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Interventions for Reducing Prejudice against Stigmatized Minorities: Developing measures and experimental testing of the contact hypothesis under field conditions.
We report the process of adapting and validating the BIAS Map (Behaviors from Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes) used to measure perceived stereotypes and related social-structure, emotions, and behavioral tendencies toward the Roma – Slovakia’s most stigmatized ethnic minority group. In two surveys (Studies 1 and 4, n = 705) and group-based (Study 2, n = 92) and individual (Study 3, n = 12) cognitive interviews, we integrated quantitative reliability, scalability, factor structure analysis, and qualitative inductive thematic analysis. We identified potential problems in the instrument’s ecological validity and explored the limits of intergroup context-specific interpretation to improve its psychometric properties. Besides developing a more reliable and valid measure, we make an argument for utilizing the emic-etic mixed methods approach to enhance the intergroup context-sensitive adaptation and validation procedure of universal measurement instruments in social psychology research.
Response instructions-inviting participants to respond from a certain perspective-can significantly influence the performance and construct validity of psychological measures. Stereotype Content Model (SCM) and then the BIAS map ("behaviors from intergroup affect and stereotypes") were originally developed as universal measures of shared cultural stereotypes-participants' perceptions of what most of the people in a society think about the target group-and their related social-structural antecedents, emotions and behavioral tendencies. Yet a number of studies have adopted a different response instruction focusing on individual stereotypes-what the participants personally think about the target group. So far, there is little evidence to suggest how these two different response instructions (individual vs. shared cultural perspective) might influence the performance of the BIAS map, especially when applied to target groups that elicit different normative and social desirability concerns. To provide novel evidence, we conducted an experiment with a representative sample of ethnic Slovaks (N = 1269). In a 2 × 2 factorial design, we found response instruction (individual vs. shared cultural perspective) and target group [stigmatized ethnic minority (the Roma) vs. non-stigmatized ethnic minority (the Hungarians)] had significant effects on the BIAS map and their interaction had significant effects on the social structure and behavioral tendencies (but not on stereotypes and emotions) scales. Exploratory analysis also points to partial influence on the mediation hypothesis underlying the BIAS map and minor effects on its scale properties. Our evidence suggests that the difference between individual stereotypes and shared cultural stereotypes partially depends on the target group in question and that they should be treated as two potentially separate constructs.
Príbehmi proti predsudkom: využitie autentických výpovedí mladých ľudí vo vzdelávaní. Vydavateľ: Ústav výskumu sociálnej komunikácie Slovenskej akadémie vied v spolupráci s Fakulta sociálnych a ekonomických vied Univerzity Komenského v Bratislave, Bratislava 2019. ISBN 978-80-973370-0-1
A discussion about the role of schools in preventing extremism and building tolerant intergroup attitudes is currently ongoing in Slovakia. The first objective of this study was to map (through document and secondary data analysis) how the topic of intergroup relations is defined in school curricula and how teachers are preparedto deal with this issue. The second objective of the study was to explore what methods and practices are used by civics teachers in dealing with issues of intergroup relations, how they perceive the effectiveness of these methods, and what their needs are in this domain. Based on an analysis of the State and School Educational Programs, we argue that the curriculum provides only limited opportunities to develop values and attitudes and implement interventions to reduce prejudice. Semi-structured interviews with teachers at Slovak secondary schools (N = 22) confirmed this assumption. The participants criticized the absence of didactic materials and systematic support from the Ministry of Education and pointed to the need for greater time allocation for civic education. They suggested that it is discussion that is the most frequently used teaching method in civic education, but that this needs to be completed with experience methods when dealing with the topic of intergroup relations. The participants presented different perspectives on the formal aspects of discussion, its goals, and teachers’ role in it (moderator, corrector, impartial observer).Studia paedagogica roč. 23, č. 3, rok 2018 www.studiapaedagogica.cz https://doi.
Príspevok ponúka prehľad výskumov, ktoré sa zaoberali zmierňovaním predsudkov voči Rómom na Slovensku, prostredníctvom priameho i nepriameho kontaktu. V prvej časti predstaví dotazníkový prieskum, ktorý sa zaoberal štruktúrou a prediktormi postojov voči Rómom, vrátane priameho kontaktu. V druhej časti predstaví pilotný výskum, ktorý exploroval vzťah medzi sprostredkovaným kontaktom cez čítanie kníh o Harrym Potterovi a postojmi voči minoritám. V tretej časti prezentuje prehľad experimentov, ktoré sa zaoberali zmierňovaním predsudkov voči Rómom prostredníctvom predstavovaného kontaktu. V texte argumentujeme, že v spoločenských kontextoch, kde sú predsudky normatívne akceptované, je potrebné pracovať s kultúrne senzitívnymi intervenciami, ktoré podporujú formovanie pozitívnych medziskupinových noriem.
