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Gravity beyond Einstein?

Goal: This article provides an overview of the latest experimental results in quantum physics and astrophysics, discussing their repercussions on the advanced physical theories that go beyond both the SMs (standard model) of particle physics and cosmology.The article concludes with an outlook on the novel technology of gravitational engineering that might follow from gravity-like fields and discusses the novel physical concepts resulting from the existence of these extreme gravitomagnetic field.
Submitted to Journal of Scientific Exploration, 22 June 2016; a short version of this paper was accepted for presentation at the annual SSE meeting, Denver, Colorado, June 2016.

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The organization of the article (PART III) is as follows.
The paper starts with the long standing question of the origin of the physical coupling constants. We present a preliminary approach for the construction of dimensionless coupling constants from a set of ordinal numbers, attempting to establish a relationship between pure mathematics and the physical world, similar to the concept of R. Penrose.
Following our discussion of substantial evidence in Parts I and II pointing against the existence of addi- tional real spatial dimensions, experimental results from recent astrophysical observations and the LHC at CERN are shown that corroborate this assumption. As the existence of additional real spatial dimensions has become less likely, the assumptions of string theory (and supersymmetry in particular) as a symmetry between bosons and fermions has come into question. The concept of hypercomplex numbers extending the field of complex numbers is introduced as a replacement for supersymmetry and immediately suggests the existence of hypercomplex matter when the solutions of the equation for the Planck mass are extended to the set of hypercomplex numbers. This results in five flavors of matter, namely, positive (ordinary matter), negative (dark matter) and three ephemeral types of matter denoted by (im, jm, km) where the triple (i,j,k) denotes the base units of the hypercomplex numbers.
The following chapter is devoted to the resolution of the lifetime anomaly of the neutron where two experimental techniques, the bottle technique (counting the remaining neutrons from the neutron decay) and the beam technique (counting the number of protons generated from the neutron decay) lead to a lifetime difference of about 8.4 seconds. Given the accuracy of the bottle and beam techniques, this lifetime difference is mutually exclusive and may be considered as a hint for novel physics. Employing the concept of hypercomplex matter and performing a large number of Matlab simulations produces a mean lifetime difference that can only be reproduced if one assumes that almost all neutrons first decay into hypercomplex particles. These hypercomplex particles form an intermediate state of matter before they eventually decay into the well known products of the beta decay. This is an unexpected and surprising result, which may be interpreted as a hint for the existence of hypercomplex matter.
One of the most important topics of this article is the discussion of the MOND (MOdified Newtonian Dynamics) hypothesis that was published in 1983 to explain persistent strange observational astrophysical data concerning the orbital speeds of stars in their rotation about their galactic center, which is in clear contradiction to the famous Newtonian law of gravity. These observations have been confirmed since their first report by Zwicky at Caltech in 1933. This apparent contradiction between MOND and Newtons gravitational law remains unresolved up to today. But nevertheless, hundreds of galaxies have been found that are in conflict with Newtons law. Therefore, MOND suggests a modification of Newtons law for small accelerations eleven orders of magnitude smaller than the acceleration on Earth. In contrast, Newtons law seems to hold globally for nonrelativistic motion and no deviation has ever been reported. Hence, we present an attempt to derive the MOND hypothesis that complies with galactic observations but at the same time does not need a modification of Newtons law. We also discuss the NASAs Stanford Gravity Probe-B experimental result, which compares favorably with our own calculations based on the existence of extreme gravitomagnetic fields which should be outside Einstein gravity.
In the following chapter we discuss aspects of cosmic inflation, which we believe to be correct, and deal with classical as well as quantum mechanical properties of gravity. In particular, it seems that the idea of gravitons comprising two gluons leads to a contradiction. Moreover, it seems that Einstein gravity is a purely geometric theory which is mediated by the curvature of space but does not need the graviton as a mediator boson for the gravitational force. To our surprise, the group structure (suggested by the existence of hypercomplex matter as laid out in Part II) gives rise to three additional gravitational bosons with one of these bosons being a spin-1 particle. This finding suggests that there exists a second, so far undetected type of gravity (termed canonical gravity), that is entirely different from cosmological or Einstein gravity, which is a geometrical theory. Canonical gravity is actually mediated by bosons and gives rise to much stronger gravity-like fields and is compatible with the common picture of quantum fields, which is not the case for Einstein gravity.
