Project

International Cannabis Law & Policies

Goal: Assess and inform international drug control policies for the diverse uses of Cannabis and its derivatives.

Date: 1 March 2014

Updates
0 new
2
Recommendations
0 new
0
Followers
0 new
7
Reads
3 new
313

Project log

Kenzi Riboulet-Zemouli
added an update
High Compliance is the outcome of years of work and research in the field, and a bona fide contribution, based on extensive independent (but thorough) research.
It is available i open access on researchgate as well as on SSRN (https://ssrn.com/abstract_id=4057428).
After its publication, High Compliance was subject to questions and interrogations –many of which were often answered by a second, more careful reading of the piece (taking full account of the information contained in the footnotes and annexes) or by private discussions.
However, three authors chose to criticize the piece publicly. One article (P. Homberg) entirely bases its critique on a 4-min. video introducing High Compliance; yet, the author did unfortunately not take the time to read the actual report (which is 142 pages, a bit more than the 4-min. video) before publicly criticizing it. This called for no particular answer.
Shortly after, another critique was published, this time, an ad'hominem and weakly argumented piece (J. Adelstone).
Finally, a third blog post criticizing the thesis in High Compliance was published by Jelsma, Blickman, Bewley-Taylor, and Walsh. Fortunately, this time, the piece focuses on the actual thesis contained in High Compliance instead of focusing on its author or on a video: Jelsma et al did take the time to read the actual report before criticizing it, unlike Homberg.
The simple answer to these critiques is that High Compliance relies on primary means of interpretation (mostly the legally-binding words of the very provisions of the Single Convention, then reinforced and supported by secondary means of interpretation). Facing this, none of the three critiques substantiate their attempt of rebuttal on any provision in the Single Convention: instead, they overly rely on subsidiary and non-binding means of interpretation. None of the three pieces provide for an interpretation of Article 2(9)(a) which makes sense in light of the principle of ut res magis valeat quam pereat. And they all continue to claim that the Convention "explicitely" prohibits cannabis, without never ever mentioning where is that "explicit" mention! Repeatedly asserting something without substantiation is not a legally sound approach...
I answer in detail these three articles, and try to reexplain in more simple words the thesis contained in High Compliance, in this article:
Riboulet-Zemouli, K. (2022) “High Compliance .. UN Treaties 'Reviewing The Reviewers'”, Cannabis Law Journal, 1 June 2022.
 
Kenzi Riboulet-Zemouli
added 12 research items
In May 2018, FAAAT think & do tank submitted to the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights this contribution to its follow-up of the 2016 UNGASS (pursuant to resolution HRC 37/42). The document wondered if the victims of human rights violations generated by drug policies could demand and obtain reparation. Concision is due to limitations imposed by the High Commissioner's office. Nowadays, this contribution makes even more sense in light of the increased number of initiatives to reform Cannabis policies that wish to amnesty or pardon offenders to former prohibition policies.
Supplemental materials to manuscript "Cannabis amnesia – Indian hemp parley at the Office International d’Hygiène Publique in 1935." | Contains: Table S1 Liste des préparations à base de chanvre indien indiquées par le Gouvernement égyptien comme employées par des toxicomanes. Figure S1 Reproduction of an excerpt from a list of standardised products of Parke, Davis & Co. (1911). Figure S2 Reproduction of the report from the Meeting of the OIHP Comité Permanent of 12 Octobre 1934: background information on the five preparations notified by Egypt. Figure S3 Reproduction of the report from the Meeting of the OIHP Comité des Experts Pharmacologistes of 4–5 March 1935: first assessment on the five preparations notified by Egypt. Figure S4 Reproduction of the report from the Meeting of the Commission de l’Opium of 6 May 1935 presented during the Meeting of the OIHP Comité Permanent on 8 May 1935 discussing the assessment by the Comité des Experts Pharmacologistes from 4–5 March 1935.
