Project

Global Korea Scholarship as a Public Diplomacy Tool

Goal: We analyze how KGSP alumni and students cognitively and affectively evaluate Korea and how their evaluation influence their Korea-related behaviors.

Date: 1 January 2018

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Eriks Varpahovskis
added a research item
Through the Global Korea Scholarship (GKS) program, the government of the Republic of Korea annually invites over a thousand international students to learn the Korean language and obtain a higher education degree from Korean universities. One of the program's goals is positioned within the public diplomacy framework. Korea seeks to cultivate Korea-friendly networks and transform GKS students and alumni into ambassadors to contribute to Korea's promotion abroad. However, there is no clarity on whether this mechanism works as expected. This study examines GKS students' relationship-building experiences with South Koreans during and after the exchange program. Analysis of twenty in-depth interviews with the program's alumni reveals both what facilitates and what obstructs personal and professional relationship-building between scholarship recipients and South Koreans at different stages (language year and degree years) of the program and after graduation. The paper concludes with practical recommendations for universities, GKS administrators, and the South Korean government regarding their policies for scholarship holders.
Kadir Jun Ayhan
added 5 research items
en Over the past few decades, South Korea has increasingly sought to attract international talent. Every year, hundreds of students are invited to study in the country on a competitive scholarship provided by the government. Upon graduation, students are equipped with a tertiary degree, as well as knowledge of the Korean language and culture. This study examines the determinants of intention to stay in South Korea to work or study after graduation, using a 2019 survey of Global Korea Scholarship recipients (n = 524). We draw upon literature in student mobility and examine determinants of two-step migration, including satisfaction with the scholarship program, university experiences, social integration, and life in the host country. Results from the statistical analysis show that academic satisfaction, social adjustment, and satisfaction with life in South Korea are positively associated with participants' intentions to stay in the country to work or study after graduation. The findings highlight the role of academic institutions and host communities in influencing students' poststudy plans and point to the need for policy measures that approach talent retention with simultaneous attention to integration and satisfaction, both within and beyond campus. Related Articles in this Special Issue Ayhan, Kadir Jun, and Nancy Snow. 2021. “Introduction to the Special Issue—Global Korea Scholarship: Empirical Evaluation of a non-Western Scholarship Program from a Public Diplomacy Perspective.” Politics & Policy 49(6). Lee, Hyelim, and Nancy Snow. 2021. “Gendered Experience in Student Mobility Programs—Global Korea Scholarship Recipients' Evaluation of Korea's Country Image.” Politics & Policy 49(6). Perez, Loarre Andreu, Myoung-Gi Chon, Kelly Vibber, and Jeong-Nam Kim. 2021. “Classifying Foreign Publics: Examining the Relationships Behavioral Experience, Symbolic Environment, and Communication Behaviors among Key Foreign Publics.” Politics & Policy 49(6). Abstract es Estudiantes becados por Global Korea: Intención de permanecer en el país anfitrión para trabajar o estudiar después de la graduación Durante las últimas décadas, Corea del Sur ha buscado cada vez más atraer talento internacional. Cada año, cientos de estudiantes son invitados a estudiar en el país con una beca competitiva proporcionada por el gobierno. Al graduarse, los estudiantes están equipados con un título terciario, así como con conocimientos de la lengua y la cultura