The cornerstone of the article describes the search for propellantless space propulsion by gravity-like fields. As a follow up of Part II, we first discuss the three main advanced concepts of propellantless space propulsion, namely, the EM drive, the Mach thruster by Prof. Woodward and the Alcubierre or warp drive and its latest developments. It is found that both the EM drive and the Mach thruster are nonphysical concepts, whereas the Alcubierre drive seems to be highly unrealistic because it is a known experimental
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fact that enormous amounts of energy would be needed for the constant warping of spacetime (e.g. gravity waves). This shows that spacetime is an extremely rigid field. In addition, the warp drive needs to be constantly fed with energy, which renders this concept unsuitable as propellantless propulsion.
We then proceed to discuss a highly debatable phenomenon, which concerns the sightings of Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs) with flight capabilities that are far superior to any flying object built by humankind, for which numerous credible reports exist. However, we conclude that there is no smoking gun available, either in the form of DNA or in the form of technology which could explain the phenomena. This means that any advance in technology is left to us humans.
Finally, we propose a novel experiment to actually generate a gravity-like field based on the conversion of electromagnetic to gravity-like fields, a phenomenon predicted and long sought by both Faraday and Einstein. In order to act as a propulsion device, the resulting gravity-like field needs to point in the axial direction, meaning that it cannot follow from a Lorentz type force. As the direction of force is not changed in the conversion process, a magnetic monopole field would be suitable. However, magnetic monopoles were never observed as elementary particles and therefore the generation of emergent monopoles (already observed) in spin ice matter would be a suitable medium.
The article concludes with a technology outlook for gravity-like fields which may also be used to explain the highly unusual properties of reported UFO sightings.
Keywords: Extra real dimensions challenged by experiments; coupling constants; contradictory experiments; neu- tron lifetime; hypercomplex numbers; hypercomplex matter; MOND; propellantless propulsion; emergent monopoles; spin ice; gravity-like fields.
Paper (65 pages) submitted to ZNA on 29 May 2021
Personal copy available from jh@hpcc-space.de
 
J. Häuser
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This article attempts to explain the underlying physics of several recent experiments and astrophysical observations that have been mystifying the physics community for quite some time. So far, none of the advanced theories beyond the standard models of particle physics and cosmology have shown sufficient potential to resolve these mysteries. The reason for this failure may lie in the fact that these theories are based on the concept of extra space dimensions that appears to be in conflict with numerous experiments, in particular with recent Large Hadron Collider data. Therefore, the novel idea of extra number systems is introduced, replacing the idea of extra space dimensions. This approach is complemented by a set of fundamental physical principles that provide the constraints and guidelines for a modified physical formulation in agreement with known experimental reality. However, such a theory requires novel physical concepts in conjunction with novel symmetry groups. These groups give rise to additional types of matter, termed hypercomplex masses (which are responsible for the extreme hypercomplex gravitational fields, see below, and are also denoted as matter flavour ), including, for instance, particles of negative mass, identified with dark matter. Furthermore, four-dimensional Minkowski spacetime, assumed to be a quasi de Sitter space $dS^{1,3}$dual spacetime , $DdS^{1,3}$ , with imaginary time coordinate; that is, time is a complex quantity . The three spatial coordinates are shared by the two spacetimes. Dark matter is assumed to reside in $DdS^{1,3}$ and therefore is principally invisible. On the other hand, its gravitational interaction with ordinary matter ( m ≥ 0) in spacetime $dS^{1,3}$ is directly perceptible. The novel group structure predicts the existence of a fourth particle family of negative masses; that is, besides the dark matter particle χ of mass $m_{\chi}\approx-80.77$ GeV/c ² , there is the dark neutrino ν χ of mass $m_{\nu_{\chi}}\approx-3.23$ eV/c ² . Moreover, the hypercomplex group structure of gravity ( $SU(2)\times SU(2)$ ) postulates three gravitational bosons for cosmological fields [resulting from Einstein’s theory of general relativity (GR)], the graviton $\nu_{G_{N}}$ with spin 2, the novel gravitophoton $\nu_{gp}$ with spin 1 (existence of weak gravitomagnetic fields of GR), and the quintessence particle ν q with spin 0, which, when present, mediates an interaction between ordinary matter ( m ≥ 0) and the ubiquitous scalar field of dark energy. In addition, the existence of extreme gravity fields (hypercomplex gravity) is postulated, based on the second group SU (2), and an interaction between electromagnetism and hypercomplex gravity is predicted, mediated by three additional hypercomplex-gravity bosons. Some long-standing problems of cosmology will be addressed; namely, the Big Bang scenario and the origin of dark energy and the nature of dark matter and their relation to the modified Newtonian dynamics hypothesis will be discussed.
