added a research item
En este capítulo se describe el diseño, manejo y la gestión de una base de datos radiométrica centrada en el estudio del Mesolítico y el Neolítico de la península Ibérica. Las investigaciones sobre el proceso de neolitización en el arco mediterráneo peninsular desarrolladas desde el Departament de Prehistòria, Arqueologia i Història Antiga (Universitat de València) constituyen el origen de la misma, que ha ido completándose a través de diferentes trabajos.
The main goal of this paper is to explore possible cultural continuities and discontinuities at the Neolithic transition in Eastern Iberia. To address this issue, we introduce a twofold methodology, consisting of Geometric Morphometrics and the use of the self-developed Geomeasure system, to examine evolutionary patterns in geometric microliths. These are a specific type of arrowhead shared by both the last hunter-gatherers and the first farmers from two reference sites in the region: Cueva de la Cocina and Cova de l'Or (Eastern Iberia). Although advances in research have contributed to a better comprehension of this process, there are still unanswered questions, especially when the study is approached from a regional perspective. Such is the case for the Neolithisation of the Eastern Iberian Peninsula, and the way in which the previous Mesolithic population interacted-if they interacted at all-with the first farmers. In this case, some sites present archaeological contexts that have been catalogued as acculturation contexts. This has traditionally been the case for phase C of Cueva de la Cocina (Spain), although recent research points to the possibility that the content of this specific deposit is the result of post-depositional processes. Here we try first to understand the cultural evolutionary patterns and relations between the different geometric microlith technocomplexes and, second, to address the specific problem of the interpretation of taphonomic disturbances in the archaeological record. We use the Cueva de l'Or and the Cueva de la Cocina for comparison, and our conclusions raise serious doubts about the existence of an acculturation phase at the latter.
While technological innovation is one of the main traits defining the Neolithic spread, it has often been associated to farming and agriculture. However, innovation can be expressed in many ways, from the introduction of new tools serving specific purposes to the modification of the pre-existing ones, where this modification could be responding both to functional innovations or to stylistic adaptations following cultural transmission drifts. Focusing on the transition to farming in the Iberian Peninsula, geometric microliths can constitute a perfect example of how material culture can evolve through space and time, developing diachronic and/or regional patterns. Asides from their changes in shape, with the Neolithization we observe an increasing variety of the retouch types affecting the geometric microliths. If direct abrupt retouch clearly dominates the Mesolithic assemblages, with the adoption of farming we can observe different types of retouch, such as inverse retouch, low angle retouch or double bevel retouch spreading through the lithic assemblages. Nevertheless, the chronological gaps and the problems affecting many of the assemblages ranging within the chronologies of the transitional moments have up to now made difficult to settle a debate where the cultural identity of this diversification of retouch could belong to the Late Mesolithic groups, or to the Early Neolithic ones. In this present communication we use phylogeographic methods in order to test different hypothesis of the spread of the aforementioned spread of types of retouch, focusing on the double bevel retouch. By doing this, we try to achieve a better perspective of the cultural implications of the diversification of retouch types, and what could this diversification be trying to tell us regarding cultural affiliation.
Tracing hunter-gatherer's mobility has been a recurring topic both in anthropological and archaeological literature. Following Binford's approach (1980), ethnographic comparisons have been brought out in order to better understand mobility patterns among Palaeolithic and Mesolithic groups, and how they relate with their environment, thus formulating a system where a main difference in mobility structure is pronounced on the distinction between residential and logistical camps. After some efforts made in order to relate the lithic record with such model (Clark and Barton, 2017), in this work we explore how lithic industry can be a reliable proxy for understanding the mobility patterns of the last hunter-gatherers of the Eastern Iberian Peninsula by studying a number of Late Mesolithic lithic collections. We try to bring a new insight into Clark and Barton's analysis, both by combining different sites -implementing geographical variability- and by taking into account functionality and its possible statistical traces, as shown by blades, bladelets and geometric microliths. We focus on the differences found at each site and how they relate with lithic industry in order to test hypotheses regarding mobility patterns.