Během minulého století postupně docházelo ke globálnímu sladění konopných politik. Rostlina konopí a jeho deriváty jsou zahrnuty v mezinárodním právním rámci upravujícím prohibici – a jsou „klasifikovány jako zdraví škodlivé a postrádají vědeckou nebo léčebnou hodnotu [...], přičemž pro tyto klasifikace neexistují dostatečné vědecké důkazy, zatímco existují důvěryhodné důkazy týkající se léčebného použití [...] konopí” (E/C.12/GC/25). Toto poskytlo základ pro rozšíření a obecné uplatnění konopné politiky postavené na morálce téměř ve všech zemích. V roce 2020 jen poměrné malý počet vlád a nestátních subjektů popírá neúspěch tohoto přístupu v podobě „války s drogami“ ke kontrole konopí a jiných psychoaktivních rostlin nebo látek. Ještě méně jich pak prosazuje jeho další pokračování. Proto existuje společný, obecný a mnohostranný konsensus: svět musí přehodnotit konopnou politiku. Po zdůvodnění tvrdé konopné politiky uplatňované od 50. let 20. století, kdy byla poprvé koncipována současná mezinárodní protidrogová politika, Světová zdravotnická organizace (WHO), na základě velmi rozsáhlého posouzení založeného na důkazech provedeného v letech 2016 až 2019, nyní uznává léčebné použití a potenciál konopí a kanabinoidů. WHO doporučuje zmírnění mezinárodní kontroly této rostliny, jejích složek a léčivých přípravků a odstranění byrokratické zátěže v oblasti přístupu k jejich léčebnému a výzkumnému použití (E/CN.7/2020/14). Nicméně konopí a konopné politiky jsou specifickou, složitou a emocionální záležitostí. Představují bezprecedentní a v zásadě multifaktorové záležitosti. Vyžadují trpělivost a holistické, osvícené a multidisciplinární posouzení. Jelikož konopí poskytuje příležitost pro systémové myšlení, nový přístup k politikám v této oblasti bude užitečný nejen pro záležitosti související s touto rostlinou: pomůže nově koncipovat protidrogové politiky jako celek a rovněž nám poskytne znalosti k vytvoření nezbytných nástrojů potřebných k vypořádání se s mnoha zastaralými veřejnými politikami „proti konopí“ a „proti drogám“, které jsou překážkou udržitelnosti lidstva. V přehnaně propojené globální vesnici, jíž je svět, v níž chování našich společností narušuje přírodu až do krajnosti – od pandemií až po změnu klimatu – si dekáda 2020-2030 žádá novou vizi a spojení s přírodou. Konopí a jeho politika jsou rovněž pákou k dosažení tohoto cíle. Agenda pro udržitelný rozvoj 2030 (A/RES/70/1) přijatá v roce 2015 při příležitosti 70. výročí Organizace spojených národů všemi členskými státy konsensem, je globální plán pro lidstvo, planetu, prosperitu, mír a partnerství do roku 2030; „historické rozhodnutí o komplexním, dalekosáhlém a na člověka zaměřeném souboru univerzálních a transformativních cílů a podcílů.” [...] Reformistický trend globální konopné politiky je probíhajícím hnutím, jehož ukončení je nepravděpodobné. Nedostatek demokratického monitorování generalizace legálních trhů s konopím by mohl představovat hrozbu pro dotčené obyvatelstvo a veřejné zdraví. Morálka je potřeba. Znovu probuzený zájem o toto téma a jeho přijetí za své všemi skupinami obyvatelstva je nutné. Zdá se, že není žádoucí, ani možné, aby politika byla univerzální, a to jak kvůli zeměpisným imperativům, tak kvůli rozmanitosti používání této rostliny a produktů z ní. Z toho důvodu je vytvoření konsenzuálních modelů konopné politiky (exportovatelných a generalizovatelných) obtížné – a jakýkoli pokus o vznik univerzálního modelu se tak stává pouhou chimérou. Spíše než snaha o vyřešení rovnice dokonalé konopné politiky s jejím nekonečným počtem proměnných by uskutečnitelnějším přístupem bylo získat odstup, vytvořit seznam všemožných veřejných politik, jež mají dopad na konopí nebo se ho dotýkají, a řešit je samostatně, a přitom neztrácet ze zřetele jejich propojení. Agenda pro udržitelný rozvoj 2030 a jejích 17 cílů jsou dokonalým nástrojem pro tento účel. Stávající dokument shrnuje a zdůrazňuje nejdůležitější vazby mezi konopím, jeho politikami a Agendou 2030. Kompletní, podrobná zjištění byla zveřejněna organizací FAAAT v březnu 2019 