Príbehy môžu byť efektívnym nástrojom zmierňovania predsudkov. Viacerí autori dokazujú tento efekt pomocou rôznych typov príbehov z oblasti medziskupinových vzťahov, kde sa hlavní hrdinovia stretávajú s predstaviteľmi nečlenských skupín v pozitívnom kontexte. V príspevku sa formou prehľadovej štúdie venujeme rôznym typom týchto príbehov ako efektívnej a dostupnej metóde, používanej v intervenciách na zmierňovanie predsudkov, ako aj psychologickým mechanizmom ich pôsobenia.
Although one of the most severe forms of bias all over Europe, anti-Roma prejudice has been neglected within social psychology. We argue that anti-Roma attitudes need to be recognized as a unique form of prejudice because (a) they reflect socially approved dominant societal norms, (b) intergroup contact increases rather than decreases prejudice, and (c) not just negative stereotyping, but also cultural distancing of Roma people is a form of social exclusion. We developed an integrative Attitudes Toward Roma Scale (ATRS) based on existing measures and theoretical assumptions about prejudice toward Roma people. We conducted a study (N = 1082) relying on student and community samples in Hungary and Slovakia. Exploratory factor analysis revealed and confirmatory factor analysis supported the structural equivalence of a three-factor solution of the16-item scale, consisting of Blatant Stereotyping, Undeserved Benefits, and Cultural Difference.
Cieľom výskumu bolo zistiť, aké faktory (predovšetkým vedomosti z dejepisu a občianskej náuky, postoje k dejinám, demokracii a EÚ, vnímaná otvorenosť školy pre diskusiu a participáciu, zdroje informácií o politike a dejinách) súvisia s postojmi žiakov a žiačok stredných škôl k rôznym menšinám na Slovensku. Dotazníkového prieskumu sa na prelome novembra a decembra 2016 zúčastnilo 3625 žiakov a žiačok z 95 stredných škôl, ktorých priemerný vek bol 16,88 roka. Plný text správy je prístupný na stránke Štátnej školskej inšpekcie: https://www.ssiba.sk/admin/fckeditor/editor/userfiles/file/Dokumenty/Sprava_z_vyskumu_1.pdf
The paper discusses the conceptual and methodological challenges of developing measures of stereotypes and prejudice for use in Slovakia. Developing these measures was the first step in a research project aimed at testing the effectiveness of direct and indirect contact interventions to reduce prejudice against stigmatized minorities, particularly the Roma. The first major problem in this kind of research relates to measuring the impact of interventions, as standardized instruments for measuring prejudice have yet to be developed in Slovak. The second problem concerns the risk that the interventions will fail to reduce anti-Roma prejudice, because of the strong stigmatization of the Roma minority in Slovakia. The paper also reviews existing measures of stereotypes and prejudice in social psychology and discusses their applicability for measuring anti-Roma prejudice in Slovakia. It is argued that measures of stereotypes and prejudice should be designed and used in a sensitive manner and that in the process of measuring various forms of social bias we should avoid reproducing its cognitive, emotional and behavioural manifestations.
In this monothematic symposium we discuss the challenges we faced when developing measures of stereotypes and anti-Roma prejudice for use in Slovakia. Developing these measures was the first step in an ongoing research project where the aim is to test the effectiveness of direct and indirect contact interventions in reducing prejudice against stigmatized minorities in Slovakia, particularly the Roma.
The paper analyses social representations of Roma and refugees during refugee crisis in autumn 2015, based on data from continuous free associations gathered in Slovak high school students (n=80) and from 2 focus groups with Slovak University students (n=19). The analysis draws on Image theory in political psychology (Alexander et al., 2005), the Stereotype content model (Cuddy et al., 2007) and the Integrated threat theory (Stephan & Stephan, 2000). The data suggests that social representations of Roma and refugees are based on the threat perception, both realistic (Roma, refugees) and symbolic (refugees). While the social representations of the refugees draw heavily on media representations and are characterized by the barbarian or dependent images, the social representations of the Roma are discursively legitimized by the experience from negative direct contact and are dominated by the dependent image.
The paper draws on contact hypothesis in social psychology (Allport, 1954; Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006), according to which direct contact is one of the most effective prejudice reduction tools. The paper focuses on high school teachers´ constructions of ethnic diversity in their schools and on its consequences for intergroup relations. 22 qualitative interviews were carried out with civic education teachers from Slovak high schools. Half of the interviews took place in schools from districts with low proportion of Roma population, half in schools from districts with high proportion of Roma population. The paper focuses on the perception of the Roma depending on whether the teachers come in contact with Roma students or not. The teachers discursively constructed intergroup relations in their schools as non-problematic, and the Roma students were described as atypical for the Roma minority.