This paper presents Geomeasure, a methodological tool developed to recover typometric information with a twofold objective. First, to speed up the process of gathering data by automatizing the way in which it is recovered. Second, it adds higher accuracy and the possibility of re-measuring archeological items without further directly interacting with the piece. Based on a combination of R scripting with GIS features, Geomeasure is at the time able to automatically gather 125–130 typometric variables per archaeological item, with the only input of vectorized photographs. It can be used as a reliable methodological aid to extract detailed information on patterns and trends of shape variability. The system has currently been applied over a sample of 2,000+ geometric microliths in the Eastern Iberian Peninsula. The performance results of its application are on display, and the system is compared to other methodological approaches currently in use for capturing shape variability.
We assembled genome-wide data from 271 ancient Iberians, of whom 176 are from the largely unsampled period after 2000 BCE, thereby providing a high-resolution time transect of the Iberian Peninsula.We document high genetic substructure between northwestern and southeastern hunter-gatherers before the spread of farming.We reveal sporadic contacts between Iberia and North Africa by ~2500 BCE and, by ~2000 BCE, the replacement of 40% of Iberia’s ancestry and nearly 100% of its Y-chromosomes by people with Steppe ancestry.We show that, in the Iron Age, Steppe ancestry had spread not only into Indo-European–speaking regions but also into non-Indo-European–speaking ones, and we reveal that present-day Basques are best described as a typical Iron Age population without the admixture events that later affected the rest of Iberia. Additionally,we document how, beginning at least in the Roman period, the ancestry of the peninsula was transformed by gene flow from North Africa and the eastern Mediterranean.
Las comarcas centro-meridionales del País Valenciano y sus cuencas fluviales constituyen áreas con documentación excelente de la Prehistoria Reciente, gracias al interés continuado de la investigación desde el s. XIX hasta hoy. En este trabajo, presentamos un análisis combinado de series de fechas C14 junto con datos relativos al poblamiento, para comprender mejor la dinámica local desde el Mesolítico a la Edad de Bronce.
Among the objectives addressed in the framework of the projects HAR2012-33111 MESOCOCINA and HAR2015-68962 EVOLPAST are the evaluation of the socio-ecological dynamics along the broad Mesolithic sequence, as well as the analysis of the neolithisation process in a framework designed for obtaining and studying precise archaeological records. The interpretation of the Cueva de la Cocina sequence constitutes one of the axes of action, nurtured both from the new field investigations and the analysis of previous interventions. In this new framework, the preliminary results that we present from the intervention carried out in the test-pit 4 during the summer of 2018.
When trying to understand the Neolithic transition in the Western Mediterranean, Cocina Cave (Dos Aguas, Valencia, Eastern Iberia) outstands as a key landmark for many reasons. We count its archaeological record as one of the most significant in southwestern Europe. Not only are its lithic and faunal records counted by the thousands, but they also hold key aspects in order to make us better comprehend the Late Mesolithic in this particular geographic zone. For instance, at the cave have been recovered more than 2.000 geometric microliths, one of the largest collections in Europe, spanning all the way from the Geometric Mesolithic (Mesolithic with blades and Trapezes in a Castelnovian tradition) to the Early Neolithic. In addition, paleo-economical remains include thousands of faunal remains, terrestrial and marine malacological record, that allow us to investigate socioecological dynamics in a diachronic view encompassing mainly Mesolithic levels. Interestingly, a singular and unique collection of engraved plaquettes with lineal motifs conforms a singular episode embedded within the rich ideotechnic Holocene sequence of the Mediterranean region of Iberia. The site was first excavated by Lluís Pericot, who deployed four campaigns during the first half of the XXth century (1941, 1942, 1943, 1945). Later, it was the professor Javier Fortea who decided to intervene in the site, with a series of continuous campaigns, lasting from 1974 to 1981. In spite of this work, a comprehensive study of the cave has never been published. Currently an international team of the University of Valencia and the Pennsylvania State University has been working at the site in two different directions. On the one hand, a series of interventions (2015-2018) is being developed in order to acquire methodologically updated high-resolution data. On the other hand, all of the information offered by previous excavations is being analysed. By integrating all of this data into a 3D virtual environment, and, even more, into a consistent research proposal, we try to bring some light regarding the last hunter-gatherers dynamics, and the transition to farming in Eastern Iberia.
