal extent almost during the whole year (several thousand achenes may be produced on a single plant!). Achenes can be characterized by a 20–30% germination ability. – On the basis of phytochemical screenings for dececting fructan polymers and measuring the quantity of free sugars, it can be stated that in early autumn especially sucrose and fructose are present in free form in the rhizome. The accumulation of storage carbohydrate is indicated by the fact that the characteristic fructan polymers are evenly present in the developing rhizome in the state before winter dormant period. (in English with Hungarian summary)
An overview of the terminology on plant invasions, and suggestions for the use of certain terms and its definitions (Chapter in Hungarian) – www.termeszetvedelem.hu/index.php?pg=menu_1957
Characteristic traits of invasive neophytes found in Hungary (Chapter in Hungarian) – www.termeszetvedelem.hu/index.php?pg=menu_1957
Lajos Balogh
added 2 research items
The lecture draws the attention to the presence and spreading of invasive weeds that endangers the wildlife of the Ôrség's Landscape-protection Area and attached areas. The lecture summarizes the bibliographical and own chorological data of sixteen species (Pteridium aquilinum, Amorpha fruticosa, Impatiens glandulifera, Heracleum mantegazzianum, Asclepias syriaca, Solidago gigantea, Aster novi-belgii, A. versicolor, A. salignus, A. lanceolatus, Rudbeckia laciniata, Helianthus tuberosus, H. decapetalus, H. rigidus, H. x laetiflorus, Reynoutria japonica) supplemented with references to their quantitative correlation. From these species fifteen are adventive, one of them (Pteridium) is cosmopolitan. The most wide-spread and consecutively the most infection-causing is the Solidago gigantea. The expansion of Reynoutria japonica has known an increasing menace too.
During the last decade the author has investigated the spreading populations of invasive plant species threatening the natural vegetation of Western Hungary. Populations of the taxa belonging to the Reynoutria section of the Fallopia genus, play one of the most important role in this process. On the basis of exomorphological observations, the results indicate that – similarly to occurrences reported in other countries of Europe – Fallopia ×bohemica hybrid taxon exists in Hungary. (in Hungarian with English summary)
Lajos Balogh
added a research item
Stands of Fallopia ×bohemica (an adventive East-Asian element of the Hungarian flora) were investigated from coenological point of view in the south-western part of Vas County. We have those plant associations that were found neighbouring and threatened by the invasive (hybrid) Japanese knotweed stands recorded. The paper also informs about a transect method as well as the experiences derived from its use. The transect included the neighbouring association (“a”), the overlapping zone (“b”) and the Fallopia-stand (“c”). The aim of this method was to prove the extent of overlapping of these vegetation types and of species diversity loss.
Lajos Balogh
added a research item
Recently, a new adventive plant has reached Hungary. The yellow monkey-flower – Mimulus guttatus DC. (Scrophulariaceae) – is already naturalized in most parts of Europe, first of all along the river banks. The present study gives some information on the difficulties of nomenclature, paying special attention to the longstanding confusion with M. luteus L. The detailed morphological description includes good features for the distrinction of the two species. Besides the presentation of ecological, phenological and spread characteristics, the European career of the yellow monkey-flower is also discussed. M. guttatus has not been known from the present area of Hungary, although, data are available from the northern and north-eastern part of Carpathian Basin. The study presents the circumstances of its recent occurrence in West Hungary in details. First it was found on the banks of Danube (Gyõr-Moson-Sopron County, 1994, Simon and Szabó) later on the banks of Rába River (Vas County, 2000, Balogh and Vidéki) – in both cases in the relatively wet types of the Echinochloo-Polygonetum lapathifolii association (that belongs to the ordo Bidentetalia tripartiti). Beyond this, the study contains the revision results of Mimulus material found in Hungarian herbaria. The oldest data relating to M. guttatus - both for spontaneous (1847) and cultivated (1880) occurences – are available (collected by L. Vágner) from the North-east Carpathians, Máramaros County (these localities belong today to Ukraine). Spontaneous occurrence of M. luteus is not known up to now in the Carpathian Basin. The oldest data on its cultivated form are available from Vas County from 1830s and 1840s (collected by I. Szenczy). Since the recent occurences of M. guttatus are owing to the rivers flowing from west (Danube and Rába) further occurrences can be expected along these rivers. However we hope, Hungary will not been invaded by the species as it happened in Britain and East Germany. Our riverine vegetation could be saved from this new invasive alien plant. (in Hungarian with German and English summaries)
