Project

IEA Task 25 - Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of wind power

Goal: This international collaboration was set to find out best methods to assess impacts of wind (and solar) to power (and energy) systems. It is sharing information on integration experience and study results. All publications (and fact sheets, and hourly data) available at https://community.ieawind.org/task25/home

Date: 1 January 2006 - 31 December 2020

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Antje Orths
added a research item
As the share of VRE (variable renewable energy) has grown rapidly, curtailment issues have arisen worldwide. This paper evaluates and compares curtailment situations in selected countries using an objective and quantitative evaluation tool named the “C-E map” (curtailment-energy share map). The C-E map is a correlation map between curtailment ratios that mean curtailed wind (or solar) energy per available energy and energy shares of wind (or solar). The C-E map can draw a historical trend curve in a given country/area, as an at-a-glance tool to enable historical and/or international comparison. The C-E map also can classify the given countries/areas into several categories, according to the current levels of curtailment ratio and historical trends. The C-E map helps institutional and objective understanding of curtailment for non-experts including policy makers.
Niina Helistö
added a research item
This report summarises findings on wind integration from the 17 countries or sponsors participating in the International Energy Agency Wind Technology Collaboration Programme (IEA Wind TCP) Task 25 from 2006–2020. Both real experience and studies are reported. Many wind integration studies incorporate solar energy, and most of the results discussed here are valid for other variable renewables in addition to wind. The national case studies address several impacts of wind power on electric power systems. In this report, they are grouped under long-term planning issues and short-term operational impacts. Long-term planning issues include grid planning and capacity adequacy. Short-term operational impacts include reliability, stability, reserves, and maximising the value of wind in operational timescales (balancing related issues). The first section presents the variability and uncertainty of power system-wide wind power, and the last section presents recent studies toward 100% shares of renewables. The appendix provides a summary of ongoing research in the national projects contributing to Task 25 for 2021–2024. The design and operation of power and energy systems is an evolving field. As ambitious targets toward net-zero carbon energy systems are announced globally, many scenarios are being made regarding how to reach these future decarbonized energy systems, most of them involving large amounts of variable renewables, mainly wind and solar energy. The secure operation of power systems is increasingly challenging, and the impacts of variable renewables, new electrification loads together with increased distribution system resources will lead to somewhat different challenges for different systems. Tools and methods to study future power and energy systems also need to evolve, and both shortterm operational aspects (such as power system stability) and long-term aspects (such as resource adequacy) will probably see new paradigms of operation and design. The experience of operating and planning systems with large amounts of variable generation is accumulating, and research to tackle the challenges of inverter-based, nonsynchronous generation is on the way. Energy transition and digitalization also bring new flexibility opportunities, both short and long term.
Ana I. Estanqueiro
added a research item
The demand for low carbon energy calls for close to 100% renewable power systems, with decarbonization of other energy sectors adding to the anticipated paradigm shift. Rising levels of variable inverter-based renewable energy sources (VIBRES) are prompting questions about how such systems will be planned and operated when variable renewable generation becomes the dominant technology. Here, we examine the implications of this paradigm shift with respect to planning, operation and system stability, also addressing the need for integration with other energy vectors, including heat, transport and Power-to-X. We highlight the knowledge gaps and provide recommendations for improved methods and models needed as power systems transform towards 100% VIBRES
Damian Flynn
added a research item
The integration of renewable energy sources, including wind power, in the adequacy assessment of electricity generation capacity becomes increasingly important as renewable energy generation increases in volume and replaces conventional power plants. The contribution of wind power to cover the electricity demand is less certain than conventional power sources; therefore, the capacity value of wind power is smaller than that of conventional plants. This article presents an overview of the adequacy challenge, how wind power is handled in the regulation of capacity adequacy, and how wind power is treated in a selection of jurisdictions. The jurisdictions included in the overview are Sweden, Great Britain, France, Ireland, United States (PJM and ERCOT), Finland, Portugal, Spain, Norway, Denmark, Belgium, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands.
