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Grafías Prehistóricas en la Península Ibérica (CCHH2006/R05)

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Primitiva Bueno Ramírez
added 2 research items
ANY COMPREHENSIVE PROJECT ON THE LANDSCAPE OF THE MEGALITHIC CONSTRUCTIONS IN THE ANTEQUERA DEPRESSION COULD NOT LEAVE ASIDE AN ANALYSIS OF MEGALITHIC ART. THIS PAPER EXPLORES THE THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL PROPOSALS THAT CONNECT THE ETCHED AND PAINTED SYMBOLS INSIDE THE GRAVES WITH THOSE OUTSIDE. THE MONUMENTALITY OF THE ANTEQUERA DOLMENS INSPIRED THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CUSTOM METHODOLOGIES TO DETERMINE THE PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF ICONOGRAPHIC COLLECTIONS THAT COULD BE CONTRASTED WITH THE OPEN AIR LOCATIONS IN THE ANTEQUERA DEPRESSION. THE MODEL FOR INTEGRATING OPEN AIR PAINTINGS AND ENGRAVINGS WITHIN THE TERRITORIAL FRAMEWORK OF THE MEGALITHIC CONSTRUCTIONS HAS YIELDED SEVERAL RESULTS, INCLUDING THE POSSIBILITY OF USING THE GRAPHIC MARKER SYSTEM OF THE ANTEQUERA DEPRESSION AS A MODEL FOR OTHER MEGALITHIC SITES IN ANDALUSIA. THE PAINTINGS AT THE PEÑA DE LOS ENAMORADOS AND THE MENHIR DISCOVERED AT ITS BASE; THE ENGRAVINGS AT THE PEÑAS CABRERA ENCLAVE; THE REUSE OF LARGE ROCKS FOR THE MENGA AND EL ROMERAL DOMENS, ETC., AN UNIQUE COLLECTION OF PRESENCES IN THE SYMBOLIC PANORAMA OF ANDALUSIA THAT ARE RELATED TO CLASSICAL EXAMPLES FOUND ON THE ATLANTIC MEGALITHS.
Primitiva Bueno Ramírez
added a research item
El amplio y variado registro de sitios decorados postglaciares en la Península Ibérica ha tenido su reflejo en la Declaración de Patrimonio de la Humanidad del Arte Rupestre del Arco Mediterráneo. Este texto reflexiona, a partir del caso de estudio levantino, sobre la potencialidad de otros ámbitos geográficos y contextuales del rico patrimonio gráfico de la prehistoria peninsular, especialmente por importante impulso en la investigación científica de estos yacimientos.
Mª Angeles Lancharro
added a research item
Figurines were particularly abundant and diverse in Iberia during the Neolithic and above all in the Chalcolithic. They have traditionally been studied in terms of their format, the territory they are found in and the culture they belonged to. However, one of the main characteristics of the figurines is that they form part of the wide range of graphic expressions known in Iberian late prehistory , found in rock-shelters, on rocks and in megalithic monuments. This reality, which is usually documented partially, locally or regionally, is here presented cartographically. While aware of the difficulty in obtaining an exhaustive record, the picture obtained helps to understand the dispersion and typology of the figurines in the framework of post-glacial Iberian art. It is based on general inventories and partial repertoires, some of them published in the present volume, supported by information and communication technologies. Resumen Las figuritas fueron especialmente abundantes y variadas en Iberia durante el Neolítico y sobre todo en el Calcolítico. Tradicionalmente se han estudiado en función de su formato, el territorio en el que se encuentran y la cultura a la que pertenecían. Sin embargo, una de las principales características de las figuritas es que for-man parte del amplio abanico de expresiones gráficas conocidas en la prehisto-ria tardía ibérica, encontradas en abrigos, en rocas decoradas y en monumentos megalíticos. Esta realidad, que suele documentarse de forma parcial, local o regional, se pre-senta aquí en una cartografía general. Aunque somos conscientes de la dificul-tad de obtener un registro exhaustivo, la imagen obtenida ayuda a comprender la dispersión y tipología de las figuritas en el marco del arte ibérico postglaciar. La información reflejada se basa en inventarios generales y repertorios par-ciales, algunos de ellos publicados en el presente volumen, apoyándose en las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación. Palabras clave Arte portátil, Prehistoria Reciente. Iberia, TIC.