Lajos Balogh
added 5 research items
The spatial distribution and abundance of some important invasive plant species have been surveyed in the Őrség Landscape Protection Area (ŐLPA) in Western Hungary, situated in the former “Iron Curtain Zone”. During field studies performed within “The Natural History of Őrség” research program, high values of invasion of the natural or seminatural habitats were found. Despite the fact that the area was ”undisturbed” for decades, these values are similar to other parts of Western Hungary. The main aim was to investigate the role invasive alien plants play in the transformation of the original vegetation. 75 % of the 24 spreading species recorded in the region of the ŐLPA are invasive aliens. 66 % of the latter are of North American origin and 50% of them belong to the family Asteraceae. The invasive alien plants that most endanger the natural habitats of the region are: Solidago gigantea, Fallopia x bohemica, Helianthus tuberosus agg., Impatiens glandulifera, Aster lanceolatus agg. The range of these and other alien invasive taxa were studied in detail on maps with a 2.5 x 2.5 km UTM grid. Plant communities invaded by these plant species were also recorded. In addition, the small-scale and slow expansion of a few native species is also demonstrable (e. g. Calamagrostis epigeios, Sambucus ebulus, Urtica dioica).
Many attempts have been made to answer the question: “What makes a species invasive?” From previous results, it is clear that there are no general rules; the characteristic traits of invaders change place to place. In this chapter, traits of the species that are invasive and non-invasive in (semi)natural habitats in Hungary were statistically compared. The following attributes were included: origin, taxonomic position (at family level), maximum plant height, life form according to Raunkiaer's classification, pollination, seed dispersal, clonality, ecological requirements expressed by Ellenberg’s indicator values (temperature, moisture, soil reaction, and soil fertility). We found that: invasives are taller (except within shrubs and trees), they are often able to spread vegetatively, geophytes over-represented, while biennials under-represented among them. The frequency of species with North American origin, and species belong to Asteraceae family is significantly higher among invasive than among non-invasive aliens. Whereas, the frequency of species with Mediterranean origin, and species belonging to Scrophulariaceae, Brassicaceae and Onagraceae family is significantly lower among invasive species than among non-invasive aliens. In spite of theoretical expectations, autopollination is less frequent among invasives than among non-invasives. The soil fertility requirement of invasive species are significantly higher, while their light requirement is significantly lower than that of non-invasive species. According to temperature requirement, soil moisture and soil reaction indicator values, there are not significant differences between groups. Some of our results are in line with earlier results in other areas, while others differ from them, probably due to the different (phyto)geographical position of Hungary. Although we found many significant differences between invasive and non-invasive species, we did not find any single trait that enable effective prediction of future invasion. The classification tree shows that some trait combination allows to better prediction of invasiveness than using single trait, but in most of the cases, it is very ambiguous even if trait combinations are used.
The paper shows a work in process, that investigate the distribution of invasive kenophytes in the spontaneous vegetation of middle part of the Western Hungarian Borderland. The evaluation of data comprises the various aspects of the general and regional attributes. The latter includes the regional degree of distribution and invasiveness of the species, moreover the invaded habitats and vegetation units are also given.
Lajos Balogh
added 25 research items
(Article in Hungarian; popular science) – http://www.okologia.mta.hu/sites/default/files/BALOGH_2003_Ozonnovenyek_a_Raba_menten.pdf
Himalayan balsam (Impatiens glandulifera Royle) [Chapter in Hungarian] – www.termeszetvedelem.hu/index.php?pg=menu_1957
Giant knotweed species (Fallopia sectio Reynoutria) [Chapter in Hungarian] – www.termeszetvedelem.hu/index.php?pg=menu_1957