Ana I. Estanqueiro
added a research item
Generation capacity adequacy is a major issue in most power systems, but there are many approaches which can be assessed. Power system planners often define target values for the capacity adequacy, which may be achieved through capacity markets/auctions, capacity reserves, or capacity purchases. Wind power contributes to the generation capacity adequacy of the power system since there is a possibility that wind power will generate in high load situations and thereby decreases the risk of generation capacity deficit compared to the system without this source. The contribution is probabilistic-as it is with any other source, since nothing is 100% reliable-but the capacity value of wind power is significantly smaller compared to the capacity value of conventional fossil-fueled plants. In this article, an overview of the fundamental challenges in the regulation of capacity adequacy as well as how wind power is treated in some selected existing jurisdictions is presented. The jurisdictions that are included are Sweden, Great Britain,
Juha Kiviluoma
added a research item
Rapidly increasing levels of variable inverter‐based renewable energy sources are quickly changing electric power systems and prompting questions about how the systems will be operated when renewable generation becomes the dominant technologies. In this article, we review the status of this shifting paradigm in power systems throughout the world. We then review the implications of this shift, focusing on the rising challenges, and we provide an overview and technology‐readiness classifications of some proposed mitigation strategies. Finally, we highlight outstanding questions that will require solutions to reach these ultrahigh shares of variable inverter‐based renewable energy sources. Free access to full paper may be available at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/wene.376
Hannele Holttinen
added 5 research items
There are already several power systems coping with large amounts of wind power. Hi h penetration of wind power has impacts that have to be manage through proper plant interconnection, integration, transmission planning, and system and market operations. This report is a summary of case studies addressing concerns about the impact of wind power.s variability and uncertainty on power system reliability and costs. The case studies summarized in this report are not easy to compare due to different methodology and data used, as well as different assumptions on the interconnection capacity available. Integration costs of wind power need to be compared to something, like the production costs or market value of wind power, or integration cost of other production forms. There is also benefit when adding wind power to power systems: it reduces the total operating costs and emissions as wind fossil fuels. Severalissues that impact on the amount of wind power that can be integrated have been identified. Large balancing areas and aggregation benefits of large areas help in reducing the variability and forecast errors of wind power as well as help in pooling more cost effective balancing resources. System operation and working electricity markets at less than day-ahead time scales help reduce forecast errors of wind power. Transmission is the key to aggregation benefits, electricity markets and larger balancing areas. From the investigated studies it follows that at wind penetrations of up to 20 % of gross demand (energy), system operating cost increases arising from wind variability and uncertainty amounted to about 1.4 ./MWh. This is 10 % or less of the wholesale value of the wind energy.
Many wind integration studies have been performed in recent years, with evolving methodologies. Since power systems and data availability vary significantly, the results and methodologies used in these studies have varied accordingly. This paper presents the main findings from the IEA WIND Recommended Practices for Wind Integration studies. An overview of a complete wind integration study is presented as a flow chart. The main simulation steps are presented with recommendations on methodologies: an increase in reserve requirements, estimating impacts on other generation and balancing, capacity value of wind power and transmission expansion due to wind power. The study set-up and the main assumptions are outlined, as they can have a critical impact on the results. The recommendations are applicable for other variable renewable sources, including photovoltaics.
Hannele Holttinen
added 11 research items
This Expert Group Report provides recommendations on how to perform studies of wind and solar PV integration. It is based on more than 10 years of work within the International Energy Agency Wind Technology Collaboration Programme (IEA Wind TCP) Task 25: Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power and the IEA Photovoltaic Power System Programme (PVPS) TCP Task 14: High Penetration of PV Systems in Electricity Grids. The report is issued as an IEA Wind TCP Recommended Practices (RP) document to provide research institutes, consultants, and system operators with the best available information on how to perform an integration study. An integration study seeks to find issues to energy systems, as well as mitigation measures, to absorb certain amounts of generation from wind or solar energy. This is the first update of the recommendations, adding solar photovoltaics (PV) to the previous edition on Recommended Practices for Wind Integration Studies. The update also benefits from comprehensive review of recent integration studies based on real integration experiences and improved integration study methodologies for both wind and photovoltaics. This Expert Group Report describes the methodologies, study assumptions, and inputs needed to conduct a wind and PV integration study. Findings and results from previous wind integration studies are discussed in the summary reports (Holttinen et al. 2009; Holttinen et al 2013; Holttinen et al 2016) and solar integration studies in (PVPS, 2014 and PVPS, 2017). In RP 16, the Task 25 Expert Group developed a flow chart that outlines the phases of a complete wind integration study. In this second edition, the flow chart has been updated through close collaboration between Task 25 and Task 14 experts and is also applied to integration studies for photovoltaics (see Figure 2). The flow chart describes a comprehensive yet flexible process which can be adapted to the specific objectives and requirements of the individual study. It covers aspects ranging from transmission system integration down to the distribution level, which is of particular relevance for solar PV. Conducting a full study is a complicated process, especially taking into account all possible iteration loops. It may not be feasible or necessary for all integration studies to perform each phase included in the flow chart. The flow chart shows these relationships and points out the importance of the study set-up assumptions to results. It also allows reviewers to understand what was completed in any particular study and what was not, providing a context for comparison.
