Project

INXCES: INnovations for eXtreme Climatic EventS

Goal: INnovations for eXtreme Climatic EventS (http://www.inxces.eu): INXCES will develop new innovative technological methods for risk assessment and mitigation of extreme hydroclimatic events and optimization of urban water-dependent ecosystem services at the catchment level, for a spectrum of rainfall events. It is widely acknowledged that extreme events such as floods and droughts are an increasing challenge, particularly in urban areas. The frequency and intensity of floods and droughts pose challenges for economic and social development, negatively affecting the quality of life of urban populations. Prevention and mitigation of the consequences of hydroclimatic extreme events are dependent on the time scale. Floods are typically a consequence of intense rainfall events with short duration. In relation to prolonged droughts however, a much slower timescale needs to be considered, connected to groundwater level reductions, desiccation and negative consequences for growing conditions and potential ground - and building stability. INXCES will take a holistic spatial and temporal approach to the urban water balance at a catchment scale and perform technical-scientific research to assess, mitigate and build resilience in cities against extreme hydroclimatic events with nature-based solutions. INXCES will use and enhance innovative 3D terrain analysis and visualization technology coupled with state-of-the-art satellite remote sensing to develop cost-effective risk assessment tools for urban flooding, aquifer recharge, ground stability and subsidence. INXCES will develop quick scan tools that will help decision makers and other actors to improve the understanding of urban and peri-urban terrains and identify options for cost effective implementation of water management solutions that reduce the negative impacts of extreme events, maximize beneficial uses of rainwater and stormwater for small to intermediate events and provide long-term resilience in light of future climate changes. The INXCES approach optimizes the multiple benefits of urban ecosystems, thereby stimulating widespread implementation of nature-based solutions on the urban catchment scale.

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Guri Venvik
added 4 research items
ClimateCafé is a field education concept involving different fields of science and practice for capacity building in climate change adaptation. This concept is applied on the eco-city of Augustenborg in Malmö, Sweden, where Nature-Based Solutions (NBS) were implemented in 1998. ClimateCafé Malmö evaluated these NBS with 20 young professionals from nine nationalities and seven disciplines with a variety of practical tools. In two days, 175 NBS were mapped and categorised in Malmö. Results show that the selected green infrastructure have a satisfactory infiltration capacity and low values of potential toxic element pollutants after 20 years in operation. The question “Is capacity building achieved by interdisciplinary field experience related to climate change adaptation?” was answered by interviews, collecting data of water quality, pollution, NBS and heat stress mapping, and measuring infiltration rates, followed by discussion. The interdisciplinary workshops with practical tools provide a tangible value to the participants and are needed to advance sustainability efforts. Long term lessons learnt from Augustenborg will help stormwater managers within planning of NBS. Lessons learned from this ClimateCafé will improve capacity building on climate change adaptation in the future. This paper offers a method and results to prove the German philosopher Friedrich Hegel wrong when he opined that “we learn from history that we do not learn from history.”
Sustainable urban drainage systems (SuDS) such as swales are designed to collect, store and infiltrate a large amount of surface runoff water during heavy rainfall. Stormwater is known to transport pollutants, such as particle-bound Potential Toxic Elements (PTE), which are known to often accumulate in the topsoil. A portable XRF instrument (pXRF) is used to provide in situ spatial characterization of soil pollutants, specifically lead (Pb), zink (Zn) and copper (Cu). The method uses pXRF measurements of PTE along profiles with set intervals (1 m) to cover the swale with cross-sections, across the inlet, the deepest point and the outlet. Soil samples are collected, and the In-Situ measurements are verified by the results from laboratory analyses. Stormwater is here shown to be the transporting media for the pollutants, so it is of importance to investigate areas most prone to flooding and infiltration. This quick scan method is time and cost-efficient, easy to execute and the results are comparable to any known (inter)national threshold criteria for polluted soils. The results are of great importance for all stakeholders in cities that are involved in climate adaptation and implementing green infrastructure in urban areas. However, too little is still known about the long-term functioning of the soil-based SuDS facilities.