La caracterización efectuada en su día por J.Fortea (1973) del denomínado Epipaleolítico Geométrico de "facies Cocína", adscrito a la tradición "tardenoide",va unida al excepcional registro arqueo- lógico recuperado en el yacimiento epónimo de Cue- va de la Cocina, amplia cavidad de 20*15 m situada a 405 msnm, en las últimas estribaciones montañosas de la sierra del Caballón, entre el río Júcar y la llanura litoral valenciana. La cueva se localiza en un valle de difícil acceso (La Canal), en la base actual del barran- co de la Ventana, cuyo cauce forma parte del drenaje de este vallea través de una salida vertical hacia el ba- rranco Jalón. Un rico conjunto litieo donde destaca el número de armaduras de formas geométricas (cerca de dos millares), un centenar de piezas de arte mue- ble compuestas por plaquetas con grabados y restos de pintura (arte Líneal geométrico), así como una serie de motivos píntados en una de las pare- des de la cueva (interpretados por L. Pericot (1945) como pertenecientes al arte Levantíno y por J. Fortea  al arte Líneal geométrico), han acaparado la atención sobre una secuencia arqueológica clave para entender las dínámicas socioecológicas de los últimos caza-recolectores y las primeras sociedades agrícolas y ganaderas en el Mediterráneo occidental.
The characterization carried out at the time by J.Fortea (1973) of the so-called Geometric Epipaleolithic of "facies Cocína", ascribed to the "tardenoid" tradition, is linked to the exceptional archaeological record recovered in the eponymous site of Cueva de la Cocina, a wide cavity of 20 by 15 m located at 405 meters above sea level, in the foothills of the Caballón mountain range, between the Júcar river and the Valencian coastal plain. The cave is located in a difficult to access valley (La Canal), in the Ventana ravine, whose channel is part of the drainage of this valley through a vertical outlet to the Jalón ravine. A rich lithic record where the number geometric projectiles stands out (about two thousand), a hundred pieces of movable art made up of plaquettes with engravings (geometric line art), as well as a series of motifs painted on one of the walls of the cave (interpreted by L. Pericot (1945) as belonging to the Levantine style and by J. Fortea  to the geometric Linear one, have focused the attention on a key archaeological sequence to understand the socioecological dynamics of the last hunter-gatherers and the first agricultural and livestock societies in the western Mediterranean.
Cocina Cave was excavated for the first time by Lluís Pericot during the 1940s of the XX century. Due to the archaeological methodology followed at the time, some problems may arise for the sake of today's needed accuracy. The main goals of the team of the University of Valencia currently working at the site are not just providing a more detailed recently excavated stratigraphic frame, but also to better understand how human and taphonomic processes are reflected in old excavations. By using some new methodologies, such as virtual 3D reconstruction, we have been able to figure out how some natural processes are deployed through Pericot's deposit. By observing the XYZ distribution of different types of snails –some of which belong to fresh-water habitats and others to terrestrial habitats– through the stratigraphic record we have been able to identify flood episodes affecting the stratigraphy of the site. A logical next step is to proceed to the XYZ distribution of anthropological material (i.e. lithic industry). In this present communication we would like to present the results of the comparison between the afore mentioned natural deposition processes and human deposition rates, all this embedded into a chronological framework refined through a bayesian approach. This comparison will be deployed not only from an XY point of view, but also from a Z point of view. Analytical statistics will be implemented in order to better understand the record. Our goal is to find out what (or how much) influence have natural processes had in the construction of the archaeological assemblage. Also, one of our main objectives is seeing how human distribution rates behave regarding the understanding of our archaeological record, so that we can check if a more accurate layer discrimination –and, therefore, a better understanding of the dynamics of the cave– is possible.
We applied taphonomic analysis combined with geostatistical approaches to investigate the hypothesis that Cocina cave (Eastern Iberia) represents an acculturation context for the appearance of Neolithic Cardial pottery. In the 1970s, Fortea suggested that this important site was a prime example of acculturation because of the presence of early Neolithic pottery in late Mesolithic contexts. Since that time Cocina cave has been heralded as an example of indigenous hunter-gatherers incorporating Neolithic cultural elements into their lifeways. We analyzed the area excavated by Fortea in the 1970s by digitizing archaeological records and testing the spatial distribution of artifacts using geostatistical analysis and high-resolution AMS radiocarbon dating. We contextualized the findings by discussing key issues of archaeological depositions with the goal to better understand the palimpsest that usually occur in prehistoric sequences. Our analysis indicates that the mixture of Mesolithic and Neolithic materials resulted from taphonomic processes rather than acculturation.
