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Intersubjectivity in Gestalt psychology

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Anna Arfelli Galli
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(Abstract in English, article is in German): The article presents the experimental research on the encounter of the infant with its mirror image from a gestalt-theoretical point of view. This perspective is characterized by the fact that it places the numerous individual findings in the overall context of infant development. It is thus able to show in which manifold, mutually interacting processes the self of the child differentiates itself in a multiply directed dialogical development. What it takes in the development of the infant to recognize its image as a correspondence of itself and to raise this knowledge to self-awareness, and what role the dialogical relationship plays in this process, above all with the most important attachment figures, but also with strangers, offers much food for thought about the prerequisites for the development of self-knowledge and self-awareness in adulthood as well - including in psychotherapy. Zusammenfassung: Der Beitrag stellt die experimentellen Forschungsarbeiten über die Begegnung des Kleinkindes mit seinem Spiegelbild aus einem gestalttheoretischen Blickwinkel vor. Dieser ist dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass er die zahlreichen Einzelbefunde in den Gesamtzusammenhang der kleinkindlichen Entwicklung einordnet. Er kann damit zeigen, in welchen vielfältigen, wechselseitig zusammenwirkenden Prozessen das Selbst des Kindes sich in einer mehrfach gerichteten dialogischen Entwicklung ausdifferenziert. Was es in der Entwicklung des Kleinkindes braucht, um sein Abbild als eine Entsprechung seiner selbst zu erkennen und dieses Wissen zum Selbst-Bewusstsein zu steigern, und welche Rolle dabei die dialogische Beziehung vor allem zu den wichtigsten Bezugspersonen, aber auch zu Fremden spielt, bietet viele Anregungen zum Nachdenken über die Voraussetzungen für die Entwicklung von Selbst-Kenntnis und Selbst-Bewusstsein auch im Erwachsenenalter – auch in der Psychotherapie.
Gerhard Stemberger
added 2 research items
Crises in therapist-patient relationship can also become a challenge in clinical supervision. However, success and failure in establishing and maintaining constructive relationships in therapy and supervision is not only subject to a lucky fit of personal characteristics (therapist A gets along well/badly with client B; supervisee A gets along well/badly with supervisor C). Rather, we can identify determining field conditions in the overall therapeutic and supervisory situation for this outcome. We do not only focus on the persons involved, but also on their environment, the task to be accomplished together, further framework conditions and the power relations resulting from their mutual influence-in the supervised case of therapy as well as in supervision itself. We want to examine the structure and dynamics of these relationships from a genuine Gestalt psychological perspective. What contributes to a cooperative atmosphere? When do goals get out of sight? What can make the atmosphere hostile? How do such developments become accessible in supervision?
The "Essentials of Gestalt Theoretical Psychotherapy" offer for the first time in English an insight into the guiding ideas of this integrative psychotherapy method, which is consistently anchored in Gestalt psychology (and in this respect also differs substantially from most streams of Gestalt therapy, with which it should not be confused). The anthology includes ten contributions by authors from Austria, Italy, Germany and the USA. These deal with fundamental questions and concepts of any psychotherapy: The role and meaning of consistency in practical life and in psychotherapy; the question of human epistemic possibilities and an epistemology appropriate for psychotherapy; the personality theory of Gestalt Theoretical Psychotherapy; the basic principles of therapeutic relationship and practice; the role of emotions in the example of phenomenal causality of feelings; the task of diagnostics in Gestalt Theoretical Psychotherapy; a clinical example related to anorexia; Gestalt psychological viewpoints for therapy progress; the role of relational determination in intrapsychic and interpersonal experience.
Gerhard Stemberger
added a research item
Con questo intervento ho ripreso una conversazione avuta con Giuseppe Galli su un'illustrazione che avevo disegnato per uno dei miei articoli. Il disegno mira a illustrare un'esigenza tipica della psicologia della Gestalt e fondamentale per ogni discussione sulle relazioni interpersonali. Più specificamente, nel mio esempio è illustrata la relazione terapeutica nella situazione psicoterapica. Il messaggio principale di questa figura è che in queste situazioni non possiamo parlare di una relazione terapeutica, ma dobbiamo considerare almeno due relazioni terapeutiche. C'è, infatti, una relazione terapeuta-cliente nel mondo fenomenico del terapeuta e c'è una relazione terapeuta-cliente nel mondo fenomenico del cliente. Che queste due relazioni terapeutiche siano più o meno identiche è un'ipotesi improbabile.