Urban areas are strongly influenced by the different processes affecting the underground and implicitly the terrestrial surface. Land subsidence can be one of the effects of the urban processes. The identification of the vulnerable areas of the city, prone to subsidence, can be of great help for a sustainable urban planning. Using Sentinel-1 data, by the PSI (persistent scatterer interferometry) technique, a vertical displacements map of Bucharest city has been prepared. It covers the time interval 2014–2018. Based on this map, several subsidence areas have been identified. One of them, holding a thick layer of debris from urban constructions, was analyzed in detail, on the basis of an accurate local geological model and by correlating the local displacements with the urban groundwater system hydraulic heads. The properties of the anthropogenic layer have been characterized by complementary geotechnical and hydrogeological studies. A dynamic instability pattern, highlighted by PSI results, has been put into evidence when related to this type of anthropogenic layer. This thick anthropogenic layer and its connections to the urban aquifer system have to be further analyzed, when the procedures of urban planning and design invoke constructive operations modifying the aquifer dynamics.
Floris Cornelis Boogaard
added a research item
Sustainable urban drainage systems (SuDS) such as swales are designed to collect, store and infiltrate a large amount of surface runoff water during heavy rainfall. Stormwater is known to transport pollutants, such as particle-bound Potential Toxic Elements (PTE), which are known to often accumulate in the topsoil. A portable XRF instrument (pXRF) is used to provide in situ spatial characterization of soil pollutants, specifically lead (Pb), zink (Zn) and copper (Cu). The method uses pXRF measurements of PTE along profiles with set intervals (1 m) to cover the swale with cross-sections, across the inlet, the deepest point and the outlet. Soil samples are collected, and the In-Situ measurements are verified by the results from laboratory analyses. Stormwater is here shown to be the transporting media for the pollutants, so it is of importance to investigate areas most prone to flooding and infiltration. This quick scan method is time and cost-efficient, easy to execute and the results are comparable to any known (inter)national threshold criteria for polluted soils. The results are of great importance for all stakeholders in cities that are involved in climate adaptation and implementing green infrastructure in urban areas. However, too little is still known about the long-term functioning of the soil-based SuDS facilities.
Guri Venvik
added 2 research items
Sustainable Urban Drainages Systems (SuDS) are designed to collect, store and infiltrate large amount of surface runoff water during heavy rainfall. Surface runoff water is known to transport pollutants such as particle bound heavy metals. Therefore, a build-up of pollutants in the top-soil, of the commonly vegetated filter media is expected in SuDS such as swales. In the Netherlands the first large scale implementation of swales in a residential area was finished 20 years ago, followed by many municipalities. In 2019 more than 500 locations with swales can be found throughout The Netherlands (www.climatescan.nl). Questions are raised by water authorities, provinces and municipalities how efficient swales are in capturing pollutants from stormwater and if pollution of groundwater can be expected threatening the quality of our drinking water. Previous studies show concerns on heavy metals in stormwater. Knowledge of heavy metal concentration in the top soil is therefore very important for assessing the purity and quality of the soil in an environment and effect on the groundwater. The concentrations of heavy metals from 30 Dutch swales older than 10 years were measured and analysed using a portable X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy instrument verified with soil samples analysed in laboratories with the ICP-MS and XRF methods. This study developed a new methodology for quick scan in-situ mapping of pollutants in the top soil of SuDS. This method is time and cost efficient, easy to execute and is sufficiently precise to qualify for any known international or national threshold criteria for polluted soils. It makes time-consuming and costly interim analyses by laboratories superfluous and makes it possible to adapt monitoring schemes in the field to more detail when high concentrations are found or prevent unnecessary analyses in unpolluted areas. The research results show that in 1 out of 5 swales older than 10 years have heavy metal concentrations higher than threshold values. The high concentrations are mostly found near inlets of the stormwater. The results of study are shared in 2 national workshops and valued as of great importance for all stakeholders in (inter)national cities that are involved in implementation of SuDS for climate adaptation. The Dutch research results will be used to update (inter-)national guidelines for design, construction and maintenance of infiltration facilities this year. Stormwater managers are strongly advised to use this quick scan method within the first 10 years after implementation of swales to map possible pollution of the top soil and prevent pollution to spread to the groundwater in urban areas.