Primitiva Bueno Ramírez
added a research item
The increase in the number of known painted shelters identified through targeted surveys proves the validity of the latter and establishes a series of patterns that are extensive to other territories in which schematic painting is supposedly absent. The data from Sierra de San Pedro confirm the protagonism of painting at the sites of the western peninsula, from the Upper Palaeolithic, thus breaking with the traditional barriers of open air art. Grajera 2, Boquerón 1 and 5 demonstrate the existence of open air shelters with Palaeolithic art, thus opening a new scope of locations for Palaeolithic art that fit with our suggestion of their close connection to the places in which Schematic art is documented. The symbols act as the most visible evidence of the systematic of the territorial occupation. The graphical sequence must be understood as an indicator of matching archaeological sequences, which support a populational continuum that moves away from the hypotheses of depopulation as the exclusive line from which to explain the processes of production. If there is something that is reflected by the graphical sites of the western peninsula, it is the recurrence of the same enclaves throughout the generations. Apprenticeship, inheritance, mnemotechnic rules and collective identification are some of the messages that the paintings and engravings materialised on the stones of the International Tagus from the Upper Palaeolithic onwards.
Mª Angeles Lancharro
added a research item
Este trabajo aborda el estudio de los abrigos con Arte Esquemático del relieve nororiental de la Comunidad de Madrid desde criterios visuales y geoestratégicos. El impulso del método en la investigación arqueológica a través de las TIG (Tecnologías de la Información Geográfica), que tuvo lugar en la década de los 80 del siglo XX, normalizó el análisis de cuencas visuales como forma de alcanzar una mayor comprensión del Arte Rupestre. Aunque su aplicación no es una novedad en Arqueología, aquí presentamos una nueva aproximación al arte postpaleolítico en estos territorios interiores peninsulares. En el arte de la Prehistoria Reciente, la destacada posición de muchos de los abrigos, a menudo, se interpreta por razones de visibilidad y visibilización. Los SIG (Sistemas de Información Geográfica) introducen una mejora en los procesos de análisis a través de aplicaciones que implementan variables e introducen matices en torno a la estructuración de las viewsheds. El caso de estudio de los abrigos al NE de Madrid (Sierra de Patones) permite ver una mayor complejidad estratégica.
Primitiva Bueno Ramírez
added a research item
Durante 2021, se recogió otra estela decorada en el norte del Alentejo, más precisamente en el Monte do Rebolo, que se encuentra en la parroquia de Mosteiros, en el municipio de Arronches. La pieza, de valor patrimonial único, fue encontrada por el propietario de la finca quien, mientras realizaba labores agrícolas en la "hoja" que se encuentra a unos 700 metros al noroeste de las casas del cerro, levantó una pesada "piedra" a poca profundidad, con el arado. Reconociendo de inmediato el valor de su descubrimiento arqueológico y para no perderse en la tierra arada, fue transportado al frente del cerro donde pudimos observarlo y fotografiarlo, y aquí dejamos la primera nota de su identificación.
Primitiva Bueno Ramírez
added a research item
The documentation of Palaeolithic art in the open air, together with direct dates for parietal art and the study of territories marked by the last hunter groups in southern Europe, supports new interpretations of Palaeolithic art and its continuity in the early Holocene. We provide updated information about the graphic representations in that time of transition, grouped under the term Style V. We also reflect on the chronological framework of some themes and techniques for which dates are available, from the Upper Palaeolithic to the Neolithic. These topics reveal the strength of the Palaeolithic background in more recent versions of prehistoric art, especially the schematic art associated with the first farmers. These new considerations are added to the presence of ¬Palaeolithic and Post-Palaeolithic art throughout Europe and all over the world, which shows how symbols are social traits of communication associated with human groups. The study of con¬nections through these archaeological items, with their undeniable materiality, is a future challenge that will ¬undoubtedly produce interesting results.