Durante el otoño de 2017, entre los meses de septiembre y octubre, se ha llevado a cabo la segunda campaña de prospección en el territorio circundante a Cueva de la Co cina (Dos Aguas, València) en el marco del proyecto de investigación HAR2015-68962 EVOLPAST: dinámicas evolutivas y patrones de variabilidad cultural de los últimos cazadores-recolectores y el primer Neolítico en el Este peninsular, 7000-4500 cal BC . Los trabajos han estado guiados por los resultados obtenidos durante la primera campaña, focalizada en el área de La Canal de Dos Aguas (Pardo-Gordó et al . 2016), donde pudimos constatar, junto a diferentes áreas de abastecimiento de materia prima, algunas concentraciones de materiales líticos tallados. Dicha actuación ha permitido aportar información sobre una de las potenciales áreas de abastecimiento de sílex en las inmediaciones de Cueva de la Cocina. La segunda campaña de prospección se ha centrado en el valle del Magre, y más en concreto en su parte media (fig. 1). En esta área el río forma diferentes meandros encajonados entre llanuras aluviales explotadas para prácticas hortícolas (naranjos y caquis). Diferentes lomas acondicionadas en gran medida para uso agrícola (cultivos de secano) jalonan este territorio surcado por numerosos barrancos. Los primeros trabajos arqueológicos en el valle del Magre se remontan a finales del s. XIX de la mano de Vilanova i Piera quien, a propósito de los túmulos valencianos , hace referencia al yacimiento de la Falaguera de Alfarb (1871) y la Cova de l’Avellanera (1893). No obstante, será a partir de la década de 1970 cuando se llevarán a cabo diferentes actuaciones arqueológicas que permitieron la localización de numerosos asentamientos arqueológicos de diferente cronología (Martínez 1984; Martí y De Pedro 1999; Albiach 2013), incluyendo algunas manifestaciones de arte rupestre (López Montalvo et al. 2001).
Resumen. Este capítulo tiene como objetivo la comprensión de la estratigrafía en Cueva de la Cocina, y más en concreto de las intervenciones realizadas por Pericot en el año 1941 y 1945. Para ello se hará uso del conjunto de dataciones radiocarbónicas disponibles para dichas intervenciones sobre las que se elaborarán diferentes modelos cronológicos a partir de la estadística bayesiana. Finalmente sobre los resultados de la modelización cronológica se discierne en torno a la ocupación mesolítica de la cueva a lo largo del Mesolítico reciente (entidad arqueológica conocida como Mesolítico geométrico), haciendo hincapié en las diferentes fases culturales (Geométrico A y B) y sus rangos cronológicos. Bayesian Chronology aplied to Lluís Pericots interventions in the Cueva de la Cocina (1941-1945) Abstract. This chapter aims to understand the stratigraphy in Cueva de la Cocina, and more specifically the interventions made by Pericot in 1941 and 1945. To do this, we will use the set of radiocarbon dating available for these interventions on which different chronological models will be elaborated using Bayesian statistics. Finally, on the results of the chronological modeling, the Mesolithic occupation of the cave along the recent Mesolithic (archaeological entity known as Geological Mesolithic) is emphasized, highlighting the different cultural phases (Geometric A and B) and their chronological ranges. 1 Introducción El trabajo que presentamos a continuación tiene como objetivo describir los resultados de la aplicación de la estadística bayesiana para la elaboración de modelos cronológicos de la secuencia exhumada en el yacimiento prehistórico de Cueva de la Cocina (Dos Aguas, Valencia). La estratigrafía del lugar ofrece un amplio recorrido desde el Horizonte Mesolítico Final (Mesolítico Geométrico), y ocupaciones posteriores entre el Neolítico Antiguo y la Edad del Bronce, tal como en su día describiera Pericot [Per45], y más recientemente Fortea [For73, 75, 87). La propuesta cronológica que ofrecemos se enmarca en el proyecto de estudio integral del yacimiento, cuyo eje de actuación gira en torno a la investigación sobre el proceso de neolitización en el este peninsular (Proyectos HAR2012-33111 "MESO COCINA: los últimos caza-recolectores y el paradigma de la neolitización en el mediterráneo occidental" y HAR2015-68962 P (MINECO/FEDER) "EVOLPAST: Dinámicas evolutivas y patrones de variabilidad cultural de los últimos caza-recolectores y el primer neolítico en el este peninsular (circa 7000-4500 cal BC)". El trabajo en curso incluye la revisión de las excavaciones de Pericot (años 40) y Fortea (años 70), junto a la realización de un nuevo proyecto de intervención arqueológica con el fin de obtener datos relevantes para el estudio de esta interesante secuencia prehistórica [Gar15, 16, 17]. En