Cities are becoming increasingly vulnerable to climate change, and there is an urgent need for climateproof resilient cities. Groundwater issues are not always visual to stakeholders so raising awareness and capactiy building is of great importance. The Climatescan adaptation tool www.climatescan.nl is applied as an interactive tool for knowledge exchange and raising awareness on Nature-Bases Solutions (NBS) targeting young professionals in ClimateCafes. Climatescan is a citizen science tool created through 'learning by doing', which is interactive, open source, and provide more detailed information on Best Management Practices (BMPs) as: exact location, website links, free photo and film material. Groundwater related BMPs such as stormwater infiltration by swales, raingardens, subsurface infiltration in Sponge cities are mapped and published on social media. Climatescan is in continuous development as more data is uploaded by over 250 people around the world, and improvements are made to respond to feedback from users. In an early stage of the international knowledge exchange tool Climatescan, the tool was evaluated by semi-structured interviews in the Climatescan community with the following result: stakeholders demand tools that are interactive, open source, and provide more detailed information (location, free photo and film material). In 2016 Climatescan was turned into an APP and within two years the tool had over 10,000 users and more than 3,000 international projects. More than 60% of the users are younger than 34 and 51% of users are female , resulting in engagement with an important target group: young professionals. The tool is applied in Climatecafe.nl around the world (The Netherlands, Sweden, Philippines, Indonesia, South Africa) and other water challenges with young professionals such as the Hanseatic Water City Challenge and Wetskills. Resently a ClimateCafe was arranged in Malmö, Sweden, where the web-tool played a central part in knowledge exchange and in-field education on climate adaptation linked to WaterJPI funded projects INXCES and MUFFIN. In this event research was connected to the UNSDGs bringing awareness to the Sustainable Development Goals linked to (ground)water. To illustrate the power of the web-tool and the ClimateCafe surveys related to NBS and the UN SDGs were conducted before and after the event, and results will be presented at IAH. In conclusion, there is a clear demand for a collaborative knowledge-sharing tool on (ground)water, where first impressions of different urban resilience projects can be quickly gained and examples of climate adaptation is easily accessible. Further work in linking events to the UN Sustainable Development Goals will further empower the usability of this web-tool www.ClimateScan.nl. This tool helps policy makers and practitioners to gather valuable data for decision-makers in a rapid appraisal at neighbourhood and city level. The results provide insights, create awareness, and builds capacity with bringing together stakeholders in the Climatescan community.
Floris Cornelis Boogaard
added a research item
Bergen city centre is prone to both subsidence and flooding. With a predicted increase in precipitation due to climate change, a higher proportion of rainfall becomes surface runoff, which results in increased peak flood discharges. In addition, it has been predicted that sea-level rise and increasing storm surges will result in coastal flooding. In this study, the dual hazards of flooding and subsidence are analysed to exemplify possible risk assessment maps for areas most prone to the combination of both. Risk assessment maps are a support tool to identify areas where mitigation of subsidence and adaptation for surface water management will be most efficient and measures can be implemented. The results show that dual hazard assessment, like that described in this paper, can be a useful tool for decision-makers when prioritizing areas to implement measures such as Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems.