a prezentována během jednání na vysoké úrovni Komise OSN pro narkotika – hlavního legislativního orgánu pro mezinárodní právo v oblasti konopí. Tato zpráva vychází z výsledků výzkumů a ze zkušeností vědců, organizací občanské společnosti, dotčeného obyvatelstva a zainteresovaných tržních subjektů. Usiluje o to ukázat potenciál rostliny konopí ve vhodně regulovaném prostředí jako transformativní pro naše společnosti – pokud je kladen důraz na etické praktiky a udržitelné přístupy. Zpráva o 145 stranách s 295 odkazy a dalšími interaktivními materiály je k dispozici v několika jazycích na cannabis2030.org. Tato sada nástrojů nemá být vyčerpávajícím návodem. Je koncipována jako cenný zdroj, jehož smyslem je přispět ke studiím prováděným po ukončení prohibice. Jejím smyslem je pomoci pochopit vazby mezi konopnými politikami a cíli udržitelného rozvoje, z celé řady různých perspektiv veřejné politiky, a dopad této politiky na tyto cíle a diskutovat o nich.
Kenzi Riboulet-Zemouli
added a research item
In 2020, the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) launched an opaque “Cannabis Control Initiative” whose scope, boundaries, and purposes were unclear. The initiative raised important concerns among world citizens, in particular organisations representing patients using Cannabis medicines and doctors of healthcare practitioners prescribing them, or helping patients in the management and improvement of their health in a context involving Cannabis or cannabinoids. Late 2020, the INCB announced that the output from the Cannabis Control Initiative would be an “international Guidelines” addressing a broad range of details of the medical cannabis landscape. In early 2021, a written contribution was shared, outlining important concerns stemming from leaked versions of the hundred pages-long first drafts of the Cannabis Control Initiative’s “Guidelines.” In December 2021, 182 NGOs from over 50 countries wrote to the INCB, the UN Secretary-General and Commission on Narcotic Drugs to ask for transparency and accountability in INCB processes generally, and for the Cannabis Control Initiative in particular. Secretary-General spokesperson echoed civil society’s concerns, recalling that, in principle, transparency should indeed be the rule in all international bodies. Answering these concerns, on 22 February 2022, the INCB released a Questionnaire for civil society organisations to provide inputs to its Cannabis Control Initiative. The move is positive, since experts and affected populations are able to provide their views –which are known to be of insightful help to the work of international organisations. But, because there is still no draft of the “Guidelines” made publicly available, the possibility to provide useful comments is limited. It seems, however, that there has been a reduction in the scope of INCB Cannabis Control Initiative’s output: compared to the originally-intended “Guidelines” which addressed many aspects of the plant, many purposes, and a long list of cannabinoids, INCB’s Initiative seems today to be limited to “reporting and monitoring standards” solely on the medical and scientific purposes, and only on Cannabis products directly and explicitly listed in the Schedules of the international drug control conventions. If that was the case, it would be a positive move to celebrate, provided that it would account for due diligence with regards to the obligations of countries under other international treaties (for instance on plants or on human rights) and to their sovereignty, as well as a respect for the margin of manoeuvre that countries agreed on when accessing the Conventions. An “INCB Cannabis Control Initiative” which would be limited to harmonising statistical entries for reporting requirements would be an extremely useful tool to facilitate international trade in licit Cannabis botanical medicines and compounded derivatives, and may be able to provide much needed public health data to follow the adequacy of access to Cannabis and cannabinoids medicines throughout the world.