coreanas. En este estudio, examinamos los determinantes de la intención de permanecer en Corea del Sur para trabajar o estudiar después de la graduación, utilizando una encuesta de 2019 de los beneficiarios de la Beca Global Korea (n = 524). Nos basamos en la literatura sobre movilidad estudiantil y examinamos los determinantes de la migración en dos pasos, incluida la satisfacción con el programa de becas, las experiencias universitarias, la integración social y la vida en el país de acogida. Los resultados del análisis estadístico muestran que la satisfacción académica, el ajuste social y la satisfacción con la vida en Corea del Sur se asocian positivamente con las intenciones de los participantes de permanecer en el país para trabajar o estudiar después de graduarse. Los hallazgos destacan el papel de las instituciones académicas y las comunidades anfitrionas para influir en los planes posteriores al estudio de los estudiantes y señalan la necesidad de medidas de política que aborden la retención de talento con atención simultánea a la integración y la satisfacción, tanto dentro como fuera del campus. Abstract zh 全球韩国奖学金学生:毕业后留在东道国工作或学习的意向 过去几十年里,韩国越来越努力地吸引国际人才。每年都有成百上千的学生获得由韩国政府提供的奖学金赴韩学习。学生毕业时获得大学学位、具备韩语知识、了解韩国文化。本文中,我们使用2019年收集的全球韩国奖学金获得者(n = 524)调查数据,分析了毕业后留在韩国工作或学习的意向的决定因素。基于有关学生流动的文献,我们分析了由两部分组成的流动(two-step migration)的决定因素,包括对奖学金计划的满意度、大学经历、社会融入以及在东道国的生活。统计分析结果显示,学业满意度、社会适应、对韩国生活的满意度,这三者与参与者毕业后留在韩国工作或学习的意向呈正相关。研究发现强调了学术机构和东道国社区在影响学生毕业后计划一事中发挥的作用,并指出需要相关政策措施,在保留人才的同时关注校园内外的社会融入和生活满意度。
en This study examines South Korea’s international scholarship program based on responses to the Global Korea Scholarship (GKS) alumni survey to find how the participants perceive the host country’s dimensions of justice and diversity. We employ the concept of justice in terms of redistribution, recognition, and representation. Analysis of GKS alumni perceptions of Korean society revealed that international mobility programs may provide positive and negative experiences for the participants depending on their positionality in terms of gender, ethnicity, and Korean language proficiency. Some had the exclusive opportunity to access global knowledge, skills, and networks. Others were exposed to unexpected misrepresentation and misframing while living and learning in the new society. We suggest the need for multidimensional policy discussions to consider both positive and negative outcomes of international scholarship programs and their potential to play a transformative role in global higher education. Related Articles in this Special Issue Ayhan, Kadir Jun, and Nancy Snow. 2021. “Introduction to the Special Issue—Global Korea Scholarship: Empirical Evaluation of a non-Western Scholarship Program from a Public Diplomacy Perspective.” Politics & Policy 49(6). Jon, Jae-Eun, and Kadir Jun Ayhan. 2021. “Satisfied or Dissatisfied: The Determinants of Global Korea Scholarship Recipients’ Satisfaction with Life in Korea.” Politics & Policy 49(6). Perez, Loarre Andreu, Myoung-Gi Chon, Kelly Vibber, and Jeong-Nam Kim. 2021. “Classifying Foreign Publics: Examining the Relationships Behavioral Experience, Symbolic Environment, and Communication Behaviors among Key Foreign Publics.” Politics & Policy 49(6). Abstract es Beca internacional para el cambio social? Recontextualización de las percepciones de justicia y diversidad de los egresados de la Global Korea Scholarship en Corea del Sur Este estudio examina el programa de becas internacionales de Corea del Sur basado en las respuestas a la encuesta de ex alumnos de la Global Korea Scholarship (GKS) para encontrar cómo los participantes perciben las dimensiones de justicia y diversidad del país anfitrión. Este estudio emplea el concepto de justicia en términos de redistribución, reconocimiento y representación. El análisis de las percepciones de los alumnos de GKS sobre la sociedad coreana reveló que los programas de movilidad internacional pueden proporcionar experiencias positivas y