Floris Cornelis Boogaard
added a research item
Urban flooding and heatstress have become a key issue for many cities around the world. The project 'INnovations for eXtreme Climatic EventS' (INXCES) developed new innovative technological methods for risk assessment and mitigation of extreme hydroclimatic events and optimization of urban water-dependent ecosystem services at the catchment level. DEMs (digital elevation maps) have been used for more than a decade now as quick scan models to indicate locations that are vulnerable to urban flooding. In the last years the datasets are getting bigger and multidisciplinary stakeholders are becoming more demanding and require faster and more visual results. In this paper, the development and practical use of DEMs is exemplified by the case study of Bergen (Norway), where flood modelling using DEM is carried out in 2017 and in 2009. We can observe that the technology behind tools using DEMs is becoming more common and improved, both with a higher accuracy and a higher resolution. Visualization tools are developed to raise awareness and understanding among different stakeholders in Bergen and around the world. We can conclude that the evolution of DEMS is successful in handling bigger datasets and better (3D) visualization of results with a higher accuracy and a higher resolution. With flood maps the flow patterns of stormwater are analysed and locations are selected to implement (sub-)surface measures as SuDS (Sustainable Urban Drainage systems) that store and infiltrate stormwater. In the casestudy Bergen the following (sub-)surface SuDS have been recently implemented with the insights of DEMS: settlement storage tank, rainwater garden, swales, permeable pavement and I/T-drainage. The research results from the case study Bergen will be shared by tools to stimulate international knowledge exchange. New improved DEMs and connected (visualization) tools will continue to play an important role in (sub-)surface flood management and climate resilient urban planning strategies around the world.
Floris Cornelis Boogaard
added a research item
The infiltration systems at Bryggen in Bergen, Western Norway, were built to protect and preserve the UN-ESCO World Heritage Site Bryggen Wharf and its cultural layers below. This location is an example where Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SuDS) have been implemented to collect, infiltrate and store surface water. Rainwatergardens, swales and permeable pavement have been implemented to restore the groundwater level and increase soil moisture in order to preserve the cultural, organic layers (Rytter & Schonhowd, 2015). Bergen city centre is prone to both subsidence and flooding. With a predicted increase in precipitation due to climate change a higher proportion of rainfall becomes surface runoff, which results in increased peak flood discharges. In addition, sea level rise and increasing storm surges are predicted which causes coastal flooding. The hydraulic infiltration capacity of the rain garden has been tested with a full-scale infiltration test with the response on the groundwater levels monitored in wells. Result show that infiltration capacity meets the international guidelines requirement of 100-300 mm/h, with 1600 mm/h for the large and 510 mm/h for the smaller under saturated conditions. An immediate response of the full-scale infiltration test is shown in the wells located closest to the infiltration point, with a delayed response in the wells further away. Results show that he infiltration capacity of the rain garden exceeds the amount of available surface water and the groundwater level would, in dry periods, benefit from more water, to preserve cultural layers. Therefore, the connected runoff area can be extended to encompass the total catchment area. This can be used for improving existing and future urban drainage and water quality models used to assess the performance of SuDS, where Bryggen is a Best Management Practice (Venvik & Boogaard, submitted). In a parallel study two different analysis methods are tested using ArcGIS tools to develop risk assessment maps for areas most prone to the combination of both flooding and subsidence. Applying user-centred principles , this work focuses on methods for maps as a support tool to identify areas where mitigation of subsidence and adaptation for surface water management will be most efficient, since there is a link between areas that suffer from surpluses or shortages of water and subsidence in urban areas, for further implementations of measures. The results indicated that one of the methods give more significant results compared to the other method. Such method will be a helpful tool for decision-makers when prioritizing areas to implement measures such as Sustainable urban Drainage Systems (Venvik et al., submitted). This research is supported through the JPI Water funded INXCES research project "Innovation for eXtreme Climatic EventS" www.inxces.eu.