Kenzi Riboulet-Zemouli
added a research item
Background: In 2016-2019, the WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence scientifically reviewed cannabis products. In that context, multiple references to a previous and similar assessment dating back to 1935 were made; but the content, outcome, and stakeholders involved in the 1935 review were unclear. Method: Transnational historiography of the international conversation on cannabis control in and around 1935, based on previously-unavailable primary material from international organisations, archives, and literature searches. Results: Two evaluations were undertaken in 1935 and 1938 by the “Comité des Experts Pharmacologistes” convened under the “Office International d’Hygiène Publique” (OIHP), predecessor of the WHO. Five specific medicines marketed by Parke-Davis were briefly reviewed, based on which the Experts recommended placing under international control all cannabis medicines –prior to that, only pure extracts were under control. The measure was confusing; few State Parties to the 1925 Convention implemented it; the second World War precipitated its oblivion. The international community resumed work on cannabis under the WHO in 1952; that same year, the OIHP was definitely closing its doors. No trace of the 1935 events appeared in any post-war proceeding. Conclusion: Political biasses and numerous methodological and ethical issues surround the 1935 episode: it cannot legitimately be called a “scientific assessment.” The role of stakeholders like Egypt and the OIHP in norm entrepreneurship and advocacy for multilateral controls over cannabis have been largely forgotten; that of the USA somewhat exaggerated. There might be other forgotten pieces of History: predecessor of WHO, the under-documented OIHP had mandates on other important fields, be it drug or epidemics control. Much knowledge on the History of humankind lays in unexplored archival records; errors made and lessons learnt from the past could inform our management of the conflict between public health and politics today.
Kenzi Riboulet-Zemouli
added a research item
To read the accepted manuscript, go to: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4055389 ––– Background: “Cannabis” and “cannabis resin” are derived from the Cannabis plant, used as herbal medications, in traditional medicine and as active pharmaceutical ingredients. Since 1961, they have been listed in Schedule IV, the most restrictive category of the single convention on narcotic drugs. The process to scientifically review and reschedule them was launched by the World Health Organisation (WHO) on 2 December 2016; it survived a number of hindrances until finally being submitted to a delayed and sui generis vote by the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs on 2 December 2020, withdrawing “cannabis” and “cannabis resin” from Schedule IV. | Design/methodology/approach: To evaluate WHO’s scheduling recommendations, the process leading to the Commission vote and subsequent implications at global, national and patient/clinician levels. Narrative account of the four-year proceedings; review of the practical implications of both rejected and accepted recommendations. | Findings: The process was historically unprecedented, of political relevance to both medical Cannabis and evidence-based scheduling generally. Procedural barriers hampered the appropriate involvement of civil society stakeholders. The landscape resulting from accepted and rejected recommendations allow countries to continue creating decentralised, non-uniform systems for access to and availability of “cannabis” and “cannabis resin” for medical purposes. | Originality/value: Perspective of accredited observers; highlight of institutional issues and the lay of the land; contrast of stakeholders’ interpretations and engagement.
Kenzi Riboulet-Zemouli
added a research item
On 21 April 2021, the herbal medicines “cannabis” and “cannabis resin” definitively ceased to appear in Schedule IV of the 1961 Single Convention on narcotic drugs (C61), where they had been listed since the entry into force of that treaty in 1964. The process to scientifically review and reschedule Cannabis-related controlled drugs had been launched by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 2 December 2016 and went through a number of hindrances until it finally got submitted to a unique voting process on 2 December 2020 at the United Nations Commission on narcotic drugs (CND). This report reviews the scientific assessments of Cannabis-related controlled drugs and cannabidiol (CBD) by the WHO’s Expert Committee on Drug Dependence (ECDD) and subsequent political discussions at CND that culminated with the 2 December 2020 vote, changing the scheduling of “cannabis” and “cannabis resin” under the C61. A digest of the four years of proceedings (2015-2021) is presented, showcasing elements that provide an understanding about the length and complexity of the processes involved. The report introduces previously-unpublished minutes, complements of information, details on stakeholders and their role, and highlights a number of bureaucratic and diplomatic issues; it compares the efforts undertaken by WHO and CND in terms of method, transparency, and involvement (or not) of interested parties, beyond governments. [ Suggested citation: Riboulet-Zemouli, K., Krawitz, M.A., and Ghehiouèche, F. (2021). History, science, and politics of international cannabis scheduling, 2015–2021. Vienna: FAAAT editions. ISBN: 979-10-97087-50-0 ]
Kenzi Riboulet-Zemouli
added a research item
Le cannabis déconfiné & déclassifié : Recommandations de l'OMS & changement de classification du cannabis par l'ONU. Présentation lors des journées "le cannabis déconfiné - 18 joint" de la FPEA, 18 juin 2021.