Gerhard Stemberger
added a research item
Summary: "You make me angry" - "You make me happy": In formulations like these, a whole world of strange relationships and power distributions is revealed - usually completely unnoticed, but all the more effectively. In the first part of this article, Andrzej Żuczkowski explores the background and theoretical explanations for this peculiar world, starting from memories of his first encounter with this topic in the context of his training in transactional analysis in earlier years. His analysis now is based primarily on the considerations and findings of the Belgian experimental psychologist Albert Michotte (1881-1965), whose name is inseparably linked to the study of "phenomenal causality", and of the German Gestalt psychologist Wolfgang Metzger. In the concluding chapters Gerhard Stemberger goes on to discuss the viewpoint that determines the understanding and handling of the phenomena of naïve emotional causality in Gestalt Theoretical Psychotherapy. Zusammenfassung: „Du machst mich wütend“ – „Du machst mich glücklich“: In solchen Formulierungen offenbart sich – meist ganz unbemerkt, aber umso wirksamer – eine ganze Welt voll merkwürdiger Beziehungen und Machtverteilungen. Andrzej Żuczkowski geht im ersten Teil dieses Beitrags den Hintergründen und theoretischen Erklärungen für diese eigentümliche Welt nach, ausgehend von Erinnerungen an seine Begegnung mit diesem Thema im Rahmen seiner transaktionsanalytischen Ausbildung. Seine Analyse stützt sich vor allem auf Überlegungen und Befunde des belgischen Experimental-Psychologen Albert Michotte (1881–1965), dessen Name untrennbar mit der Erforschung der „phänomenalen Kausalität“ verbunden ist, sowie von Wolfgang Metzger. Gerhard Stemberger geht anschließend auf die Sichtweise ein, die in der Gestalttheoretischen Psychotherapie das Verständnis und den Umgang mit den Phänomenen der naiven Gefühls-Kausalität bestimmt.
Gerhard Stemberger
added a research item
Abstract in English (book chapter is in German): One of Giuseppe Galli's most significant contributions to Gestalt psychology can be seen in his treatment of ethical questions and in his analysis of "social virtues". The "social virtues" examined by Galli are devotion, gratitude, amazement, remorse, forgiveness, trust, sincerity and hope. In the "social virtues" Galli sees concise forms of relationship structures. For him, these can be considered concise ("praegnant") if a certain balance of the two poles of the total psychic field is realized in them. Zusammenfassung: Einer der bedeutendsten Beiträge von Giuseppe Galli zur Gestaltpsychologie kann in seiner Behandlung ethischer Fragen und in seiner Analyse „sozialer Tugenden“ gesehen werden. Die von Galli untersuchten „sozialen Tugenden“ sind Hingabe, Dankbarkeit, Staunen, Reue, Vergebung, Vertrauen, Aufrichtigkeit und Hoffnung. In den „sozialen Tugenden“ sieht Galli Prägnanzformen von Beziehungsstrukturen. Diese können für ihn als prägnant gelten, wenn in ihnen ein bestimmtes Gleichgewicht der beiden Pole des psychischen Gesamtfeldes verwirklicht ist.
Anna Arfelli Galli
added a research item
Dieses Buch stellt erstmals im Überblick die vielfältigen empirischen Forschungsarbeiten zur Entwicklungspsychologie des Kindes vor, die im Zeitraum von 1921 bis 1975 von gestalttheoretisch orientierten Forscherinnen und Forschern vorgelegt wurden. Viele Erkenntnisse und Orientierungen der heutigen Kinderforschung sind von der Gestaltpsychologie schon vorweggenommen worden, ihre experimentellen und phänomenologischen Forschungsansätze und Ideen lesen sich noch heute frisch und inspirierend.
Giuseppe Galli
added 3 research items
Nel libro vengono analizzati comportamenti e atteggiamenti quali: la dedizione, la speranza, la fiducia, la gratitudine, la meraviglia, il perdono, la sincerità.