An international forum for exchange of knowledge of power system impacts of wind power has been formed under the IEA Implementing Agreement on Wind Energy. The task "Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power" is analysing existing case studies from different power systems.There are a multitude of studies made and ongoing related to cost of wind integration. However, the results are not easy to compare. This paper summarises the results from 15 case studies. An international forum for exchange of knowledge of power system impacts of wind power has been formed under the IEA Implementing Agreement on Wind Energy. The task "Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power" is analysing existing case studies from different power systems.There are a multitude of studies made and ongoing related to cost of wind integration. However, the results are not easy to compare. This paper summarises the results from 15 case studies.
Hannele Holttinen
added a project goal
This international collaboration was set to find out best methods to assess impacts of wind (and solar) to power (and energy) systems. It is sharing information on integration experience and study results. All publications (and fact sheets, and hourly data) available at https://community.ieawind.org/task25/home
 
Juha Kiviluoma
added 4 research items
A significant number of wind and solar integration studies have been conducted in recent years, and methodologies have evolved steadily. Since power system characteristics and data availability vary significantly, the results and methodologies used in these studies have varied accordingly. This article presents findings from an international collaboration under two IEA Technology Collaboration Programmes (WIND and PVPS) working towards updating Recommended Practices for Wind Integration studies to also include those for solar photovoltaics (PV). An overview of a complete wind and solar integration study is presented as a flow chart. The set-up of a study and the main assumptions can have a large impact on the results, and therefore significant attention must be paid to ensure that these choices conform to international best practices. The main steps in the simulations are presented with recommendations on methodologies for assessing impacts on reserve requirements, on other generation and balancing, capacity value, and increases in transmission capacity.
In the past, power system planning was based on meeting the load duration curve at minimum cost. The increasing share of variable generation (VG) makes operational constraints more important in the planning problem, and there is more and more interest in considering aspects such as sufficient ramping capability, sufficient reserve procurement, power system stability, storage behavior, and the integration of other energy sectors often through demand response assets. In VG integration studies, several methods have been applied to combine the planning and operational timescales. We present a four‐level categorization for the modeling methods, in order of increasing complexity: (1a) investment model only, (1b) operational model only, (2) unidirectionally soft‐linked investment and operational models, (3a) bidirectionally soft‐linked investment and operational models, (3b) operational model with an investment update algorithm, and (4) co‐optimization of investments and operation. The review shows that using a low temporal resolution or only few representative days will not suffice in order to determine the optimal generation portfolio. In addition, considering operational effects proves to be important in order to get a more optimal generation portfolio and more realistic estimations of system costs. However, operational details appear to be less significant than the temporal representation. Furthermore, the benefits and impacts of more advanced modeling techniques on the resulting generation capacity mix significantly depend on the system properties. Thus, the choice of the model should depend on the purpose of the study as well as on system characteristics. This article is categorized under: • Wind Power > Systems and Infrastructure • Energy Systems Analysis > Economics and Policy • Energy Policy and Planning > Economics and Policy
In order to effectively utilize hydro production flexibility, a sufficient amount of transmission capacity has to be available between the hydro‐dominated part of the system and the part that requires operational flexibility. This chapter starts with a rough categorization of “base” hydropower flexibility, investigating the types of hydropower plants installed in power systems today. The “effective” hydropower flexibility available to support the integration of variable generation is a far more complex and case‐specific aspect. It is discussed through national experiences. The chapter presents potential developments that would increase the participation of hydropower and discuss the ensuing challenges. Modeling a flow‐based hydro system is a complex exercise, as is modeling the power system. Especially important is the correct assessment of hydropower flexibility to support power systems with a large share of variable generation (VG) and its value for storage. With increasing uncertainty and variability, a stochastic scheduling approach should yield lower costs.
