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Integration Aquaculture Irrigation
Agricultural production is threatened by population growth, shrinking arable land and water scarcity under the impact of climate change. To ensure growing food security, sustainable agricultural innovations are needed to meet future food needs. New agricultural systems will need to evolve in such a way as to improve water productivity for its efficient use to ensure nutrition and food security while ensuring the sustainability of agricultural production. Although aquaculture uses non-consumptive water, in addition, global climate change is affecting the availability of water for both aquaculture and agriculture, which in turn affects the production of food needed to ensure food security. Due to the water scarcity experienced by Morocco, a country with a semi-arid climate, it is necessary to research new techniques to efficiently use water in agriculture, such as the integration of aquaculture into irrigation, thus exploiting aquaculture effluents for irrigation. This open system food production technology that integrates aquaculture with irrigation in agriculture is based on the exploitation of irrigation water storage basins for aquaculture and will create a synergy of recycling fish effluents rich in nitrogen and phosphorus materials needed by plants. The rational use of water in arid and semi-arid zones is fundamental to the sustainability of resources, and the integration of aquaculture into irrigation appears to be an efficient technique for water saving, to eliminate and exploit aquaculture effluents and to provide additional fertilisers for agricultural crops. Within this framework, in order to meet the various challenges of water shortages facing Moroccan farmers and to increase and diversify their animal and plant productivity, this strategy could be adopted and developed for the first time in Morocco, with the objective of an agricultural development model with multiple benefits that is more environmentally, economically and socially sustainable.