Kenzi Riboulet-Zemouli
added a research item
In March 2020, the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) launched a “Cannabis Initiative” with the purpose of issuing “guidelines/manual of good practices on the international drug control requirements for the cultivation, manufacture and utilization of cannabis for medical and scientific purposes” and to “support Member States in complying with the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs as amended by the 1972 Protocol, on requirements for cultivation, manufacture and utilization of cannabis for medical and scientific purposes.” The draft Guidelines raise a series of questions. In this report, we recomment that: The INCB should exercise due diligence –just like it has done with regards to death penalty. The Board should also be open to inputs from civil society and academics, and not only government officials and the largest private sector companies –similar to the consultations organized by the INCB on a number of other subjects during the previous years. Erratum: On pages 8 and 9, "ICEAR" should read "ICERD"
Kenzi Riboulet-Zemouli
added a research item
The INCB is preparing a "guidelines/manual of good practices on the international drug control requirements for the cultivation, manufacture and utilization of cannabis for medical and scientific purposes" that "will support Member States in complying with the 1961 Single Convention." 1Since the establishment of such guidelines/manual represents a giant step on a topic rarely addressed so in-depth in the 52 years of activity of the Board, we sent a letter to INCB Board Members in order to provide insight into critical elements that such guidelines/manual should provide, particularly regarding the traditional, indigenous, and human rights aspect of cannabis as a medicinal plant.
Kenzi Riboulet-Zemouli
added a research item
Video recording: https://youtu.be/BHnBumHLXOE – Presentation on international medical cannabis law and the changes in scheduling recommended by the WHO ECDD (Expert Committee on Drug Dependence). Delivered at the Special 20th anniversary event of the IACM (International Association for Cannabinoid Medicines).
Kenzi Riboulet-Zemouli
added a research item
Ver video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BG7I9mAX9tg Presentación para el tercer congreso CANNABMED, 6 de octubre 2020, Col·legi Oficial de Farmacèutics de Barcelona (COFB), Barcelona, España.
Kenzi Riboulet-Zemouli
added a research item
In 2019 the WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence declared that “preparations of cannabis have shown therapeutic potential for the treatment of pain and other medical conditions such as epilepsy and spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis, which are not always controlled by other medications” as well as providing relief for “anorexia associated with AIDS, nausea and vomiting in cancer chemotherapy, neuropathic pain, chronic cancer pain, Lennox-Gastaut and Dravet syndromes, neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, perinatal asphyxia, etc” During this pandemic it is imperative we ensure patients who use Cannabis for the management of their medical conditions continue to fully realize and enjoy their rights, in particular the safe and uninterrupted access to their treatment as is consistent with public health. In 2009, Manfred Nowak, then Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, noted that “the de facto denial of access to pain relief, if it causes severe pain and suffering, constitutes cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment”. During this very trying time the vast majority of jurisdictions with pre-existing programs for access to medical Cannabis have deemed Cannabis dispensaries essential. Informal systems currently in place are used by patients as a safe way of accessing their Cannabis treatment. It is time to scrutinize and report on the situation of