Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931) is an invasive pest from South-East Asia that can damage a wide range of soft-skinned fruit crops (especially berries) resulting in serious ﬁ nancial losses. At present, control of D. suzukii is still mainly based on adult-oriented chemical pesticides that is likely to result in resistance and environmental pollution. In this context, alternative methods that are compatible with sustainable management are required. Sulphur and its different formulations are widely used for a long time as a fungicide and insecticide on many crops as it is environmentally-friendly and compatible with organic management. In this study, the effect that powdered sulphur-treated strawberries had on oviposition were evaluated under laboratory conditions in order to conﬁ rm the ﬁ ndings of a previous report on blueberries. No-choice and choice experiments were carried out to assess whether powdered sulphur affected the ability of the ﬂ y to detect fruit, altered its behaviour or did both. The treatment of strawberries resulted in a reduction of over 79% in the total number of D. suzukii that developed. In the no-choice experiment, there was a reduction of over 70% in the time the ﬂ ies spent on treated compared to untreated fruit. In the choice experiment, 57% of the females chose untreated and 43% treated strawberries, but this difference was not statistically signiﬁ cant. Furthermore, females took over 75% longer to visit the treated fruit than the control. Sulphur had no noteworthy effect on ﬂ y behavior, although oviposition only occurred on untreated fruit indicating that sulphur affects the acceptance and suitability of fruit for females. These results indicate that powdered sulphur could be an appropriate alternative to synthetic-organic insecticides for controlling D. suzukii and is compatible with organic crop management and waste reduction strategies.
Over the last decades, expansion and intensification of agriculture have prompted a loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services in agrosecoystems. In order to mitigate these effects, organic farming is one of the main agri-environment schemes proposed for biodiversity conservation and sustainability. In the present work, richness and abundance of surface-active arthropods in matching pair of organic and conventional vineyards from the Western Andalusia were compared. Pitfall traps were used to sample arthropods and morphoespecies were assigned to functional groups. A total of 22 110 arthropods were sampled from 24 orders and 97 families. Overall arthropods richness and abundance were significantly highest in organic vineyards with respect to conventional ones. In addition, morphoespecies richness was also highest in organic vineyards for all functional groups considered and different trophic levels (predators, omnivores, saprophages, phytophages and mycophages). The same trend was found for abundance of predators, phytophages and mycophages, while no significant differences in abundance were found for omnivores and saprophages. In general, results showed no differences in distribution of morphospecies richness and abundance from the interior to the edge of the vineyards. Finally, there were no significant differences in morphoespecies richness and abundance of functional groups considered from the interior to the edge of the vineyards except for abundance of predators with more individuals captured in traps placed at 25 m than traps placed at 5 m and 15 m. Results obtained here highlight the ability of organic vineyards to sustain more morphospecies and individuals of important guild of arthropods than conventional vineyards in the Southern Iberian Peninsula, which has important implications for the functionality and biodiversity conservation in one of the most important agroecosystem in the Southern Europe.