Guri Venvik
added a research item
Cities are becoming increasingly vulnerable to climate change and there is a need for (inter)national knowledge exchange on Best Management Practices (BMPs) in climate adaptation. In semi-structured interviews stakeholders demanded international knowledge exchange tools that are interactive, open source and provide more detailed information (exact location and users, scientific proof of efficiency). From this conclusion the web-based platform on urban resilience www.climatescan.nl was created for stakeholders working on climate resillience and applied in international projects as INXCES, WaterCoG, RECONECT and Muffin. Within 2 years it holds over 3000 ‘blue-green’ projects around the globe with over 10.000 users. Evaluation of the tool concluded that it helps policy makers and practitioners to gather valuable data on BMPs and stimulates knowledge exchange about climate adaptation. However it was suggested that the tool could be further improved by transforming from a ‘map with BMPs’ to a interactive platform or ‘climatescan community’ to further create awareness and brings together stakeholders from around the world (currently mostly Europe/The Netherlands). The tool was applied during non-european conferences as the Adaptation Futures & The Water Institute of Southern Africa (WISA), in Cape Town and workshops and challenges for young professionals city climatescan in Asia. Currently climatescan has a stronger link to social media for young professionals suggested by stakeholders (facebook and Twitter) and is a frequently used tool in City Climatescans around the world. City Climatescans is a pressure cooker programme for young students & professionals working in transdisciplinary and transcultural teams on climate adaptation topics with a tangible end result such as a regional climatescan map with BMPs, vegetated waste catchers and or floating constructed wetlands. The use of Climatescan by different stakeholders during these events led to achieving the ambitions to be an interactive community rather than a static tool, resulting in further recommendations for climatescan and other web-based tools world wide.
Floris Cornelis Boogaard
added 2 research items
One of the goals for the JPI Water funded project INovations for eXtreme Climatic Events (INXCES) is to provide risk assessment tools for urban hydro-climatic events. Combining disciplines increases the capacity to manage and improve the mitigation of the infrastructure for stormwater in urban areas. INXCES is an European collaboration among the cites Bergen, NO, Groningen, NL, Bucharest, RO, and Luleå, SE. In urban areas infrastructure, such as sewage and drainage systems, is installed in the subsurface to cope with surface water and stormwater runoff. However, the natural patterns are preferred hence human effort. A flood model using Digital Elevation Model (DEM) show the flow patterns of stormwater and areas exposed to flooding. Combining mapping of natural flow paths and flood modelling, areas prone to flooding is accentuated. The subsurface infrastructure in these prone areas are exposed to larger quantities of water during heavy rainfall events, which is becoming more frequent due to climate change. Results from this interdisciplinary study, will give the water and wastewater authority a risk assessment to pinpoint areas where water infrastructure is more exposed to failure, clogging and damages. Furthermore, we argue that areas that are prone to repeated flooding are more exposed for subsidence in the ground. Larger movement in the ground will cause damage to the infrastructure, such as cracking of pipelines and damage to buildings, roads etc. By combining results mentioned above with subsidence data (InSAR date collected from Satellites), a risk assessment map can show areas to prioritize. Subsurface measures such as SUDS (Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems) can be a resilient solution to a recurrent problem in an urban area, as a remediation to flooding (and drought) and as stabilisation of ground conditions.
Urbanisation and climate change have an effect on the water balance in our cities resulting in challenges as flooding, droughts and heatstress. Implementation of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SuDS) can help to restore the water balance in cities by storing and infiltrating stormwater into the subsurface to minimise flooding, restoration of groundwater tables to prevent droughts, lowering temperatures by evapotranspiration to fight heatstress. Urban planners and other stakeholders in municipalities and water authorities struggle with implementing SuDS at locations where infiltration of water seems challenging. Questions arise as: can you infiltrate in countries as The Netherlands with parts under sea level, high groundwater table and low permeable soil? Can you infiltrate in Norway with low permeable or impermeable bedrock and frozen ground most of the year? How do you find space to implement SuDS in the dense urban areas of Bucharest? These questions are answered by researchers of the JPI Water funded project INovations for eXtreme Climatic Events (INXCES). To answer the question on 'can we infiltrate stormwater under worse case conditions?', testing of the hydraulic capacity take place at rainwater gardens in Norway (Bergen and Trondheim) and (bio)swales in the low lying parts of The Netherlands. The first results show that even under these 'extreme' hydraulic circumstances the hydraulic capacity (or empty time) is sufficient to infiltrate most of the stormwater throughout the year. INXCES exchanged researchers on an international level, shared research results with stakeholders and sets up guidelines for design, implementation and maintenance of SuDS to promote the implementation of sustainable water management systems throughout the world. One of the tools used to promote SuDS is www.climatescan.nl, an open source online map application that provides an easy-to-access database of international project information in the field of urban resilience and climate adaptation. The tool is able to map several sustainable urban drainage systems as has been done for Norway, The Netherlands, Romania and other countries in the world. The tool is used for engagement with stakeholders within EU projects as INXCES and WaterCoG and resulted in international knowledge exchange on infiltration of stormwater under extreme climate and geohydrolic circumstances.