human rights for patients using medicinal Cannabis throughout the world to examine ways and means of overcoming obstacles identify best practices, provide technical assistance and offer concrete recommendations. In regard to access we recommend: Medical Cannabis dispensaries be deemed essential services, regulations be implemented to allow and encourage online ordering, curbside and home delivery and provide guidance on standard operating procedures in the face of the pandemic (e.g., guidance on handling products, money, credit cards or ID cards, rules for physical distancing, etc.). Traditional medical practitioners and indigenous healers must also be granted recognition as essential services. In regard to government resources we suggest: Instructions be given to police and law enforcement to consider Cannabis, where prohibited by law, a non-enforcement priority and immediately suspend all related police raids and crackdowns. In regard to medical practice we propose: Physician consultation via telemedicine be made available and if possible maintain the same team of caregivers. If not then ensure that the new medical team doesn’t discontinue or delay treatment. Expiration dates for existing medical Cannabis documents need to be extended until after the crisis has abated. Read the letter on the website of the Society of Cannabis Clinicians https://www.cannabisclinicians.org/2020/05/04/open-letter-to-the-united-nations-ensuring-continued-cannabis-access-during-the-covid-19-pandemic Read the letter in this week’s IACM Bulletin in English: http://www.cannabis-med.org/english/bulletin/ww_en_db_cannabis_artikel.php?id=588 (and also in german: http://www.cannabis-med.org/german/bulletin/ww_de_db_cannabis_artikel.php?id=593 Español: http://www.cannabis-med.org/spanish/bulletin/ww_es_db_cannabis_artikel.php?id=505 French: http://www.cannabis-med.org/french/bulletin/ww_fr_db_cannabis_artikel.php?id=515 Dutch: http://www.cannabis-med.org/dutch/bulletin/ww_nl_db_cannabis_artikel.php?id=417 Italian: http://www.cannabis-med.org/italian/bulletin/ww_it_db_cannabis_artikel.php?id=332) The PDF version can also be found here: http://www.cannabis-med.org/declaration_to_the_untited_nations_2020.pdf
Kenzi Riboulet-Zemouli
added 3 research items
Changes in the scope of control over Cannabis: Clarifying the evidence behind the recommendations. Confusions and gaps in understanding surround the recommendations of the WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence regarding medicines made of cannabis or cannabis-related substances. This series of fact sheets seeks to bring light on the recommendations, and to clarify the implications in terms of changes (or not) in legal frameworks.
Changes in the scope of control over cannabis: Clarifying recommendation #5 on CBD products. Confusions and gaps in understanding surround the recommendations of the WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence regarding medicines made of cannabis or cannabis-related substances. This series of fact sheets seeks to bring light on the recommendations, and to clarify the implications in terms of changes (or not) in legal frameworks.
Changes in the scope of control over cannabis: Cannabis, Traditional medicine & the 1961 Convention. Confusions and gaps in understanding surround the recommendations of the WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence regarding medicines made of cannabis or cannabis-related substances. This series of fact sheets seeks to bring light on the recommendations, and to clarify the implications in terms of changes (or not) in legal frameworks.
Kenzi Riboulet-Zemouli
added a research item
Elements about the upcoming action to be taken by UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs on the WHO recommendations concerning the rescheduling of Cannabis and derived products in March 2020, and the proposal for a common position of European Member states at this occasion.