Primitiva Bueno Ramírez
added a research item
A brief reflection on some points that have produced the most outstanding advances in the reading of Palaeolithic Art frames the discovery of open-air Palaeolithic art in Iberia as an important trigger.
Primitiva Bueno Ramírez
added a research item
Engraved and painted symbols in rock-shelters and on rock outcrops, dolmens, menhir, statues and steles, are the most visible signs of human activity. In recent years, a large number of finds have been made in Portugal, where some graphic expressions (Palaeolithic or painted schematic art) were thought not to exist. The questions these latest discoveries pose can be extrapolated to the rest of the Iberian Peninsula and open new paths in a more archaeological panorama different from the Atlantic/ /Mediterranean dualism that has dominated the interpretation of recent prehistoric groups in the south--west of Europe.
Primitiva Bueno Ramírez
added a research item
The Archaeology of the Postglaciar Rock Art has taken off in more recent times than Palaeolithic Rock Art Archaeology due to determining aspects not too much away from certain degree of “fusion” on the technique, morphology and significant consideration of the Holocene art, regarding the great “art of the caves”. Fit different “materialities” (including symbols) with the fixed narratives in the diversity of supports and different versions of the Holocene art in the Iberian Peninsula means to supply data with an unquestionable value about the ways of territorial exploration and also about the way those human groups codified their own body images. None of those proposals can’t be carry on apart from formal, technical, uses of supports and territorial nexus with Palaeolithic symbols, a rejection that has damaged our historiography, separating it from holistic readings about Prehistoric Art, that can be considered as one of the most powerful lines for the study of these remains. Keywords: Prehistoric Art; Palaeolithic Art; Postpalaeolithic Art; Archaeology; Recent Prehistory; Oral narratives
Primitiva Bueno Ramírez
added a research item
Megalithism is currently understood in a wide sense that includes diverse structures of large stones as part of a shared way of understanding monumentality. In this way, megalithic art is found in funerary structures, as motifs on mobile objects and also as symbols on stones outside the tombs but marking their territory. Here, we shall focus on megalithic art in its more original version, the symbols in funerary constructions. It should be borne in mind that these were not so much static and closed places but restricted spaces that frequently include stones reused from previous constructions within the prolonged life of their use .
Primitiva Bueno Ramírez
added a research item
De chasseurs à producteurs. Transitions et traditions. La transition est un aspect très actuel dans l’étude de la Préhistoire. Le levant espagnol est un des très peu exemples dans l’Europe où il y a des évaluations qui tiens compte de l’art préhistorique. Ça a été possible grâce au travail de Bernardo Martí. Nous proposons dans cet article un state of art des données graphiques entre le Paléolithique et le post-paléolithique, où nous incluons le Sud et l’Ouest péninsulaire en plus des données italiennes. Nous voulons montrer la force du background technique et thématique des chasseurs à travers les symbols des premiers agriculteurs. C’est la tradition symbolique et technique qui soutient la transition matérielle.