J. Häuser
added 3 research items
All propulsion systems in use today are based on momentum conservation and rely on fuel [1]. There is one exception, namely gravity assist turns that use the gravitational fields of planets to accelerate a spacecraft. The only other long-range force known is the electromagnetic force or Lorentz force, acting on charged bodies or moving charges. Magnetic fields around planets or in interstellar space are too weak to be used as a means for propulsion. In the solar system and in the universe as known today, large-scale electromagnetic fields that could accelerate a space vehicle do not seem to exist. However, magnetic and electric fields can easily be generated, and numerous mechanisms can be devised to produce ions and electrons and to accelerate charged particles. The field of magnetohydrodynamics recently has become again an area of intensive research, since both high-performance computing, allowing the simulation of these equations for realistic two-and three-dimensional configurations, and the progress in generating strong magnetic and electric fields have become a reality. Although the main physical ideas of MHD were developed in the fifties of the last century, the actual design of efficient and effective propulsion systems only recently became possible. One weakness that all concepts of propulsion have in common today is their relatively low thrust. An analysis shows that only chemical propulsion can provide the necessary thrust to launch a spacecraft. Neither fission nor fusion propulsion will provide this capability. MHD propulsion is superior for long mission durations, but delivers only small amounts of thrust. Space flight with current propulsion technology is highly complex, and severely limited with respect to payload capability, reusability, maintainability. Above all it is not economical. In addition, flight speeds are marginal with respect to the speed of light. Moreover, trying only to fly a spacecraft of mass 10
All space vehicles in use today need some kind of fuel for operation. The basic physics underlying this propulsion principle severely limits the specific impulse and/or available thrust. Launch capabilities from the surface of the Earth require huge amounts of fuel. Hence, space flight, as envisaged by von Braun in the early 50s of the last century, will not be possible using this concept. Only if novel physical principles are found can these limits be overcome. Gravitational field propulsion is based on the generation of gravitational (gravity‐like) fields by manmade devices. In other words, gravity‐like fields should be experimentally controllable. Present physics believes that there are four fundamental interactions: strong (nuclei), weak (radioactive decay), electromagnetism and Newtonian gravitation. As experience has shown for the last six decades, none of these physical interactions is suitable as a basis for novel space propulsion. None of the advanced physical theories like string theory or quantum gravity, go beyond these four known interactions. On the contrary, recent results from causal dynamical triangulation simulations indicate that wormholes in spacetime do not seem to exist, and thus even this type of exotic space travel may well be impossible. Recently, novel physical concepts were published that might lead to advanced space propulsion technology, represented by two additional long range gravitational‐like force fields that would be both attractive and repulsive, resulting from interaction of gravity with electromagnetism. A propulsion technology, based on these novel long range fields, would be working without propellant.
J. Häuser
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The article will be published in Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, Physical Sciences A, in 2019 and will be open access upon publication.