Kenzi Riboulet-Zemouli
added a research item
The World Health Organization (WHO) is the leading standardization entity and public health referent globally in relation with Traditional and Complementary Medicines (TCM). Beside this role, WHO is also directly mandated by the International Drug Control Conventions (IDCC) as the provider of official scientific and independent assessments of drugs, including herbal materials, for the purpose of scheduling (i.e., determining the extent of use-related harms and the scope of therapeutic properties of psychoactive plants, fungi, products or substances in order to categorize and hierarchically list them) within the IDCC. Different categories of products and substances derived from Cannabis sativa L. (C.) are currently scheduled within the IDCC, although having never been assessed by the WHO nor its preceding international organizations with similar mandate. For this reason, the WHO has been undertaking since 2016 a process of review and assessment of these C.-related products and substances, recommending important changes in their level and status of scheduling within the IDCC. We comprehensively followed the WHO assessment processes since its inception and reviewed the contents submitted to its independent Expert Committee in charge of the assessment at all stages. We analysed the outcome, and estimated the impacts and consequences of the changes in IDCC scheduling status of C.-related products and substances for the medical and research fields. We also analysed the consequences of the linked reintegration of C. within the scope of TCM and in the stream of work of the WHO’s relevant departments in charge of TCM and other herbal health products. WHO’s new official position acknowledges that C. is legitimate in medicine, considers herbal formulations less liable to abuse than isolated compounds, encourages governments to provide access to a variety of formulations while leaving them flexibility in the choice of products and policies to implement. It also shows a needed renewed conceptual address of C. and other potentially harmful scheduled herbal materials, that include methodologies and practical approaches from the field of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant studies. The presentation will relate the history of that assessment, its main findings, and present our own research conclusions explaining how the international policy landscape surrounding C. in medicine has evolved, while assessing the impact on the involvement of other academic disciplines, and policy frameworks needed to ensure a safe and compliant access to phytotherapeutical C.
Kenzi Riboulet-Zemouli
added a project goal
Assess and inform international drug control policies for the diverse uses of Cannabis and its derivatives.
 
Kenzi Riboulet-Zemouli
added a research item
Visual representation of the changes in international Cannabis scheduling recommended by the World Health Organization.
Kenzi Riboulet-Zemouli
added a research item
Memo for State Parties. Changes in the scope of international control of medical Cannabis and cannabinoids. 4th inter-sessional meeting, 62nd Commission on Narcotic Drugs, June 24th, 2019.
Kenzi Riboulet-Zemouli
added 4 research items
From 2016 to 2019 the World Health Organization undertook a thorough review and assessment of Cannabis and cannabis-related substances. This report provides a basis to understand that assessment, providing information about the processes, stakeholders and history of Cannabis within the international drug control system.
From 2016 to 2019 the World Health Organization undertook a thorough review and assessment of Cannabis and cannabis-related substances. This one of the few substantial and official contributions provided for the second of the three Expert meetings dedicated to the review. The contribution points out important procedural, methodological and terminological bias in the draft documentation provided by the WHO to the Experts, and has been endorsed by more than 130 entities, among which the first 106 (by alphabetic order of their English name) were: Verbond voor Opheffing van het Cannabisverbod (VOC), The Netherlands; Americans for Safe Access (ASA), USA; Liaison Antiprohibitionniste, Belgique; Federación de Asociaciones Cannabicas de Aragón (ARAFAC), Spain; Frente de Organizaciones Cannábicas Argentinas (FOCA), Argentina; Asociación Cañamera Manuel Belgrano, Argentina; Asociación Civil Cannabicultores de la Cordillera Chubutense (ACCC), Argentina; Asociación Civil Cogollos del Oeste, Argentina; Asociación