negativas para los participantes dependiendo de su posición en términos de género, etnia y dominio del idioma coreano. Algunos tuvieron la oportunidad exclusiva de acceder al conocimiento, las habilidades y las redes globales, mientras que otros estuvieron expuestos a tergiversaciones inesperadas y enmarcados erróneos mientras vivían y aprendían en la nueva sociedad. Este estudio sugiere la necesidad de discusiones de políticas multidimensionales para considerar los resultados positivos y negativos de los programas de becas internacionales y su potencial para desempeñar un papel transformador en la educación superior global. Abstract zh 国际奖学金推动社会变革?关于全球韩国奖学金毕业生对韩国正义和多样性感知的再情境化 本研究基于全球韩国奖学金(GKS)毕业生调查数据,分析了韩国的国际奖学金项目,以期发现参与者如何感知东道国的正义和多样性维度。本研究应用了正义在再分配、认可和代表方面的概念。GKS毕业生对韩国社会的感知分析表明,国际流动项目可能为参与者提供积极和消极经历,这取决于他们的性别、族群性和韩语熟练程度。一些人拥有获取全球知识、技能和网络的专属机会,而其他人则暴露在意料之外的错误代表(misrepresentation)和错误定义下,同时在新环境下生活和学习。本研究暗示,需要多维度政策探讨,将国际奖学金项目的积极和消极结果都考虑在内,以及这类项目在全球高等教育中发挥转型作用的潜能。
en Extant research has examined the significance of interpersonal relationships in affecting public diplomacy outcomes. Relational public diplomacy is a long-term approach to public diplomacy which posits the importance of people-to-people exchange programs that facilitate two-way interactions between people from two different countries. Using survey data (n = 385) collected from alumni of the Global Korea Scholarship in 2018, this study found that respondents' perceptions of treatment by South Korean people influenced their comparisons of people from South Korea and their home countries. Moreover, the more highly they evaluated South Koreans compared to people in their home countries, the more likely it was that they would develop an affection and make positive recommendations toward South Korea as a destination for study and tourism. The empirical findings in this article have policy implications for scholarship programs as a public diplomacy tool beyond South Korea. Related Articles in this Special Issue Ayhan, Kadir Jun, and Nancy Snow. 2021. “Introduction to the Special Issue—Global Korea Scholarship: Empirical Evaluation of a non-Western Scholarship Program from a Public Diplomacy Perspective.” Politics & Policy 49(6). Jon, Jae-Eun, and Kadir Jun Ayhan. 2021. “Satisfied or Dissatisfied: The Determinants of Global Korea Scholarship Recipients’ Satisfaction with Lifein Korea.” Politics & Policy 49(6). Lee, Hyelim, and Nancy Snow. 2021. “Gendered Experience in Student Mobility Programs—Global Korea Scholarship Recipients’ Evaluation of Korea’s Country Image.” Politics & Policy 49(6). Abstract es Evaluaciones de personas, afecto y recomendación para un país anfitrión: un estudio de los beneficiarios de la Beca Global de Corea (GKS) La investigación existente ha examinado la importancia de las relaciones interpersonales en los resultados de la diplomacia pública. La diplomacia pública relacional es un enfoque a largo plazo de la diplomacia pública que plantea la importancia de los programas de intercambio entre personas que facilitan las interacciones bidireccionales entre personas de dos países diferentes. Utilizando datos de encuestas (n = 385) recopilados de ex alumnos de la Beca Global de Corea en 2018, este estudio encontró que las percepciones de los encuestados sobre el tratamiento por parte de los surcoreanos influyeron en sus comparaciones con las personas de Corea del Sur y sus países de origen. Además, cuanto más evaluaban a los surcoreanos en comparación con las personas en sus países de origen, más probabilidades tenían de desarrollar un afecto y hacer recomendaciones positivas hacia Corea del Sur como un destino para el estudio y el turismo. Los hallazgos empíricos de este artículo tienen implicaciones políticas para los programas de becas como herramienta de diplomacia pública más allá de Corea del Sur. Abstract zh 关于东道国人民、情感和推荐的评价:全球韩国奖学金(GKS)获得者研究 现有研究分析了人际关系在影响公共外交结果中发挥的作用。关系公共外交(Relational public diplomacy)是一项长期的公共外交方法,它假定那些促进两国人民双向互动的人文交流项目的重要性。通过使用2018年对全球韩国奖学金(Global Korea Scholarship)毕业生收集的调查数据(n = 385),本研究发现,调查对象就韩国人如何对待他们的相关感知影响了他们对韩国人和本国人的比较。此外,当他们对韩国人的评价越高于本国人时,他们越有可能形成一种情感,并对韩国作为学习和旅游地点一事作出积极推荐。本文得出的实证研究发现对奖学金计划作为韩国及其他国家的公共外交工具一事具有政策意义。