la actualidad se ha avanzado en la propuesta de la lectura de la estratigrafía mediante la aplicación de la tecnología 3D (García-Puchol et al., 2015, 2016) y de un ambicioso proyecto radiométrico diseñado a partir de los principios de máximo rigor en la selección de las muestras y del análisis de la información referida a la secuencia [Gar17], teniendo en cuenta la diferente resolución de los datos obtenidos en las distintas intervenciones practicadas. Del mismo modo el proyecto incluye el estudio del territorio inmediato para la comprensión de las dinámicas socio-ecológicas a través del tiempo [Par16]. El yacimiento se encuadra en el término municipal de Dos Aguas (València), en el paraje de la Canal (Fig. 1), suave cubeta mal drenada donde se acumulan numerosos depósitos terra-rosa [Fum86]. Este paisaje está jalonado por elevaciones de altura variable enmarcadas dentro del Sistema Ibérico, delimitado al Norte y el Este por la llanura litoral del Golfo de Valencia, y al Sur por la salida al mar del río Xúquer. La Cueva se localiza a 400 metros de altura en un meandro
In landscapes intensely modified by agricultural terraces and other modern land uses, the spatio-temporal pattern of prehistoric settlement can be difficult to detect using traditional surveying methods oriented to the location of singular sites. Agricultural terraces are the norm, so it is necessary to examine the landscape as a whole, instead of trying to locate specific areas of prehistoric anthropic activity. To overcome these challenges, a stratified strategy has been employed, randomly selecting the prospecting plots, to examine the socio-ecological dynamics since the Upper Pleistocene to the Atlantic period, with special attention to the Holocene moments that are key to understanding the neolithization process. The study area was divided into prospecting sectors according to the geomorphological and vegetational differences and from there in each of the sectors a series of plots was explored. The density of surface findings was used to generate prehistoric chronologies of occupation of the territory through Bayesian methods. The regional reference collections of well-dated lithic artifacts provide the "prior knowledge" required to make estimates of the probability of using the area throughout prehistory. All the data obtained are digitally recorded using electronic tablets in the field, thanks to a simplified data management plan in which the observations of artifacts, soils, soil visibility and photographs are georeferenced and prepared for further analysis in a GIS platform. The main objective of the survey in La Canal de Navarrés is to approach the way in which prehistoric communities have interacted with the environment from the Middle Paleolithic to the end of Prehistory. It is these socioecological aspects that are especially relevant to understand the response of communities to local changes.
We present the design and development of the 3D virtualization of the excavations in Cueva de la Cocina (Dos Aguas, Valencia) within the framework of a research project whose objective is to approach the socio-ecological dynamics of the last hunter-gatherers and the first Neolithic based on the interesting sequence provided by this site. The project contemplates the design of a program that integrates the archaeological information of the different interventions carried out at the site in a 3D environment. The results offered correspond to the reconstruction of the campaigns carried out by Pericot in the decade of the 1940s (campaigns 1941, 1942, 1943 and 1945). In this way, and in parallel, the task has been structured in a series of phases that include on one side the classification and analysis of artifacts and ecofacts, the 3D reconstruction of the stratigraphy of the excavations based on the information available in the field notes, and the implementation of a radiometric program designed according to the criteria of Bayesian modeling. The volumes have been built using the R softwar , Paraview, Open JUMP and Meshlab. The minimum spatial units correspond to the layers and sectors of the Pericot interventions, within which the densities of findings have been generated by means of a random procedure. The spatial relationships of the materials (concentrations and dispersions of them) together with Pericot's indications has allowed us to propose a correlation between the different sectors excavated that can be contrasted with the radiometric framework available. The result becomes a 3D work environment that offers great versatility when it comes to exploring, analyzing and interpreting, attending to the resolution of the data handled, the archaeological sequence of the site.