Floris Cornelis Boogaard
added a research item
Thermal stress has become a key issue for many cities around the world. With the continuing effects of climate change, thermal stress will become more acute and leads to serious problems already experienced in dense urban areas. Therefore, urban planning departments are in the need of tools that can assess the vulnerability to thermal stress. The present abstract deals with an innovative tool to address this challenge. The objective of this research is the development of a innovating detailed GIS-based thermal stress map for Johannesburg. Verification of this model outcome is conducted with field data from weatherstations in the city as well as field visit measurements. The end result is an international comparison of the potential and use of heatstress-maps in under different climates: Europe, Asia and Africa. The quick-scan GIS-based thermal stress map of Johannesburg is developed in order to give a quick insight in possible thermal stress locations in in a part of the city. It is based on accurate Digital Elevation Model and the assumption that for a quick insight of thermal stress some rough simplifications of the actual physical processes can be made. The maps give a detailed estimate of the maximum PET (physiological equivalent temperature) during a heat wave. Weather stations in Johannesburg are measuring all heat stress related parameters, including temperature, solar radiation, humidity, wind speed. These are useful for calibration. The heat stressmap for Johannesburg indicates open, unshaded areas where high Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) values (thermal comfort) can be expected. The thermal maps for the African, Dutch and Asian cases are used to compare the differences in simulation results between different climates zones. These maps are currently further calibrated with weather data, used and evaluated by urban planners and other stakeholders to assess the resilience and well-being of cities. The heat stress maps are clearly related with land cover, which gives an argument for urban planners for adjusted land cover from the perspective of mitigation of heat stress. These maps are ideal quick-scan tools for urban planners who use it with other maps to plan. In the cities of this study, such mapping tools have proven invaluable in the decision-making process and it is envisaged that they will have similar successes in other cities the world over. In Europe and Asia these maps have been an important input for master classes on climate adaptation. It raised awareness on the need to implement measures to tackle heat stress and has led to the implementation of various sustainable urban drainage systems.
Floris Cornelis Boogaard
added a research item
Urban flooding has become a key issue for many cities around the world. The project ‘INnovations for eXtreme Climatic EventS’ (INXCES) developed new innovative technological methods for risk assessment and mitigation of extreme hydroclimatic events and optimization of urban water-dependent ecosystem services at the catchment level. DEMs (digital elevation maps) have been used for more than a decade now as quick scan models to indicate locations that are vulnerable to urban flooding. In the last years the datasets are getting bigger and multidisciplinary stakeholders are becoming more demanding and require faster and more visual results. In this paper, the development and practical use of DEMs is exemplified by case study of Bergen (Norway), where flood modelling using DEM is carried out in 2017 and in 2009. We can observe that the technology behind tools using DEMs is becoming more common and improved, both with a higher accuracy and a higher resolution. Visualization tools are developed to raise awareness and understanding among different stakeholders in Bergen and around the world. We can conclude that the evolution of DEMS is successful in handling bigger datasets and better (3D) visualization of results with a higher accuracy and a higher resolution. With flood maps the flow patterns of stormwater are analysed and locations are selected to implement (sub- )surface measures as SuDS (Sustainable Urban Drainage systems) that store and infiltrate stormwater. In the casestudy Bergen the following (sub-)surface SuDS have been recently implemented with the insights of DEMS: settlement storage tank, rainwater garden, swales, permeable pavement and I/T-drainage. The research results from the case study Bergen will be shared by tools to stimulate international knowledge exchange. New improved DEMs and connected (visualization) tools will continue to play an important role in (sub-)surface flood management and climate resilient urban planning strategies around the world.