Ana I. Estanqueiro
added a research item
Due to the stochastic nature of wind and clouds, the integration of wind and PV generation in the power system poses serious challenges to the long-term planning of transmission systems. Grid reinforcements always involve relevant direct costs while the average load factor of the wind and solar PV dedicated transmission lines is usually low. Additionally, in very windy sites, the same high wind resource that produces large amounts of wind generation and may congest the transmission lines transporting it to distant consumption centres may also have a beneficial effect in increasing the transmission capacity of those lines. In fact, the occurrence of wind not only contributes to the loading of the connecting line, but also increases the line capacity, via the convective cooling of the cables-one of the main heat transfer mechanisms in conductor heat balance; in other words, higher winds speeds contribute to faster cooling of conductor and therefore higher conductor's capacity potential. In this paper the existing methodologies to characterize those thermal effects in electrical cables-usually referred as dynamic line rating (DLR)-are applied to several IEA Task 25 countries case studies to characterize the technical value of the dynamic operation of thermally congested lines, as well as its potential economic benefits. “This paper (presentation files/pictures/video/audio) was presented at the 17th Wind Integration Workshop and published in the workshop’s proceedings”
Damian Flynn
added a research item
Grid codes are technical specifications that define the requirements for any facility connected to electricity grids. Wind power plants are increasingly facing system stability support requirements similar to conventional power stations, which is to some extent unavoidable, as the share of wind power in the generation mix is growing. The adaptation process of grid codes for wind power plants is not yet complete, and grid codes are expected to evolve further in the future. ENTSO-E is the umbrella organization for European TSOs, seen by many as a leader in terms of requirements sophistication. A current development by ENTSO-E aims to develop a uniform grid code framework for Europe. The new European codes leave many key aspects unspecified, referring instead to regulation by the relevant TSO, but they do provide a positive and encouraging step in the right direction. The present document is largely based on the definitions and provisions set out by ENTSO-E. The main European grid code requirements are outlined here, including also HVDC connections and DC-connected power park modules. The focus is on requirements that are considered particularly relevant for large wind power plants. Afterwards, an outlook and discussion on possible future requirements is provided. This review has been written by members of IEA Wind Task 25, but it does not represent an official viewpoint of the IEA. This article is categorized under:
Ana I. Estanqueiro
added a research item
There are dozens of studies made and ongoing related to wind integration. However, the results are not easy to compare. IEA WIND R&D Task 25 on ‘Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power’ collects and shares information on wind generation impacts on power systems, with analyses and guidelines on methodologies. In the state-of-the-art report (October, 2007), and the final report of the 3 years period (July, 2009) the most relevant wind power grid integration studies have been analysed especially regarding methodologies and input data. Several issues that impact on the amount of wind power that can be integrated have been identified. Large balancing areas and aggregation benefits of wide areas help in reducing the variability and forecast errors of wind power as well as help in pooling more cost effective balancing resources. System operation and functioning electricity markets at less than day-ahead time scales help reduce forecast errors of wind power. Transmission is the key to aggregation benefits, electricity markets and larger balancing areas. Best practices in wind integration studies are described. There is also benefit when adding wind power to power systems: it reduces the total operating costs and emissions as wind replaces fossil fuels and this should be highlighted more in future studies. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ana I. Estanqueiro
added a research item
This paper provides an overview of major transmission planning activities related to wind integration studies in the United States and Europe. Transmission planning for energy resources is different from planning for capacity resources. Those differences are explained, and illustrated with examples from several regions of the United States and Europe. Transmission planning for wind is becoming an iterative process consisting of generation expansion planning, economic-based transmission planning, system reliability analysis, and wind integration studies. A brief look at the policy environment in which this activity is taking place is provided. A set of coherent and collaborative transmission planning, siting, and permitting policies and cost allocation method must be developed to achieve the intended objectives. The scale of transmission development envisioned for this purpose will require unprecedented cooperation across multiple jurisdictional boundaries.