 
J. Häuser
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In this paper a set of recent experiments/observations is presented that seem to indicate the existence of novel physics outside general relativity as well as the standard model of particle physics and the standard model of cosmology. The approach chosen in the present paper is unique, since the existence of new physics is based on various experiments reported from widely different areas, and not a priori on the introduction of novel physical concepts. If confirmed, new concepts might be required and drastic extensions to current physics would become necessary, for instance, in form of novel gravity-like fields. Such fields could provide the basis for propellantless propulsion that is, gravitational field propulsion might become a possibility. A total of eleven experiments both from cosmological observations and high particle physics has been identified that seem to require an extension of general relativity and also might contradict key predictions of the so called advanced physical theories like string theory, supersmmetry, or quantum gravity. The paper also discusses in how far the existence of additional extreme gravitomagnetic and gravity-like fields outside general relativity together with novel types of matter is supported by experimental facts based on the results of three recent experiments that might have measured these extreme gravitomagnetic fields (see the in depth analysis of these experiments in the accompanying paper by J. Hauser in this special issue).
In 2006 Tajmar et al. reported on the measurements of extreme gravitomagnetic fields from small Nb rings at cryogenic temperatures that are about 18 orders of magnitude larger than gravitomagnetic fields obtained from GR (general relativity). Cifuolini in 2004 and the NASA-Stanford Gravity Probe-B experiment in 2007 confirmed the Lense-Thirring effect as predicted by GR (gravitomagnetic fields generated by a rotating massive body, i.e. Earth) within some 10%. In 2007 gravitomagnetic fields generated by a rotating cryogenic lead disk were measured by Graham et al. Though these measurements were not conclusive (the accuracy of the laser gyrometer was not sufficient to produce a standard deviation small enough) their experiment seems to have seen the same phenomenon reported earlier by Tajmar et al., termed parity violation. This means that gravitomagnetic fields produced by the cryogenic rotating ring or disk vary substantially and change sign for clockwise and counter-clockwise directions of rotation. The experimental situation therefore occurs to be contradictory. On the one hand GR has been confirmed while at the same time, there seems to be experimental evidence for the existence of extreme gravitomagnetic fields that cannot be generated by the movement of large masses. If these experiments can be confirmed, they give a clear indication for the existence of additional gravitational fields of non-Newtonian nature. As was shown by the GP-B experiment, measuring gravitomagnetic fields from GR poses extreme difficulties. Therefore a novel physical mechanism should exist for the generation of gravity-like fields, which might also provide the key to gravitational engineering similar to electromagnetic technology.
J. Häuser
added 2 research items
In this paper (which is a follow up of the accompanying paper by W. Dröscher) an in depth analysis of three recent gravitomagnetic experiments is given. These experiments are unique, since there is a possibility that extreme gravitomagnetic fields outside general relativity might have been generated. The experiments were carried out in entirely different environments and are not related in any aspect, except that the effects reported are dependent on cryogenic temperatures. Furthermore, completely different measurement techniques were employed. The set of three experiments comprises the two laboratory experiments by Tajmar et al., Graham et al., and the NASA-Stanford University Gravity Probe-B space experiment. The physical phenomena observed could indicate the existence of novel physics outside both general relativity and the standard model of particle physics, and also would have major implications on the standard model of cosmology.
J. Häuser
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This article provides a review of the latest experimental results in quantum physics and astrophysics, discussing their repercussions on the advanced physical theories that go beyond both the SMs (standard models) of particle physics and cosmology. It will be shown that many of the essential concepts of the advanced theoretical models developed over the past 40 years are no longer tenable because they are contradicting the novel data. Most recent results (December 2016) from the Large Hadron Collider revealed no new matter particles up to particle masses of 1.6 TeV/c
J. Häuser
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This article provides an overview of the latest experimental results in quantum physics and astrophysics, discussing their repercussions on the advanced physical theories that go beyond both the SMs (standard model) of particle physics and cosmology.The article concludes with an outlook on the novel technology of gravitational engineering that might follow from gravity-like fields and discusses the novel physical concepts resulting from the existence of these extreme gravitomagnetic field.
Submitted to Journal of Scientific Exploration, 22 June 2016; a short version of this paper was accepted for presentation at the annual SSE meeting, Denver, Colorado, June 2016.