Nancy Snow
added a research item
en According to 2012 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) statistics, 11 of 19 OECD countries have a higher female international student participation ratio in student mobility. South Korea has a higher ratio of female international students in general and a higher ratio of female Global Korea Scholarship (GKS) recipients. In 2018 and 2019, we surveyed GKS students about their evaluation of South Korea's country image and discovered significant differences by gender. Female students tend to show a lower cognitive and affective evaluation of the GKS country image experience than male students. We aim to uncover the determinants of these asymmetrical gender-based differences in the perceived country image of South Korea. Two adjustment indicators (emotional well-being and feeling part of society) and three adjustment factors (language skills, length of stay, and perceived discrimination) were examined to explore the determinants of gendered favorability toward the country. The findings suggest that female and male GKS recipients have different gendered experiences in the country, which, in turn, impacts their evaluation of South Korea's country image. The findings contribute to the country image and public diplomacy studies and practice, particularly in sponsored student mobility programs, which often fail to distinguish gendered experiences in their analysis or program planning. Related Articles in this Special Issue Ayhan, Kadir Jun, and Nancy Snow. 2021. “Introduction to the Special Issue—Global Korea Scholarship: Empirical Evaluation of a non-Western Scholarship Program from a Public Diplomacy Perspective.” Politics & Policy 49(6). Istad, Felicia, Eriks Varpahovskis, Ekra Miezan, and Kadir Jun Ayhan. 2021. “Global Korea Scholarship Students: Intention to Stay in the Host Country to Work or Study after Graduation.” Politics & Policy 49(6). Tam, Lisa, and Kadir Jun Ayhan. 2021. “Evaluations of People, Affection, and Recommendation for a Host Country: A Study of Global Korea Scholarship (GKS) Recipients.” Politics & Policy 49(6). Abstract es Experiencia de género en programas de movilidad estudiantil: Evaluación de los beneficiarios de becas de Global Korea de la imagen del país de Corea Según las estadísticas de la OCDE de 2012, 11 de los 19 países de la OCDE tienen una tasa de participación de estudiantes internacionales femeninas más alta en la movilidad de estudiantes. Corea del Sur tiene una proporción más alta de estudiantes internacionales femeninas en general y una proporción más alta de beneficiarias de la Beca Global de Corea (GKS). En 2018 y 2019, encuestamos a los estudiantes de GKS sobre su evaluación de la imagen del país de Corea del Sur y descubrimos diferencias significativas por género. Las estudiantes tienden a mostrar una evaluación cognitiva y afectiva más baja de la experiencia de imagen del país de GKS que los estudiantes varones. Este artículo tiene como objetivo descubrir los determinantes de estas diferencias asimétricas basadas en el género en la imagen percibida como país de Corea del Sur. Se examinaron dos indicadores de ajuste (bienestar emocional y sentimiento de pertenencia a la sociedad) y tres factores de ajuste (habilidades lingüísticas, duración de la estadía y discriminación percibida) para explorar los determinantes de la preferencia de género hacia el país. Los hallazgos sugieren que las mujeres y los hombres que reciben GKS tienen diferentes experiencias de género en el país, lo que, a su vez, afecta su evaluación de la imagen del país de Corea del Sur. La evaluación afectiva de las alumnas se vio fuertemente influenciada por la frecuencia con la que reconocían la discriminación en comparación con los alumnos masculinos en función de su género. Los hallazgos contribuyen a la imagen del país y los estudios y la práctica de la diplomacia pública, particularmente en los programas patrocinados de movilidad de estudiantes, que a menudo no logran distinguir las experiencias de género en su análisis o planificación de programas. Abstract zh 学生流动项目中性别化的经历:全球韩国奖学金获得者对韩国国家形象的评价 根据2012年OECD统计数据,19个OECD国家中有11个国家的女性国际学生在学生流动中的参与比例高于男性。