Ana I. Estanqueiro
added a research item
The question of wind integration cost has received much attention in the past several years. The methodological challenges to calculating integration costs are discussed in this paper. There are other sources of integration cost unrelated to wind energy. A performance-based approach would be technology-neutral, and would provide price signals for all technology types. However, it is difficult to formulate such approach. Already determining what is and is not an integration cost is challenging. Another problem is allocation of system costs to one source. Because of significant non-linearities this can prove to be impossible to make in an accurate way.
Ana I. Estanqueiro
added a research item
Hydro power is one of the most flexible sources of electricity production. Power systems with considerable amounts of flexible hydro power potentially offer easier integration of variable generation, e.g. wind and solar. However, there exist operational constraints to ensure mid/long term security of supply while keeping river flows and reservoirs levels within permitted limits. In order to properly assess the effective available hydro power flexibility and its value for storage, detailed assessment of hydro power is essential. Due to the inherent uncertainty of the weather dependent hydrological cycle, regulation constraints on the hydro system, and uncertainty of internal load as well as variable generation (wind and solar), this assessment is complex. Hence, it requires proper modelling of all the underlying interactions between hydro power and the power system with large share of other variable renewables. Summary of existing experience of wind integration in hydro dominated power systems clearly points to strict simulation methodologies. Recommendations include requirements for techno-economic models to correctly assess strategies for hydro power and pumped storage dispatch. These models are based not only on seasonal water inflow variations, but also on variable generation, and all these are in time horizons from very short term up to multiple years depending on the studied system. Another important recommendation is to include geographically detailed description of hydro power systems, rivers flows, reservoirs as well as grid topology and congestion
Antje Orths
added 5 research items
This Expert Group Report provides recommendations based on more than 8 years of work within International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Task 25 Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power. The report is issued as an IEA Wind Recommended Practices document to provide research institutes, consultants, and system operators with the best available information on how to perform a wind integration study. The recommendations will be updated as further work in IEA Wind Task 25 reveals improved integration study methodologies based on real wind integration experiences. This Expert Group Report describes the methodologies, study assumptions, and inputs needed to conduct a wind integration study. Findings and results from previous wind integration studies are discussed in the two summary reports (Holttinen et al. 2009; and 2013). The Task 25 Expert Group developed a flow chart that outlines the phases of a complete wind integration study. The flow chart could also direct integration studies for other variable renewables, such as photovoltaics.
IEA WIND R&D Task 25 on “Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power” collects and shares information on wind generation impacts on power systems, with analyses and guidelines on methodologies. This paper sumarizes the main results from the report published on January 2013 describing the experience of wind integration as well as the most relevant wind power grid integration studies in the 15 participating countries. The studies build on the already significant experience in integrating wind power in power systems addressing concerns about the impact of wind power’s variability and uncertainty on power system security of supply and costs as well as grid reinforcement needs. There is. The mitigation of wind power impacts include more flexible operational methods, incentivising flexibility in other generating plants, increasing interconnection to neighbouring regions, and application of demand-side flexibility. Electricity storage is still not as cost effective in larger power systems as other means of flexibility, but is already seeing initial applications in places with limited transmission.
Ana I. Estanqueiro
added 5 research items
High penetration of wind power has impacts that have to be managed through proper plant interconnection, integration, transmission planning, and system and market operations. This report is a summary of case studies addressing concerns about the impact of wind power’s variability and uncertainty on power system reliability and costs. The case studies summarized in this report are not easy to compare due to different methodology and data used, as well as different assumptions on the interconnection capacity available. Integration costs of wind power need to be compared to something, like the production costs or market value of wind power, or integration cost of other production forms. There is also benefit when adding wind power to power systems: it reduces the total operating costs and emissions as wind replaces fossil fuels. Several issues that impact on the amount of wind power that can be integrated have been identified. Large balancing areas and aggregation benefits of large areas help in reducing the variability and forecast errors of wind power as well as help in pooling more cost effective balancing resources. System operation and working electricity markets at less than day-ahead time scales help reduce forecast errors of wind power. Transmission is the key to aggregation benefits, electricity markets and larger balancing areas. From the investigated studies it follows that at wind penetrations of up to 20% of gross demand (energy), system operating cost increases arising from wind variability and uncertainty amounted to about 1–4 €/MWh. This is 10% or less of the wholesale value of the wind energy. With current technology, wind power plants can be designed to meet industry expectations such as riding through voltage dips, supplying reactive power to the system, controlling terminal voltage, and participating in system operation with output and ramp rate control. The cost of grid reinforcements due to wind power is very dependent on where the wind power plants are located relative to load and grid infrastructure. The grid reinforcement costs from studies in this report vary from 50 €/kW to 160 €/kW. The costs are not continuous; there can be single very high cost reinforcements, and there can also be differences in how the costs are allocated to wind power. Wind generation will also provide some additional load carrying capability to meet forecasted increases in system demand. This contribution can be up to 40% of installed capacity if wind power production at times of high load is high, and down to 5% in higher penetrations and if local wind characteristics correlate negatively with the system load profile. Aggregating larger areas benefits the capacity credit of wind power. State-of-the-art best practices so far include (i) capturing the smoothed out variability of wind power production time series for the geographic diversity assumed and utilising wind forecasting best practice for the uncertainty of wind power production (ii) examining wind variation in combination with load variations, coupled with actual historic utility load and load forecasts (iii) capturing system characteristics and response through operational simulations and modelling and (iv) examining actual costs independent of tariff design structure.