Primitiva Bueno Ramírez
added a research item
Resumen La interpretación tradicional del Neolítico en las zonas interiores venía definida por su marginalidad demográ-fica y su relación exclusiva con grupos ganaderos muy poco sedentarios. Las especiales características de conservación de dos de los yacimientos más interiores en los que hemos inter-venido recientemente, el dolmen de Azután y el túmulo del Castillejo, nos llevaron a emprender un programa espe-cífico de analíticas encaminado a argumentar los patrones económicos y alimenticios de estas poblaciones. Junto a los tradicionales análisis polínicos, hemos realizado cuenteo de esporas fúngicas en los suelos de habi-tación, con el fin de valorar la presencia de ganado, que ha sido afrontada además por el estudio de los huesos de fauna, de la materia prima de algunos objetos como las espátulas San Martín-El Miradero, y por el rastreo de ele-mentos traza en los restos de los enterrados. La agricultura ha sido documentada a partir de los análisis polínicos ya mencionados, además de a través del rastreo de fitolitos sobre útiles de molienda, análisis del contenido de los vasos y estudio de la paleodieta de los enterrados. Los rasgos definidos mediante esta batería analítica conforman un diseño acerca de los sistemas alimenticios y de los aprovechamientos económicos de los grupos neolíticos del interior que los aleja bastante de las ideas manejadas hasta el momento y que permite proponer un modelo de explotación del entorno muy próximo al que valoramos para las áreas clásicas. Résumé L'idée generalisée sur le Neólithique de l'intérieur de la Péninsule Ibérique etait presidée par sa marginalité du point de vue démographique et par sa seul rapport avec des groupes bergers très peu sedentarisés. La conservation très bonne de deux gisements, les plus intérieurs où notre equipe a travaillé recentement: le dolmen d'Azutan et le tumulus du Castillejo, nous ont poussé a developper un programme d'analyses dirigé à reflechir sur les patrons economiques et nourrisants de cettes groupes. En plus des analyses polyniques, nous avons réalisé des racontements des spores des sols d'habitat pour voir ses rapports avec la présence de troupeaux. Cet aspect a était-il aussi recherché à travers de l'analyse des osse-ments, de la matière première des spatules type San Martin-El Miradero et pour la recherche d'oligoeléments sur les corps des défunts. L'agriculture a été définie par les analyses du pollens fossiles,en plus de par la recherche de restes phitoliti-ques sur l'utillage de molturage et à travers de l'étude du contenu des vases cerámiques et de l'analyse de la nour-riture des dépôts humaines. Tout ça désigne une idée sur les systèmes alimentaires et sur les profitements economiques des habitantes de l'intérieur de la Péninsule Ibérique très élongé des idées traditionnelles et très proches des technologies reconnues aux aires classiques du Néolithique ibérique. Alimentación y economía en contextos habitacionales y funerarios del Neolítico meseteño
Primitiva Bueno Ramírez
added a research item
The documentation of paint accompanying the engraved decorations in dolmens in the Iberian Peninsula has enabled the development of a tested methodology. Its application to engraved dolmens in Brittany and to materials and architecture in the Orkney Islands has determined the range and variability in the depictions at megalithic sites in Atlantic Europe. The possibility of obtaining direct dates has achieved results in the case of the Bury Stela and some painted objects at Ness of Brodgar. A new line of research into the symbology of megaliths has opened up, as well as new potential for their dating.
Primitiva Bueno Ramírez
added 2 research items
Decorated plaques constitute the most widespread typology amongst peninsular figurines. Mobile pieces together with decorated plaques and images in rock shelters, small statues and megalithic uprights, confirm their relevant presence in the Iberian postglacial symbology. Their diachrony is associated with the diachrony of megalithic monuments, in which they were arranged following different associations and adapting to different spaces. It is usual to see them changing positions throughout the life of the megalith. In addition to amulets, decorated plaques appear in aggregations, exposed as figurines that define more complex rituals. Part of this ritual was probably based on the recovery of pieces from other burials, as with other items present in the megaliths. This is the case of megalithic uprights or corpses. Their outstanding role in the Alentejo megaliths allows us to establish an ideological and social context of great potential. Their connectivity with other Iberian areas is visible through the presence of decorated plaques as an identity item of great informative value. In recent years, researchers have found several new pieces at the Southwestern enclosures, including workshops for manufacturing plaques. We, therefore, expect to be increasing these records, in addition to archaeological contexts that highlight social devices beyond burial practices.