Floris Cornelis Boogaard
added 2 research items
Permeable pavements are a type of SUDS that are becoming more common to allow infiltration, to minimize runoff volumes and to treat urban stormwater by soil filtration. However, urban stormwater runoff contains significant concentrations of suspended sediments that can cause clogging and reduce the infiltration capacity and effectiveness of permeable pavements. This study used a full-scale infiltration test procedure to evaluate the infiltration performance of 20 permeable pavements that had been in service for over 2 to 9 years in the Netherlands. The observed infiltration capacities range between 20 and 342 mm/h.
Floris Cornelis Boogaard
added an update
presentation video of publication:
Floris Boogaard, Jeroen Kluck , Govert Schoof, Michael Bosscher, The need for INnovations for eXtreme Climatic EventS (INXCES), the progress of flood modeling case Bergen Norway, COST, 2017:
 
Floris Cornelis Boogaard
added an update
the newsletter of the INXCES project is published with the new results from 2016 with floodmodelling, INSAR data, heatstress modelling, mapping of green blue solutions and several new research projects started!
 
Floris Cornelis Boogaard
added an update
INXCES mapped solutions for extreme climate effects on the international knowledge exchange tool ‘www.climatescan.nl’.
some examples:
 
Floris Cornelis Boogaard
added a research item
Urban flooding and thermal stress have become key issues for many cities around the world. With the continuing effects of climate change, these two issues will become more acute and will add to the serious problems already experienced in dense urban areas. Therefore, the sectors of public health and disaster management are in the need of tools that can assess the vulnerability to floods and thermal stress. The present paper deals with the combination of innovative tools to address this challenge. Three cities in different climatic regions with various urban contexts have been selected as the pilot areas to demonstrate these tools. These cities are Tainan (Taiwan), Ayutthaya (Thailand) and Groningen (Netherlands). For these cities, flood maps and heat stress maps were developed and used for the comparison analysis. The flood maps produced indicate vulnerable low-lying areas, whereas thermal stress maps indicate open, unshaded areas where high Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) values (thermal comfort) can be expected. The work to date indicates the potential of combining two different kinds of maps to identify and analyse the problem areas. These maps could be further improved and used by urban planners and other stakeholders to assess the resilience and well-being of cities. The work presented shows that the combined analysis of such maps also has a strong potential to be used for the analysis of other challenges such as air and water pollution, immobility and noise.
Floris Cornelis Boogaard
added a project reference
Floris Cornelis Boogaard
added a project goal
INnovations for eXtreme Climatic EventS (http://www.inxces.eu): INXCES will develop new innovative technological methods for risk assessment and mitigation of extreme hydroclimatic events and optimization of urban water-dependent ecosystem services at the catchment level, for a spectrum of rainfall events. It is widely acknowledged that extreme events such as floods and droughts are an increasing challenge, particularly in urban areas. The frequency and intensity of floods and droughts pose challenges for economic and social development, negatively affecting the quality of life of urban populations. Prevention and mitigation of the consequences of hydroclimatic extreme events are dependent on the time scale. Floods are typically a consequence of intense rainfall events with short duration. In relation to prolonged droughts however, a much slower timescale needs to be considered, connected to groundwater level reductions, desiccation and negative consequences for growing conditions and potential ground - and building stability. INXCES will take a holistic spatial and temporal approach to the urban water balance at a catchment scale and perform technical-scientific research to assess, mitigate and build resilience in cities against extreme hydroclimatic events with nature-based solutions. INXCES will use and enhance innovative 3D terrain analysis and visualization technology coupled with state-of-the-art satellite remote sensing to develop cost-effective risk assessment tools for urban flooding, aquifer recharge, ground stability and subsidence. INXCES will develop quick scan tools that will help decision makers and other actors to improve the understanding of urban and peri-urban terrains and identify options for cost effective implementation of water management solutions that reduce the negative impacts of extreme events, maximize beneficial uses of rainwater and stormwater for small to intermediate events and provide long-term resilience in light of future climate changes. The INXCES approach optimizes the multiple benefits of urban ecosystems, thereby stimulating widespread implementation of nature-based solutions on the urban catchment scale.