Das vorliegende Buch beschreibt die Beziehungen zwischen Gestalttheorie und Person. Es ging aus der Arbeit einer Gruppe von Psychologen hervor, die sich mit folgenden Aspekten der Person befassten: Die Person und ihr Ich; die Person in Aktion; die Person in Beziehung; die Enstehung der Person; die Person im Dialog; die Person und die Zentrierung. Der hauptsächliche Zugang zur Untersuchung dieser Aspekte ist ein relationaler und feldtheoretischer, dem zufolge die Faktoren, die das Verhalten bestimmen, nicht nur aus dem innerpersonalen System abeleitet werden können, sondern auch von den Beziehungen zwischen Individuum und der konkreten Situation abhängen, in das es eingebettet ist.
Obwohl wir "sozialen Tugenden" wie Hingabe, Dankbarkeit, Hoffnung, Staunen, Vergebung, Vertrauen und Aufrichtigkeit im alltäglichen Leben häufig begegnen, hat sich die zeitgenössische Psychologie bisher noch kaum damit befasst. Dieses von der Gestaltpsychologie inspirierte Werk widmet sich diesen positiven und konstruktiven zwischenmenschlichen Verhaltensformen.
Gerhard Stemberger
added 5 research items
Con questo intervento ho ripreso una conversazione avuta con Giuseppe Galli su un’illustrazione (fig. 1) che avevo disegnato per uno dei miei articoli. Il disegno mira a illustrare un’esigenza tipica della psicologia della Gestalt e fondamentale per ogni discussione sulle relazioni interpersonali. Più specificamente, nel mio esempio è illustrata la relazione terapeutica nella situazioni psicoterapica. Il messaggio principale di questa figura è che in queste situazioni non possiamo parlare di una relazione terapeutica, ma dobbiamo considerare almeno due relazioni terapeutiche. C’è, infatti, una relazione terapeuta-cliente nel mondo fenomenico del terapeuta e c’è una relazione terapeuta-cliente nel mondo fenomenico del cliente (fig.2). Che queste due relazioni terapeutiche siano più o meno identiche è un’ipotesi improbabile.
The presentation sketches and discusses the views of Gestalt psychology on the emergence of a phnomenal ego (and self) in the phenomenal world, of the process quality of phenomenal ego and phenomenal world as segregated parts of the psychological field, gives a few examples for the constant variability of the ego-world field relationship and the psychological function of some of these variations (extension, place, orientation/direction, inner organization of the ego in dynamic interaction with its environment).
Summary in English (article is in German language): The article compares theory and practice of "working with dreams" in psychotherapy, as understood and conceptualized by F. Perls on one hand, and as understood and conceptualized in the Gestalt psychology based Gestalt Theoretical Psychotherapy on the other hand. The practical approach in both methods seems to show some similarities; on closer inspection, however, these similarities are of rather superficial nature. The guiding ideas and goals of the two concepts differ from each other considerably, leading also to differences in therapeutic understanding and practice. Zusammenfassung: Der Beitrag vergleicht Theorie und Praxis der „Traumarbeit“ in der Psychotherapie, wie sie von F. Perls verstanden und vorgeschlagen wurde, mit den Vorstellungen und dem Herangehen in der Gestalttheoretischen Psychotherapie. Es zeigen sich in der praktischen Vorgangsweise Ähnlichkeiten, die allerdings bei näherer Betrachtung eher oberflächlicher Natur sind. Die Leitideen und Ziele der beiden Konzepte unterscheiden sich wesentlich voneinander, was sich bei näherer Betrachtung auch in Unterschieden in der Praxis bemerkbar macht.
Gerhard Stemberger
added a research item
The present work focuses on the transformations of the psychotherapeutic field through the relationship dynamics that occur within it. The first part of this article starts with a brief outline of the Gestalt psychological understanding of the field concept, also in its application to the psychotherapeutic situation, followed by a brief review of the introduction of the field concept into the psychoanalytic theory formation. After this, the first author first presents the theoretical concept underlying a new approach he has developed for observing the relationship dynamics in psychotherapy. Mirroring a formation both psychoanalytic and gestaltic of the main author, this new approach is based on the combination of psychoanalytic and Gestalt psychological concepts. According to the clinical experience and insights of the author, the phenomenological and relational approach of Gestalt theory fits well with the psychoanalytic approach; on this basis, a criterion for recording the progress of therapy can be developed. This criterion is the phenomenology of the development of the qualities of the relationships of the client, as they become visible in his dream narrations and the subsequent associations in the analysis room, and continue to develop during the session and the further course of therapy. The relationship dynamics in the dream narration is thus compared with those that develop in the course of the subsequent associations. This is demonstrated and further elaborated in the second part of this paper on the basis of a clinical case. The clinical example shows how the relationship dynamics develop in this sense in the individual therapy sessions and over a longer course of therapy. The associated transformations of the therapeutic field give a good indication of the progress of therapy. The main author gained such insights into the transformations of the therapeutic field and the progression of therapy, which are visible in the course of therapy, from the careful application of the criterion “manifest dream/associations comparison of relational dynamics”. In the specific case, there was also a high degree of correspondence between the results of the application of this phenomenological criterion and the empirical evidence of the symptom questionnaire, a self-report measure requested by the patient himself during the course of the therapy.