In this paper, a wind park dynamic model is presented together with a base methodology for its application to power system studies. This detailed wind generation model addresses the wind turbine components and phenomena more relevant to characterize the power quality of a grid connected wind park, as well as the wind park response to the grid fast perturbations, e.g., low voltage ride through fault. The developed model was applied to the operating conditions of the selected sets of wind turbine experimental benchmark data from Azores and Alsvik wind parks, both for steady and transient operation of the grid. The results show a fairly good agreement in the relevant range of frequencies and indicate the model may be used as a tool for power system studies.
Ana I. Estanqueiro
added 3 research items
In this paper, the impact of the wind time variability and the spatial smoothing effect in mountainous complex terrains, usually taken as 1/sqrt(N) for fast fluctuations, is studied. The dimension of the regions, the type of electrical clustering of large numbers of wind turbines and the local meteorological effects are addressed and conclusions drawn on selected experimental case studies.
Hannele Holttinen
added an update
Task 25 will have a public workshop hosted by SEAI in conjuction of our next meeting in Dublin. See below agenda and link to registration (the workshop is currently already fully booked for the room initially booked, the registration will open again once a larger room is available).
Friday 10th March O’Callaghan Alexander Hotel, Fenian St. Dublin 2
8:30 Registration, Tea and Coffee 9:00 Welcome and Introduction TBC, Eirgrid “Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power” 9:15 Introduction to IEA Wind Task 25 – summary of national integration studies Hannele Holttinen, VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland. (Operating Agent, IEA Wind R,D&D Task 25)
Session 1: Energy Systems Integration Studies Chair: Hannele Holttinen 9:40 Energy Systems Integration and its role in Integration of Variable Renewable Energy Mark O’Malley, UCD, Ireland 10:00 Present and future flexibility of the Danish power and energy system Peter Börre Eriksen, Energinet.dk 10:20 The Trend Towards Increasing Electrification of Energy Systems Andrej Guminski, FFE, Germany 10:40 ESRI Presentation Speaker TBC 11:00 Panel Q & A 11:20 Break
Session 2: Power System/Ancilliary Service Studies Chair: John Mc Cann, SEAI (Vice-Chair, IEA Wind RD&D) 11:40 Provision of Control Power with Wind and PV - First results of a German field test Jan Dobschinski, Fraunhofer IWES, Germany 12:00 ENTSO-E Ten Year Network Development Plan 2016 Antje Orths, Energinet.dk, Denmark 12.20 Results of the NREL ERGIS and Recent US Studies Charlton Clark, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, U.S.A. 12:40 Beyond DS3 Jonathan O’Sullivan, Eirgrid, Ireland 13.00 Panel Q & A 13.20 Lunch
 
Ana I. Estanqueiro
added 2 research items
Increasing the penetration of wind energy for high levels, typically near 20% on an annual basis, requires an articulated common effort of the TSOs, regulatory official agencies and wind park developers to use and require the most recent and high performing wind and power system technologies in order to guarantee the overall power quality and security of supply, and thus enabling to maximize the wind and other renewables embedded capacity. The main concepts that need to be addressed in the near future are: · real-time assessment of transmission capacity. · use of DGS as grid active voltage controllers; · coordination of ancillary services on a European scale; · integration of balancing markets and coordination of reserves within EU grids/control areas; · implementation of solutions to allow for efficient and robust system operation with significant amounts of highly variable generation and storage; · full deployment of the VRPP ­ Virtual Renewable Power Plants Concept; · use of DSM ­ Demand side management for system added flexibility; · Fuel Cells/hydrogen generation for regulation of highly variable renewable sources; · Inclusion of plug-in vehicles as distribution storage units in the distribution network planning; so as to become feasible the management of the power systems while preserving the global quality characteristics and security of operation under a 20% penetration of sources of electrical energy as variable as the wind.
