Problem Do conservative econometric models that comply with the Golden Rule of Forecasting pro- vide more accurate forecasts? Methods To test the effects of forecast accuracy, we applied three evidence-based guidelines to 19 published regression models used for forecasting 154 elections in Australia, Canada, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, U.K., and the U.S. The guidelines direct fore- casters using causal models to be conservative to account for uncertainty by (I) modifying effect estimates to reflect uncertainty either by damping coefficients towards no effect or equalizing coefficients, (II) combining forecasts from diverse models, and (III) incorporating more knowledge by including more variables with known important effects. Findings Modifying the econometric models to make them more conservative reduced forecast errors compared to forecasts from the original models: (I) Damping coefficients by 10% reduced error by 2% on average, although further damping generally harmed accuracy; modifying coefficients by equalizing coefficients consistently reduced errors with average error reduc- tions between 2% and 8% depending on the level of equalizing. Averaging the original regression model forecast with an equal-weights model forecast reduced error by 7%. (II) Combining forecasts from two Australian models and from eight U.S. models reduced error by 14% and 36%, respectively. (III) Using more knowledge by including all six unique vari- ables from the Australian models and all 24 unique variables from the U.S. models in equal- weight “knowledge models” reduced error by 10% and 43%, respectively. Originality This paper provides the first test of applying guidelines for conservative forecasting to estab- lished election forecasting models. Usefulness Election forecasters can substantially improve the accuracy of forecasts from econometric models by following simple guidelines for conservative forecasting. Decision-makers can make better decisions when they are provided with models that are more realistic and fore- casts that are more accurate.
Problem How to help practitioners, academics, and decision makers use experimental research findings to substantially reduce forecast errors for all types of forecasting problems. Methods Findings from our review of forecasting experiments were used to identify methods and principles that lead to accurate forecasts. Cited authors were contacted to verify that summaries of their research were correct. Checklists to help forecasters and their clients undertake and commission studies that adhere to principles and use valid methods were developed. Leading researchers were asked to identify errors of omission or commission in the analyses and summaries of research findings. Findings Forecast accuracy can be improved by using one of 15 relatively simple evidence-based forecasting methods. One of those methods, knowledge models, provides substantial improvements in accuracy when causal knowledge is good. On the other hand, data models – developed using multiple regression, data mining, neural nets, and “big data analytics” – are unsuited for forecasting. Originality Three new checklists for choosing validated methods, developing knowledge models, and assessing uncertainty are presented. A fourth checklist, based on the Golden Rule of Forecasting, was improved. Usefulness Combining forecasts within individual methods and across different methods can reduce forecast errors by as much as 50%. Forecasts errors from currently used methods can be reduced by increasing their compliance with the principles of conservatism (Golden Rule of Forecasting) and simplicity (Occam’s Razor). Clients and other interested parties can use the checklists to determine whether forecasts were derived using evidence-based procedures and can, therefore, be trusted for making decisions. Scientists can use the checklists to devise tests of the predictive validity of their findings.