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Resources are a very important category in the economy. In this chapter, we analyze the production of soybean in the world, as a perspective culture that has been recording a permanent growth trend in recent years and enables economic growth. Thanks to its high economic importance and the possibility of obtaining a number of processed products, soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is one of the most important field crops in the world. The aim of this study is to examine the changes that have occurred in the production of soybean in the world and the conditions that led to the manifested trends. In the tested period (2009-2013) soybean seed in the world was annually planted on an average area of 104.43 million ha, and showed an annual growth rate of 2.50%, with little oscillations, CV=4.17%. Realized soybean area in 2013 (111.27 million ha) was higher than in all other years. Average yield worldwide in the period 2009-2013 was 2,426 kg ha-1 in total and had a tendency to increase at a rate of 0.84 % and stability Cv = 5.94%. Realized soybean yields in 2010 were higher than in all other tested years. Yields ranged from 2,249 kg ha-1 (2009) up to 2,578 kg ha-1 (2010). The highest average yield per continents was produced in Americas with 2,719 kg ha-1. Average yield in both America was varying from 2,627 kg ha-1 in South America to 2,854 kg ha-1 in North America. The lowest yield was produced in Africa of 1,221 kg ha-1, Asia 1,448 kg ha-1 and Europe (1,776 kg ha-1).
This paper presents the results of organic production in Serbia and investigation morphological parameters of soybean varieties: NS Kaća ( 000 MG), NS Pantera and NS Blackstar (00 MG), were created at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, in organic growing system.
Summary: Due to excellent quality of its grain, the soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is member of the most important oil plants in the world. It is protein-oil plant (about 40% protein and 20% oil). A small-plot field trial was conducted in order to investigate the effect of fertilization of chernozem soil with CAN and micro-biological preparation NS Nitragin on the number and mass grain in soybean plant. The CAN (calcium-ammonium nitrate) is a widely used nitro-limestone fertilizer. CAN was applied in four doses: N 0 = 0 kg ha-1 , control; N 1 = 50 kg ha-1 ; N 2 = 100 kg ha-1 , and N 3 = 150 kg ha-1. Maximum average value of number of grain per plant was in N 2 variant, variant with 100 kg ha-1 N fertilizer (59.48), while the control was the minimum number of grain per plant (50.12). The highest average mass of seed per plant was in the variant N 3, with the application of 150 kg ha-1 and amounted to 9.92 g, while the lowest mass of seed per plant was in control. Variability in the average number of grain per plant (Cv) and mass of seed per plant ranged 7.30% < Cv < 10.25%. Insignificant positive correlation was achieved between the number of grain per plant and mass of seed per plant (r = 0.36). 283 Ключевые слова: кальций-аммиачная-нитраты, бобовых культур, НС Нитрагина, сои Резюме: Благодаря отличному качеству зерна, соя (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) является одним из важнейшими масличные в мире. Это белково-масляный растение (около 40% белка и 20% масла). Проведено небольшое полевое исследование с целью изучения влияния удобрения черноземной почвы с помощью CAN и микробиологического препарата НС Нитрагин на количество и массовое зерно на соевом растении. CAN (КАН-кальций-аммонийнитрат)-это широко используемое нитро-известковое удобрение. CAN вводили в четырех дозах: N 0 = 0 кг га-1 , контроль; N 1 = 50 кг га-1 ; N 2 = 100 кг га-1 и N 3 = 150 кг га-1. Максимальное среднее значение количества зерна на растение было в варианте N 2 , вариант с 100 кг га-1 N удобрений (59,48), тогда как контроль был минимальным количеством зерна на растение (50,12). Наибольшая средняя масса семян на растение была в варианте N 3, с применением 150 кг га-1 и составила 9,92 г, а самая низкая масса семян на растение была в контрольном варианте. Изменчивость среднего количества зерна на растение (Cv) и масса семян на растение колебалась на 7,30% <Cv <10,25%. Незначительная отрицательная корреляция была достигнута между количеством зерна на растение и массой семян на растение (r = 0,36).
The average area under soybean in the world was 121.53 million ha, yield was 2.76 t ha-1 and production 334.89 million t. The largest areas in the world were in the Americas, followed by Asia, Europe and Africa. The Americas is the top soybean producing continent and which provides 87.1% of global soybean production. The average area under soybean in Europe was 5.038 mil.ha, the average yield 2.08 t ha-1 and soybean production was 10,488,759 t. The highest yields of soybeans in Europe had: Serbia (3.16 t ha-1), Croatia (3.11 t ha-1), Austria (3.06 t ha-1), Slovenia (2.99 t ha-1), Germany (2.73 t ha-1), Switzerland (2.54 t ha-1), France (2.48t ha-1), etc. Serbia's average soybean production in 2016 was 576,446 tons and the yields were higher than the World yield by 0.4 t. Serbia has excellent conditions for soybeans production.
Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is the most important legume for food production. Soybeans, in Serbia, in the last years, are grown on 180,000 ha to 200,000 ha. Several-year-old soybean yields were about 2.5 kg ha-1 , in average. The year 2016 had the record yield of 3.5 kg ha-1. Growth of soybean production was registered in Serbia, primarily due to increase of its production area and also because of its yield increase. High yields will be reduced when deficit in essential nutrients and precipitation are present. The aim of this investigation was to estimate the effect of seed inoculation and fertilization on plant height in soybean variety, in arid year. In dry years, fertilization has a significant effect on increasing the soybean yield and mitigate the effects of drought. In tested year, for the production of soybean, it is recommended the use of 150 kg ha-1 of CAN, directly with the sowing, if it is not applied microbiological fertilizer-NS Nitragin, or use of 100 kg ha-1 of CAN, if it is inoculated with NS Nitragin before seeding.