The Iberian Peninsula provides a solid foundation for expanding the study of the earliest examples of human images, clothed and accompanied by diverse objects. Their association with the social codes in the European Neolithic and Chalcolithic provides important information. Powerful links between the continental plains and the Near East are compatible with the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic roots of many of the objects. Likewise, they are compatible with the personality of each of the areas with the greatest population densities. Their relationship with materials such as clay, the observations of female genitalia and the detail of maintenance activities that seen on the figurines, confirm that some of these figures transmitted cultural codes related to women. However, a single hypothesis for the whole chronological and geographic repertoire, and for the different representation of gender and ages, is too limited. Any satisfying hypotheses must consider their marked multifunctionality and therefore their polysemy. The synchrony detected in the Iberian Peninsula between figurines as the most familiar formulae and the presence of decorated megaliths, rock-shelters, rocks and stelae, as the most visible and social evidence, is a basic element to understand the role of the portable images. From group codes to individual representations, their use repeats social systematics expressed in other symbols in European Late Prehistory. Roots in the past were established by symbols recuperated from old ancestors, which were enriched by diverse raw materials (including ivory and gold). They became support for the power of emerging lineages related to new leaders.
Primitiva Bueno Ramírez
added a research item
The first clay figurines appeared in the Iberian Peninsula in the Neolithic, closely associated with their most characteristic craft expression, pottery. Figurines linked with the western Mediterranean, with the Neolithic on the central European plains and, above all, with the background of Iberian Schematic art, attest the variety of interactions that took place in Neolithic Iberia. In the fifth, fourth and third millennia cal BC, clay figures are mostly female and are especially frequent at the large sites in the south-west (Perdigões, Valencina and Marroquies Bajos). The presence of zoomorphs (small sculptures and vessels) as well as strictly functional objects, together with the simplicity of the raw material (clay) evoke the everyday world. The frequency of finds at domestic sites is an argument supporting the need to add nuances to the generalised religious hypothesis that is still oftenproposed in the Iberian Peninsula as the only explanation. When these objects are found in mortuary sites, the religious sphere is superimposed on the multiple meanings condensed in the palimpsests of death, where the repertoires of mundane objects undoubtedly played a role.
Primitiva Bueno Ramírez
added a research item
Only recently the investigation of the Iberian megalithic phenomenon has begun to benefit from the expansion of the technical and scientific potential of modern archeology. There are still very few Iberian megaliths for which high-resolution scientific research has been carried out, capable of providing detailed data on its design, uses and biographies. This paper presents the results of the tholos study of the Palace III megalithic complex ( Almadén de la Plata, Sevilla), approached through a multidisciplinary methodology that integrates geoarchaeology, the technomorphological and functional study of portable material culture and graphic analysis, within a meticulous contextual assessment. The results provide very novel data regarding how, Through a series of carefully constructed cultural choices, this monument represents a true meeting point between locally available geological resources and resources accessible through contact with other communities. Well in its gross form, well carved in the form of engraved and painted sculptures or transformed into alt artifacts or technical and personal value, the materiality of the stone acquires in Palace III multiple cultural dimensions that only through modern scientific research is it possible to reconstruct.
Mª Angeles Lancharro
added 3 research items
RESUMEN: Se hace una valoración conjunta de las grafías prehistóricas durante el Holoceno en el área del interior peninsular y su repercusión en las provincias de Toledo, Madrid y Guadalajara, esta última aún en curso. Se incide en la metodología elegida con la que obtuvimos buenos resultados. En una primera fase nuestro objetivo fue la elaboración de una base de datos Filemaker, que recogiese la información de manera sistemática y nos permitiese hacer búsquedas selectivas. Posteriormente, el uso de un programa SIG (Sistemas de Información Geográfica) como Arcgis 9.3, hizo posible la realización de los mapas pertinentes. Los resultados mostraron ser comparables a los de otras áreas peninsulares bien documentadas en los ciclos artísticos holocénicos, tanto en sus tipologías como en las técnicas y los soportes. ABSTRACT: It has been done a joint assessment of prehistoric symbols during the Holocene in the inner of Iberian Peninsula and its impact on the provinces of Toledo, Madrid and Guadalajara, the last one still ongoing. It focuses on the chosen methodology by which we obtained right results. In a first step, our goal was to develop a Filemaker database, which collects information systematically ad allow us to make selective searches. Subsequently, the use of GIS software (Geographic Information Systems) as Arcgis.9, let us to make the relevant maps. The results proved to be comparable to those of other mainland areas that are well documented in art Holocene cycles, both in their typologies as techniques and surfaces.