Abstract Cocina cave provides one of the better stratigraphic sequences of the “Geometric Epipaleolithic” since Javier Fortea published their analysis of the Mediterranean Epipaleolithic in Iberia using data from the first works in the site conducted by Luís Pericot in the 40s. In the 70s Javier Fortea excavated in the cave during several campaigns although only some notes have been published so far. Information on the shell remains is limited, refering only the presence of 11 remains corresponding to five marine species and 12 remains related to five continental species. In this paper we present the analysis of the shell assemblage found in the campaing conducted in 1941 and studied now in the framework of the project HAR2012 33111 “Meso Cocina: Los últimos caza-recolectores y el paradigma de la neolitización en el Mediterráneo peninsular”. Two taphonomic groups have been recognised in the studied assemblage, one of a bromatological type and mainly composed by Cerastoderma glaucum, and other ornamental that includes Columbella rustica, Glycymeris sp., Nassarius reticulatus y Pecten sp. Keywords: Mesolithic, Valencia Region, marine molluscs, diet, ornament. Resumen La cueva de la Cocina ofrece una de las secuencias más conocidas del “Epipaleolítico Geométrico” desde que Javier Fortea publicó su análisis del Epipaleolítico mediterráneo en la Península Ibérica a partir de los primeros trabajos en el yacimiento dirigidos por Luís Pericot en los años 40. En los años 70 Javier Fortea excavó en la cavidad durante varias campañas, aunque hasta el momento sólo se han publicado algunas notas. Las referencias a la malacofauna se limitan a una nota de M. Vidal de 1945 en la que menciona la presencia de once restos de cinco especies marinas y doce restos de cinco especies continentales. En el presente artículo se estudia la malacofauna marina de la campaña de 1941, centrándonos en los sectores donde se observa mayor fiabilidad estratigráfica en base a la revisión de la totalidad de materiales que estamos llevando a cabo dentro del proyecto HAR2012 33111 “Meso Cocina: Los últimos caza-recolectores y el paradigma de la neolitización en el Mediterráneo peninsular”. En el conjunto analizado se observan dos grupos tafonómicos, uno de carácter bromatológico con Cerastoderma glaucum y otro de carácter ornamental con Columbella rustica, Glycymeris sp., Nassarius reticulatus y, posiblemente, Pecten sp. Palabras clave: Mesolítico, País Valenciano, malacofauna marina, dieta, adorno.
In this paper, we compile recent ¹⁴ C dates related to the Neolithic transition in Mediterranean Iberia and present a Bayesian chronological approach for testing the dual model , a mixed model proposed to explain the spread of farming and husbandry processes in eastern Iberia. The dual model postulates the coexistence of agricultural pioneers and indigenous Mesolithic foraging groups in the Middle Holocene. We test this general model with more regional models of four geographical areas (Northeast, Upper, and Middle Ebro Valley, and Eastern and South/Southeastern regions) and present a filtered summed probability of all ¹⁴ C dates known in the region in order to compare socioecological dynamics over a long period. Finally, we discuss the results and analyze how certain specific characteristics of sites and their chronologies can serve for timing the Neolithic expansion in Mediterranean Iberia.
Tras la revisión de los materiales arqueológicos prehistóricos de la Cova del Barranc Fondo depositados en el Museu de Prehistòria de València, se propone una secuencia de ocupaciones que arranca en el Magdaleniense final y finaliza en la Edad del Bronce. Los resultados obtenidos han propiciado el inicio de un proyecto de excavaciones arqueológicas en la cueva, con el objetivo de contextualizar los restos existentes de forma más detallada y establecer el grado de conservación de sus estratos, así como realizar una documentación más amplia de su morfología y características físicas.
Abstract Recent excavations and radiocarbon work conducted at Cocina Cave (Valencia region, Eastern Iberia) provide new insights into the transition from foraging to farming in the eastern Iberian Peninsula between 8000 and 7300 cal yrs. BP. Cocina cave was discovered in 1940 and excavated by L. Pericot from 1941 to 1945. J. Fortea continued excavations in the 70s. Despite early international recognition and great promise of significance, the materials recovered from these excavations have only been partially analyzed and published. A new project started in 2012 is focused on these cave deposits with the main goal of understanding the occupation sequence during the neolithization process in the Western Mediterranean. The project includes a complete analysis of cultural material and biological remains of the previous excavations and integrates a 3D reconstruction of the stratigraphy and spatial analysis of the recorded artifact distributions. The results presented in this paper highlight the chronological position of materials deposited by the last hunter-gatherers and first farmers in Cocina cave based on data from the 1941 and 1945 trenches.
