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The development of aquaculture in recent years to become the fastest growing food production in the world is accompanied by a secondary effect on the environment, since considerable quantities of waste can be produced and discharged into the environment, as these phosphorus-rich effluents, over time, can contribute to eutrophication phenomena in the aquatic environment. This pollutant is essentially of food origin and is a necessary macro-mineral for fish. However, current scientific and technical means are far from offering the solution to the environmental problems posed by aquaculture development. However, this effluent is a compound that is necessary for the soil as a fertiliser and has great potential for reuse. In this context, aquaculture systems must therefore be well managed to ensure the environmental sustainability of the sector by exploiting these phosphorus-rich discharges in the system of integrating aquaculture with agriculture. The integration of agricultural and aquaculture production systems is seen as a sustainable alternative and as a way to rationalise the use of water and fertilisers. However, for the optimisation of this integrated system to be justifiable in terms of the exploitation of phosphorus from aquaculture effluents, it is necessary to take ownership of the processes involved in the presence of food-borne phosphorus in these effluents and the possibility of its advantageous use both in aquaponics and in agricultural irrigation, the aim of which is to increase the efficiency and sustainability of both aquaculture and agriculture.
Agricultural production is threatened by population growth, shrinking arable land and water scarcity under the impact of climate change. To ensure growing food security, sustainable agricultural innovations are needed to meet future food needs. New agricultural systems will need to evolve in such a way as to improve water productivity for its efficient use to ensure nutrition and food security while ensuring the sustainability of agricultural production. Although aquaculture uses non-consumptive water, in addition, global climate change is affecting the availability of water for both aquaculture and agriculture, which in turn affects the production of food needed to ensure food security. Due to the water scarcity experienced by Morocco, a country with a semi-arid climate, it is necessary to research new techniques to efficiently use water in agriculture, such as the integration of aquaculture into irrigation, thus exploiting aquaculture effluents for irrigation. This open system food production technology that integrates aquaculture with irrigation in agriculture is based on the exploitation of irrigation water storage basins for aquaculture and will create a synergy of recycling fish effluents rich in nitrogen and phosphorus materials needed by plants. The rational use of water in arid and semi-arid zones is fundamental to the sustainability of resources, and the integration of aquaculture into irrigation appears to be an efficient technique for water saving, to eliminate and exploit aquaculture effluents and to provide additional fertilisers for agricultural crops. Within this framework, in order to meet the various challenges of water shortages facing Moroccan farmers and to increase and diversify their animal and plant productivity, this strategy could be adopted and developed for the first time in Morocco, with the objective of an agricultural development model with multiple benefits that is more environmentally, economically and socially sustainable.