Resumen: Los condicionantes geográficos, geológicos y medioambientales, han mediado en la elección que los grupos humanos hacían de sus lugares de establecimiento y actividades diversas. En el análisis del arte prehistórico, el estudio de la litología y el paisaje asociado, permite establecer pautas en la distribución de los yacimientos decorados, en la medida que determina la potencialidad de las formaciones rocosas predominantes. En este trabajo presentamos el diseño que, sobre el mapa, ayuda a explicar la distribución de cuevas, abrigos, megalitos y soportes mueble en la cuenca hidrográfica del Tajo y tres de sus provincias afectadas: Madrid, Toledo y Guadalajara, cuya aportación a este conjunto artístico ha sido minimizada. 1 Introducción y metodología. Este trabajo se inserta en el que viene desarrollando el equipo del Área de Prehistoria de la Universidad de Alcalá. Aplicamos aquí también su metodología y propuestas [1] [2] [3], cuyos resultados han sido efectivos precisamente en las cuencas hidrográficas del interior, unas áreas tradicionalmente relegadas en los procesos de desarrollo del Neolítico peninsular [4] [5] [6] y que alcanzan proyección europea [7]. Uno de los aspectos sobre los que trabajamos en nuestra tesis, "Grafías y territorios megalíticos en la cuenca interior del Tajo: Madrid, Toledo y Guadalajara", es el de la localización de los yacimientos decorados con respecto a las características del relieve, la naturaleza de las rocas y su posición topográfica. Nuestro objetivo es el estudio del Arte Prehistórico a lo largo del Holoceno, prestando especial atención al lenguaje gráfico que conocemos como Arte Esquemático y su ubicación en el territorio. Partimos de la base de que las grafías prehistóricas están en relación con un sistema de comunicación, en toda la amplitud del término, que utiliza diversos soportes y una serie de signos codificados que dan sentido al mensaje [8] [9]. El lenguaje de la Prehistoria Reciente, posterior a los exuberantes paneles pintados paleolíticos, aglutina diversos ciclos artísticos, naturalistas en mayor o menor medida, y no sólo el esquemático, aunque en una gran parte del período están presentes figuras muy conceptualizadas, signos y geométricos que se identifican con él.
Primitiva Bueno Ramírez
added 2 research items
The documentation of paint accompanying the engraved decorations in dolmens in the Iberian Peninsula has en-abled the development of a tested methodology. Its appli-cation to engraved dolmens in Brittany and to materials and architecture in the Orkney Islands has determined the range and variability in the depictions at megalithic sites in Atlantic Europe. The possibility of obtaining direct dates has achieved results in the case of the Bury Stela and some painted objects at Ness of Brodgar. A new line of research into the symbology of megaliths has opened up, as well as new potential for their dating.
Primitiva Bueno Ramírez
added a research item
Extremadura this paper attempts to decode the megalithic graphic expressions on a broader scale,using as indicators the analysis of graphic elements, the association between themes, techniques, their location within the monument, and the study of the actual monuments. This discussion takes as a point of departure the notion that megalithic art is associated with schematic art, is part of a code of messages that incorporates various types of contexts and supports (megalithic monuments, habitats,paintings/engravings of the open air or cave,menhirs, stelae, and statues), and makes up a semiotic web that translates the ways of life of a landscape. This continuity is also marked in the Neolithic/Chalcolithic transition, from the short passage graves with cupules and engraved plaques, dating to the 4th millennium, to the long passage graves with engravings and paintings.This study has the following parts: 1 - Megalithic Art of the Southern Peninsula This is a Peninsular phenomenon with inequalities related to the state of conservation and lines of investigation. A direct relationship between architecture and art is proposed: megalithic art is as old as megalithism itself. 2 - Megalithic Monuments and Decoration in the Spanish Extremadura: the Data A presentation of the ‘classic cases’ of the Extremadura, with new interpretations: Garrovillas, Tholoi de Guadancial I e II, Magacela,Huerta de las Monjas, Montehermoso, Madroñaland the monuments of Valência de Alcântara. 3 - Techniques A historical perspectives of the various discussions of the theme, from the traditional theories of Lopes Cuevillas, Serpa Pinto who emphasizes the north/south dichotomy, to laterstudies (namely of Elisabeth Shee) who established the classic Group of Viseu with paintings and engraved monuments. Contrasting with these distinctions, this paper confirmed by the role of painting in the megalithic art of the Extremadura and by the presence of painting in rockshelters.