Giuseppe Galli
added 5 research items
My research over the last decade has been centred on social events of everyday life: commitment, gratitude, wonder, forgiveness, trust, sincerity. I have defined these events as 'social virtues' although the term 'virtue' is not very highly valued in our culture. The basic unit of my research is the person, not in an empty environment, but in continuous relation to, and interaction with other people. Consequently, I speak of ‚social virtues' as interpersonal events, and not as attributes belonging to a person as a lone subject. In order to elaborate a phenomenological description of social virtues , I use everyday experience and different literary forms, in accordance with Fritz Heider, who believes that these texts "provide a fertile source of understanding interpersonal relations". For the dynamic interpretation of virtues I refer to the field-theory of Kurt Lewin and to his basic concepts: life space, regions, hierarchical organisation, position, feeling of belonging. I will try to describe the field-structures of gratitude and wonder and to discover the conditions and factors which promote or inhibit each of these virtues. The field-structure of gratitude Gratitude for a benefit According to HeideR, an action or a gift can evoke gratitude only if it is perceived as a benefit by the person who receives it. We must thus adopt the point of view of this person and recognise her inner world. Heider says that the meaning of an action depends on several factors: local and total relevance of the benefit; levels of attribution to or interpretation of the intention of the benefactor; power and status of the persons. Each of the virtues mentioned above was investigated in the "Colloquia on interpretation", which I have organised every year, since 1979 in the Department of Philosophy and Human Sciences of the University of Macerata. In the Colloquia scholars from many disciplines: philosophy, theology, linguistics, psychology, literature and law took part. The proceedings of the Colloquia were edited by me each year, published by the IEPI Press Pisa.
The present work focuses on the transformations of the psychotherapeutic field through the relationship dynamics which occur within it. The first part of this article starts with a brief outline of the Gestalt psychological understanding of the field concept, also in its application to the psychotherapeutic situation, followed by a brief review of the introduction of the field concept into the psychoanalytic theory formation. After this, the first author first presents the theoretical concept underlying a new approach he has developed for observing the relationship dynamics in psychotherapy. Mirroring a formation of both psychoanalytic and Gestalt theory of the main author, this new approach is based on the combination of psychoanalytic and Gestalt psychological concepts. According to the clinical experience and insights of the author, the phenomenological and relational approach of Gestalt theory fits well with the psychoanalytic approach; on this basis, a criterion for recording the progress of therapy can be developed. This criterion is the phenomenology of the development of the qualities of the relationships of the client, as they become visible in his dream narrations and the subsequent associations in the analysis room and continue to develop during the session and the further course of therapy. The relationship dynamics in the dream narration is thus compared with those which develop in the course of the subsequent associations. This is demonstrated and further elaborated in the second part of this article on the basis of a clinical case. The clinical example shows how the relationship dynamics develop in this sense in the individual therapy sessions and over a longer course of therapy. The associated transformations of the therapeutic field give a good indication of the progress of therapy. The main author gained such insights into the transformations of the therapeutic field and the progression of therapy, which are visible in the course of therapy, from the careful application of the criterion “MDAC of relational dynamics”. In the specific case, there was also a high degree of correspondence between the results of the application of this phenomenological criterion and the empirical evidence of the symptom questionnaire, a self-report measure requested by the patient himself during the course of the therapy.