In this paper we present our procedure for digitising fieldwork information on the fly (data management), and its combination with the virtual reconstruction of the stratigraphy (virtualisation), of the Cueva de la Cocina site in Dos Aguas (Valencia, Spain). The main tool for the Geographic Information System (GIS) implementation has been OpenJUMP, whilst for the three-dimensional (3D) recreation of the cave virtual environment MeshLab, ParaView, CloudCompare and R open software have been used. According to the data recovered during the two last field seasons at the cave -2015 and 2016-, we present the current state of the stratigraphy virtualisation in the excavated sectors. We also provide not only a general view of the cave, but also different points of view to incorporate distinct geomatics tools into archaeological research. The computer treatment of the data collected in the field provides a better understanding of their spatial relations; which in turn facilitates its analysis and interpretation as well as the realisation of virtual profiles. In the same way, the differences in the frequency of materials belonging to adjacent and/or superimposed stratigraphical units, as well as the total quantities, volumetry and density of the artefacts, with respect to their own stratigraphical unit, or even the whole excavated area, can also be analysed. The combination of both approaches -data management and virtualisation- allows us to integrate geographic information technologies inthe daily life of the Mesolithic and Neolithic communities, of which the virtual reconstruction of the different test pits carried out in Cueva de la Cocina constitutes a perfect example.
Actual research into the neolithization process and the development of farming communities in the Western Mediterranean reveals a diverse and complex cultural landscape. Dispersal routes and rhythm of diffusion of the agro-pastoral economy, Mesolithic inheritance, regional interactions between communities, and functional adaptations all have to be explored to trace how Mediterranean societies were reshaped during this period. The different pottery traditions that accompany the Neolithic spread and its economic development are of course interconnected (the “impressed ware”), but they also show some degree of polymorphism. This variability has been variously interpreted, but rarely quantified and evaluated. We propose in this chapter to focus on the very first step of neolithization in the Western Mediterranean (c. 6000–5400 cal. BC), and to consider the variability observed in pottery decoration, along with some technical aspects, from Southern Italy to Southern Spain. Then we discuss these results in an attempt to understand if the observed variability in time and space could be explained as a result of the combined effects of cultural drift and hitchhiking hypothesis, within the framework of a demic expansion.
The spread of domestic plants and animals from the Near East towards the Western Mediterranean region is analysed using the current radiocarbon dataset relating to the last hunter-gatherers and the first farmers in the area. In order to do this, we have selected radiocarbon dates and built summed probability distributions and density maps, as a means of investigating the processes involved in the expansion of food production economies throughout this wide territory, in a ‘longue durée’ view, in accordance with a multiscalar approach covering both the general and the regional scenarios. This approach allows us to visualise the time of the expansion in this broad area, starting at the beginning of the sixth millennium cal BC, and to discuss the implied mechanisms in what seems, at least along the coast, a very rapid process: reflecting a mix of demic and cultural models with regional nuances.
The agricultural way of life spreads throughout Europe via two main routes: the Danube corridor and the Mediterranean basin. Current archaeological literature describes the arrival to the Western Mediterranean as a rapid process which involves both demic and cultural models, and in this regard, the dispersal movement has been investigated using mathematical models, where the key factors are time and space. In this work, we have created a compilation of all available radiocarbon dates for the whole of Iberia, in order to draw a chronological series of maps to illustrate temporal and spatial patterns in the neolithisation process. The maps were prepared by calculating the calibrated 14C date probability density curves, as a proxy to show the spatial dynamics of the last hunter-gatherers and first farmers. Several scholars have pointed out problems linked with the variability of samples, such as the overrepresentation of some sites, the degree of regional research, the nature of the dated samples and above all the archaeological context, but we are confident that the selected dates, after applying some filters and statistical protocols, constitute a good way to approach settlement spatial patterns in Iberia at the time of the neolithisation process.