Primitiva Bueno Ramírez
added a research item
Human remains recovered at the Ardines massif account for a small but diverse assemblage. Their deposit within the caves, their location in relation to the decorated areas, as well as their direct dating, enable us to make some reflections. Their links with other funerary contexts in Iberia and Europe are evident, as well as their relations with cave art and previous human occupations from the Upper Paleolithic. The contempora-neity of these burials with the last phase of paintings dated at the Tito Bustillo cave, shows that symbols used during the Cantabrian Upper Paleolithic were still in use by hunter-gatherers of this region during the 8th mil-lennium cal BC. A certain tendency towards resiliency seems evident with regards to social dynamics inferred from other burials and chronologies from other Iberian regions during the Mesolithic.
Primitiva Bueno Ramírez
added a research item
Pigment vestiges on the three decorated pebbles from the excavation of Parque Darwin (Madrid), level 8470 ± 70 BP have been identified by Micro Raman Spectroscopy. Haematite and amorphous carbon were used as pigments. Microscopic contamination spots with ε-copper-phthalocyanine blue, have been detected. The analysis of the pigments used, together with their previously unknown chronology and open-air location, constitute a new point of reference for the technical and cultural uses of symbology among hunter-gatherers in southern Europe.
Primitiva Bueno Ramírez
added 3 research items
The transfer from the boundaries of the Recent Prehistory to the graphical expressions has had several applications that complicate the analysis of the postglacial symbols. We will focus on this paper in some of the questions that have formulated the bases of these boundaries and the possibilities of open readings of a record, the Megalithic art, which every time is more detailed. The past like ideological reference, the techniques like chronological and cultural discrimination or the concept of sanctuary are some of the questions to analyze. We argue a perspective of integration of the postglacial graphical systems in which the funeral and daily symbols make up the group of ideological references that define the uses of the Megalithic territories. Its insertion in the physical frame of the ancient settlers, who also left his graphic testimony in rocks and shelters, claims the long population discourse of the Iberian Prehistory.
Primitiva Bueno Ramírez
added 11 research items
The close relationship between the position of the graphics and the economic territories of the groups are diachronically tested. The world of the Paleolithic hunters is not only the darkness of the caves, but the mountains, valleys and rivers outdoor, whose symbolic references are engraved and painted on the stones. They are pioneers in the graphic def inition of the places that belong to their daily world. The recurrence in the decoration of the same sites has the f inding with the presence of post-palaeolithic graphics. It presents the major sites as outdoor display of traditional territories, whose boundaries are known for joing the group, and whose use and transit are insured by the symbols of the ancestors.
Mª Angeles Lancharro
added a research item
The aim of this work is to analyze Late Prehistoric graphical markers, comprising paintings, engravings, Megalithic elements, and other portable objects. All of them can be described as post-paleolithic or Schematic Art over various surfaces. The chosen area, the inland region of the Tajo inner basin (Spain), was especially appealing for several reasons, such as the lack of scholarship on the subject, the lack of information on the geographical location of the archaeological sites, and the extended ignorance about the sites’ materials and relationships. The methodology is based on systematic registration of all archaeological sites. This is studied from an Archaeology Landscape perspective through Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis. It tests geographical markers according to their strategic location (pre-eminence and visibility) and their relationship with other funerary, habitable and resources sites. This has allowed parietal surfaces (megaliths, caves, shelters) and mobile pieces to be given coordinate position for the first time in the region, which has demonstrated abundant and complex prehistoric graphical markers. The results achieved allow the extrapolation of settlement models, explained in chapter VI. Generally, shelters divide the territory by geographical units where the settlers have access to a variety of economic resources and transit networks.