Anna Arfelli Galli
added 6 research items
Il libro è dedicato allo studio della soggettività fenomenica in prospettiva multidisciplinare. Partendo dalla constatazione che i teorici della scuola della Gestalt si sono dedicati soprattutto all'oggettività fenomenica, le ricerche dell'Autore evidenziano la necessità di integrare metodologie di discipline diverse per studiare la relazione interpersonale come struttura dialogica, tenendo conto dei ruoli che le persone hanno nel campo globale, del rapporto Io-Noi e delle teorie a cui si fa riferimento, pur rispettando i modelli antropologici e i principi metodologici della Gestalt. The book is dedicated to the study of phenomenal subjectivity in a multidisciplinary perspective. Starting from the observation that the theorists of the School of Gestalt have devoted themselves mainly to phenomenal objectivity, the author's research highlights the need to integrate methodologies of different disciplines to study the relationship interpersonal structure as a dialogue structure, taking into account the roles that people have in the global field, the Io-We relationship and the theories referred to, while respecting the anthropological models and methodological principles of Gestalt.
The contribution by Gestalt psychology to the study of child behavior is here documented by illustrating researches by KEMMLER, KLAMMA, HECKHAUSEN, all members of the METZGER school. Their results on field articulation in children aged between 1,6 and 5,6 years, from the appearance of the first forms of self consciousness to that of the level of aspiration, appear particularly actual. Their analysis is concerned with the changes in the child personal experience of his/her own achievements, with the conflict between hope of success and fear of failure, with the structure of the temporal perspective, with the reciprocal interaction between the plane of reality and that of unreality, and with the relationship between the child and the adults.
Abstract: A baby is born. How does it become a person? In her contribution, Anna Arfelli Galli presents Gestalt theoretical research work and findings on the emergence of the person from a developmental psychological perspective. The spectrum ranges from Kurt Lewin's early investigations into the expressive behaviour of small children, Wolfgang Metzger's observations on foster behaviour and the efforts of adults to interpret child behaviour, to research by Richard Meili and his colleagues in Switzerland and by Wolfgang Metzger's colleagues in Münster, which is still remarkable today. Differences to the perspective of today's attachment-theoretical research are also worked out, which are mostly centered one-sidedly on the mother's response to the needs of the infant and neglect the active part of the infant. However, personality theoretical approaches are also critically commented on, which do not take into account the personality of the infant. The importance of original characteristics already developed in the first year of life is emphasized in contrast. The final part is the Gestalt psychological research on early childhood defiance and the willingness of infants to do it themselves. The hypothesis is based on this that the toddler first gradually develops a minimal, implicit form of consciousness and the separation of the ego from the other. Zusammenfassung: Ein Baby kommt zur Welt. Wie wird es zur Person? Anna Arfelli Galli stellt in ihrem Beitrag gestalttheoretische Forschungsarbeiten und Befunde zur Entstehung der Person aus entwicklungspsychologischer Perspektive vor. Der Bogen spannt sich dabei von Kurt Lewins frühen Untersuchungen des Ausdrucksverhaltens von Kleinkindern über Wolfgang Metzgers Beobachtungen zum Pflegeverhalten und zu den Bemühungen von Erwachsenen um die Deutung des kindlichen Verhaltens bis hin zu noch heute beachtenswerten Forschungsarbeiten von Richard Meili und dessen Mitarbeiterinnen in der Schweiz und von Wolfgang Metzgers Mitarbeiterinnen in Münster. Dabei werden auch Unterschiede zur Perspektive der heutigen bindungstheoretischen Forschungen herausgearbeitet, die meist einseitig auf die Antwort der Mutter auf die Bedürfnisse des Kleinkindes zentriert sind und den aktiven Part des Säuglings vernachlässigen. Kritisch werden aber auch persönlichkeitstheoretische Ansätze kommentiert, die die Persönlichkeit ausschließlich aus der jeweiligen Dynamik der jeweiligen Situation zu erklären versuchen – dem gegenüber wird die Bedeutung von bereits im ersten Lebensjahr ausgebildeten Ursprungseigenschaften hervorgehoben. Den Abschluss bilden die gestaltpsychologischen Forschungen zum frühkindlichen Trotz und zum Selber-machen-Wollen des Kleinkindes. Darauf stützt sich die Hypothese, dass sich beim Kleinkind erst stufenweise eine zuerst nur minimale, implizite Form des Bewusstseins und die Trennung des Ichs vom Anderen entwickeln.