Civil Rosarina de Estudios Culturales, Argentina; Asociación Cultural Jardín del Unicornio, Argentina; Asociación Edith Moreno Cogollos Cordoba, Argentina; Asociacion de Victimas de Crimenes de Estado, Paraguay; Australian Medical Cannabis Council, Australia; Austrian Cannabis Network, Austria; Federación de Asociaciones Cannabicas de Euskadi (EUSFAC), Spain; Beckley Foundation, UK; Estudiantes por una Política Sensata de Drogas Bolivia (EPSD Bolivia), Bolivia; Canadian Students for Sensible Drug Policy (CSSDP), Canada; Cannabis y Salud, Argentina; Pazienti impazienti Cannabis (PIC), Italy; Cannabis In Action TV (CIA-TV), Austria; Cannabis War is Over campaign, Czech republic; Cannabis Sans Frontières (CSF), France; Caribbean Collective for Justice (CCJ), Trinidad and Tobago; Caribbean Drug & Alcohol Research Institute, Santa Lucia; Center of Excellence in Harm Reduction and Dependency, Afghanistan; HYGIA Asociación Civil para el estudio de terapias naturales contra la epilepsia y patologías asociadas, Argentina; Red de Emprendedores Cannabicos de Colombia (RECC), Colombia; Asociación Costarricense de Estudios e Intervención en Drogas (ACEID), Costa Rica; Criminal Justice Policy Foundation (CJPF), USA; Cultivando Con Ciencia, Argentina; Cultivo en familia, Argentina; LAG Drogenpolitik NDS von die linke, Germany; Dosemociones, Spain; DRCNet Foundation (DRCnet), USA; DrugScience, UK; ECHO Citoyen, France; Ethio-Afro Diaspora Unity Millennium Council (EADUMC), Jamaica; European Coalition for just and effective drug policies (ENCOD), Belgium; European Industrial Hemp Association (EIHA), International; Iglesia Evangélica Protestante de El Salvador (IEPES), El Salvador; Federación de Asociaciones Cannabicas (FAC), Spain; Fields of Green for All, South Africa; For Alternative Approaches to Addiction, think & do tank (FAAAT think & do tank), International; Foundation of Cannabis Unified Standards (FOCUS), USA; Union Francophone pour les Cannabinoïdes en Médecine (UFCM-Icare), France; Fundación Renovatio, Spain; Grüne Hilfe Netzwerk, Germany; Hanfparade, Germany; Help Not Handcuffs, USA; Help Not Harm, Ireland; Hemp Industries Association (HIA), USA; Hanf Institute, Austria; Hanf Museum, Germany; Programa DD.HH "Patria Soñada", Paraguay; Magyar Orvosi Kannabisz Egyesület, Hungary; ηλιοσπορος (Ilyosporoi network), Greece; International Center for Ethnobotanical Education, Research and Service (ICEERS), International; International Medical Cannabis Patients Coalition (IMCPC), International; Ale Yarok, Israel; Kanabio Κοινωνικη Συνεταιριστικη Επιχειρηση, Greece; Knowmad Institute, Germany; Pacientský Spolek pro Léčbu Konopím (KOPAC), Czech republic; La María Guanaca, El Salvador; Latino America Reforma, Chile; Legalizače, Czech republic; Legalize, The Netherlands; Legalize Europe, Austria; Madawa Addiction and Health Care Organisation, Afghanistan; Mamá Cultiva, Paraguay; Mama Cultiva Asociación Civil, Argentina; MamaCoca, Colombia; Asociación Para Usuarios de Cannabis Medicinal (APUCaM), Argentina; Estudiantes por una Política Sensata de Drogas Mexico (EPSD Mexico), Mexico; Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS), USA; Museo de Plantas Sagradas, Magicas y Medicinales, Peru; Federación Nacional de Cannabicultores, Uruguay; National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws France (NORML France), France; Necochea, Argentina; Patients Out of Time (POT), USA; Auto Support des Usager.e.s de Drogues (ASUD), France; Agência Piaget para o Desenvolvimento (APDES), Portugal; Plantemos Libres, Argentina; Por Grace Asociación Civil, Mexico; Psiconautas, Chile; Revista Haze, Argentina; Groupement Romand d'Étude des Addictions (GREA), Switzerland; Acción Semilla, Bolivia; Cultivadores Solidarios Argentina, Argentina; Cultivadores Solidarios Argentina, Argentina; Regulación Responsable España, Spain; Observatorio Español del Cannabis Medicinal (OECM), Spain; Students for Sensible Drug Policy (SSDP), International; Students for Sensible Drug Policy Ireland (SSDP Ireland), Ireland; Swiss Safe Access for Cannabinoids (SSAC), Switzerland; Collectif Thémis, France; Unión de Productores de Aceites y Cremas de Cannabis (UPACC), Uruguay; Emprendedores Cannábicos Unidos de Argentina (ECUA), Argentina; Users’ Voice, UK; Veterans Ending The Stigma (VETS), USA; Veterans for Medical Cannabis Access (VMCA), USA; Cannabis Medical Veterinario (CANNVET), Argentina; Virginians Against Drug Violence, USA; Mujeres y Cannabis (MyCA), Argentina; Zimbabwe Civil Liberties & Drug Network, Zimbabwe.