Damian Flynn
added 14 research items
With increasing penetrations of wind generation, based on power-electronic converters, power systems are transitioning away from well-understood synchronous generator-based systems, with growing implications for their stability. Issues of concern will vary with system size, wind penetration level, geographical distribution and turbine type, network topology, electricity market structure, unit commitment procedures, and other factors. However, variable-speed wind turbines, both onshore and connected offshore through DC grids, offer many control opportunities to either replace or enhance existing capabilities. Achieving a complete understanding of future stability issues, and ensuring the effectiveness of new measures and policies, is an iterative procedure involving portfolio development and flexibility assessment, generation cost simulations, load flow, and security analysis, in addition to the stability analysis itself, while being supported by field demonstrations and real-world model validation.
Power systems with high wind penetration experience increased variability and uncertainty, such that determination of the required additional operating reserve is attracting a significant amount of attention and research. This paper presents methods used in recent wind integration analyses and operating practice, with key results that compare different methods or data. Wind integration analysis over the past several years has shown that wind variability need not be seen as a contingency event. The impact of wind will be seen in the reserves for nonevent operation (normal operation dealing with deviations from schedules). Wind power will also result in some events of larger variability and large forecast errors that could be categorized as slow events. The level of operating reserve that is induced by wind is not constant during all hours of the year, so that dynamic allocation of reserves will reduce the amount of reserves needed in the system for most hours. The paper concludes with recent emerging trends.
High penetrations of wind and solar generation on power systems are resulting in increasing curtailment. Wind and solar integration studies also predict increased curtailment as penetration levels grow. This paper examines experiences with curtailment on the bulk power system in countries around the world. It discusses how much curtailment is occurring, how it is occurring, why it is occurring and what is being done to reduce curtailment. This summary is produced as part of the International Energy Agency Wind Task 25 on Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power.
Ana I. Estanqueiro
added 4 research items
Large scale wind power production and its variability is one of the major inputs to wind integration studies. This paper analyses measured data from large scale wind power production. Comparisons of variability are made across several variables: time scale (10-60 minute ramp rates), number of wind farms, and simulated vs. modeled data. Ramp rates for Wind power production, Load (total system load) and Net load (load minus wind power production) demonstrate how wind power increases the net load variability. Wind power will also change the timing of daily ramps.
Interannual variability of the average wind speed is the main factor for erroneous annual wind park production estimates and therefore can cause serious economical problems to wind park promoters from lower income than expected. In this study, the magnitude of interannual variability of the average wind speed is assessed in Europe, based on data sets from NCEP Reanalysis II. The areas with the highest values of interannual variability are identified and both average and maximum expected deviations are given as a function of the length of the monitoring period.
TTHE POWER SYSTEMS IN DENMARK, PORTUGAL, Spain, Ireland, and Germany have some of the highest wind penetrations in the world, as shown in Table 1. The management of the different power systems to date, with increasing amounts of wind energy, has been successful. There have been no reported incidents in which wind has directly or indirectly been a major factor causing operational problems on the system. In some areas with high wind penetration, however, the transmission system operator (TSO) had to increase remedial actions signifi cantly in order to decrease the loading of system assets during times of high wind power infeed. In some areas, the risk of faults may have increased. Higher targets for wind power will mean even higher penetration levels locally and high penetration levels in larger power systems. There are a number of issues that will require active management in the near future; in some cases, such management is needed today. In this article, the situations of fi ve countries with high wind penetration are briefl y presented, with special emphasis given to their future needs with respect to accommodating targeted wind power amounts. The fi nal section provides an overview of offshore grid developments and plans in Europe.