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Aims: The purpose of this study is to examine the gender-specific associations of different dimensions of individual-level social capital with regular alcohol consumption and binge drinking in 16-17 years old adolescents in Crete, Greece. Methods: Of the 835 randomly selected students, 708 completed the Youth Social Capital Scale and the Health Behaviours in School-aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire from April through June 2008 and 650 (92%) were included in this analysis. The outcome of interest was regular alcohol use (drinking on a daily or weekly basis vs drinking monthly or less) and binge drinking (more than 2-3 episodes of binge drinking vs once or never). A gender specific backward stepwise logistic multivariate regression was performed adjusted for potential confounders. Findings: For both boys and girls, higher score on some structural social capital subscales was associated, per unit increase, with increased likelihood of regular drinking. Neighbourhood connections were also associated with increased binge drinking in girls. Cognitive social capital subscales ‘Tolerance to diversity’ and ‘Trust and safety’ were associated with decreased likelihood of binge drinking in girls. For both genders, total social capital-score was positively associated with the probability of regular, but not of binge drinking. Conclusions: Cognitive and structural social capital dimensions have different patterns of association with regular and binge alcohol use in adolescent boys and girls. Social capital’s dimensions should receive greater emphasis for the design of effective preventive interventions in adolescence, particularly in the light of an increasing prevalence of alcohol consumption in modern societies.