Gerhard Stemberger
added 6 research items
1962 veröffentlichte die amerikanische Gestaltpsychologin Mary Henle (1913-2007) einen Vorschlag für einen phänomenologischen Ansatz in der Persönlichkeitspsychologie. Diesen Beitrag, der bisher nur in englischer Fassung vorliegt, stelle ich im Folgenden in seinen Grundgedanken vor, da er vielfältige Anregungen gerade auch für psychotherapeutisch Arbeitende enthält. Unter anderem wird der gestalttherapeutisch Geschulte darin Gedanken zum gestalttheoretischen Verständnis der so genannten „inneren Anteile" und der Möglichkeiten der dialogischen Arbeit mit ihnen finden, die er bisher vielleicht nur mit der Gestalt-Therapie, nicht aber unmittelbar mit der Gestaltpsychologie verbunden hat.
[On the relevance of the Lewinian concept of power fields in psychotherapy.. Part 2 of the article. The first part (2016) presented in detail and discussed Kurt Lewin's theory of power fields, concepts and research. ] Zusammenfassung: Im ersten Teil dieses Beitrags wurden die Ursprünge und Grundbegriffe des theoretischen Konzepts der Machtfelder von Kurt Lewin und die wichtigsten Forschungsarbeiten vorgestellt, die zu seiner Entwicklung beigetragen haben. Im vorliegenden zweiten Teil geht es um mögliche Anwendungen dieses Konzepts auf den Bereich der Psychotherapie. Dazu werden zuerst drei Themenbereiche behandelt: Erstens die Erscheinungsweise und das Wirken von Machtfeldern im Leben der Klientin, zweitens die Machtfelder in der psychotherapeutischen Situation und Beziehung und drittens zwei Fragen der Wechselwirkung zwischen Machtfeldern im Alltagsleben und in der Psychotherapie (die Spiegelung der Machtfelder-Erfahrungen in der psychotherapeutischen Situation und der Transfer des in der Therapie Erarbeiteten in den Alltag der Klientin). Eine kurze Einordnung und Diskussion der vorgestellten Übertragung des Machtfelder-Konzepts auf den psychotherapeutischen Arbeitsbereich schließt den Beitrag ab: Es wird angesprochen, dass sich beispielsweise auch die Psychoanalyse und die Perls’sche Gestalt-Therapie mit der Thematik induzierter Werte und Verhaltensweisen auseinandersetzen, aber in einem anderen, monopersonalen Rahmen und mit anderen Schlussfolgerungen. Theoretische und praktische Vorteile des feldtheoretischen Ansatzes werden kurz benannt und zur Diskussion gestellt. Dem Beitrag ist ein Anhang „Arbeiten mit Machtfeldern“ beigefügt sowie ein Auszug aus einer Arbeit Kurt Lewins, in der er eine Geschichte von Tolstoi unter dem Gesichtspunkt seines theoretischen Konzepts der Machtfelder analysiert.
Der Beitrag stellt grundlegende gestalttheoretische Auffassungen von Ich und Selbst vor. Sie unterscheiden sich von anderen Konzepten darin, dass sie Ich und Selbst nicht als feststehende Gegebenheiten oder als steuernde Zentralinstanzen des Psychischen verstehen, sondern als Teil eines psychologischen Feldes in dynamischer Wechselbeziehung zu ihrer psychologischen Umwelt. Zu diesem Thema haben namhafte Vertreter der Gestalttheorie der Berliner Schule seit der Frühzeit dieses Ansatzes einige allgemeine und spezielle Thesen vorgelegt, die zum Teil auch experimentell belegt werden konnten. Sie beleuchten das Ich-Welt-Verhältnis im Alltäglichen wie auch im Fall von psychischen Störungen. Situativen Veränderungen unterworfen ist schon die Ausdehnung des phänomenalen Ich, aber auch sein Ort in der Welt, seine funktionale Einpassung, seine Binnendifferenzierung, seine Durchlässigkeit zur Umwelt und vieles mehr. Die bedeutende funktionale Rolle dieser Plastizität der phänomenalen Welt in ihrer wechselnden Ich-Umwelt-Gliederung für das Leben der Menschen hebt Wolfgang Metzger hervor, indem er die anschauliche Welt als „zentrales Steuerungsorgan“ bezeichnet. Ich und Selbst als Teile dieses Feldes in ihrer Wechselbeziehung zum psychischen Gesamtfeld werden im vorliegenden Beitrag aus der Perspektive von Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang Köhler, Kurt Lewin, Wolfgang Metzger, Mary Henle und Giuseppe Galli beleuchtet.