整体上,韩国的女性国际学生比例更高,全球韩国奖学金(GKS)女性获得者比例也更高。我们在2018和2019年调查了GKS学生对韩国国家形象的评价,发现性别造成了显著差异。相比男性学生,女性学生往往对GKS国家形象的认知评价和情感评价更低。本文旨在发现韩国国家形象感知中这些非对称的、基于性别的差异背后的决定因素。分析了两个适应指标(情绪幸福感和社会融入感)和三个适应因素(语言技能、居住时间、感知歧视),以探究对韩国的性别化好感度背后的决定因素。研究发现暗示,女性和男性GKS获得者在韩国的性别化经历有所不同,这反过来影响了他们对韩国国家形象的评价。相比男性学生,女性学生的情感评价受其因性别而被歧视的频率的强烈影响。研究发现对国家形象和公共外交研究及实践作贡献,尤其对于奖学金学生流动项目,这些项目在分析或项目计划中经常未区分性别化的经历。
Nancy Snow
added a research item
en Most governments offer scholarships for international students as part of their public diplomacy toolbox. However, empirical assessments of these programs are relatively rare. The limited number of existing works often concern Western countries, while international student mobility programs in non-Western countries remain insufficiently researched. This special issue addresses these two gaps in the literature. All the articles utilize a unique and rich dataset of the perspectives of Global Korea Scholarship (GKS) recipients about South Korea. This dataset consists of four surveys conducted in 2018 and 2019 of GKS students, alumni, and pre-arrival inbound students. There are over 200 variables, most of which are about GKS recipients’ cognitive and affective evaluation of Korea, their Korea-related behaviors, their perceptions of how they are treated by Koreans, their satisfaction with studying in Korea, satisfaction with university and language school, and integration into Korean society. The articles look at various aspects of GKS as a public diplomacy tool, including the determinants of positive recommendations toward Korea as a study or tourism destination, the relationship between behavioral experience, symbolic environment and communication behaviors, determinants of students’ intentions to stay in the host country, gendered dynamics of the scholarship, students’ perspectives on justice based on their experiences in, and beliefs about, the host country, and the determinants of students’ satisfaction with life in Korea. Related Articles in this Special Issue Istad, Felicia, Eriks Varpahovskis, Ekra Miezan, and Kadir Jun Ayhan. 2021. “Global Korea Scholarship Students: Intention to Stay in the Host Country to Work or Study after Graduation.” Politics & Policy 49(6). Jon, Jae-Eun, and Kadir Jun Ayhan. 2021. “Satisfied or Dissatisfied: The Determinants of Global Korea Scholarship Recipients’ Satisfaction with Life in Korea.” Politics & Policy 49(6). Tam, Lisa, and Kadir Jun Ayhan. 2021. “Evaluations of People, Affection, and Recommendation for a Host Country: A Study of Global Korea Scholarship (GKS) Recipients.” Politics & Policy 49(6). Abstract es Introducción al número especial: la beca global de Corea como diplomacia pública La mayoría de los gobiernos ofrecen becas para estudiantes internacionales como parte de su caja de herramientas de diplomacia pública. Sin embargo, las evaluaciones empíricas de estos programas son relativamente raras. El número limitado de trabajos empíricos a menudo concierne a los países occidentales, mientras que los programas de movilidad de estudiantes internacionales en países no occidentales siguen siendo insuficientemente investigados. Este número especial aborda estos dos vacíos en la literatura. Todos los artículos de este número especial utilizan un conjunto de datos único y rico de las perspectivas de los beneficiarios de la Beca Global Korea (GKS) sobre Corea del Sur. Este conjunto de datos consta de cuatro encuestas realizadas en 2018 y 2019 de estudiantes, exalumnos y estudiantes entrantes antes de la llegada de GKS. Hay más de 200 variables, la mayoría de las cuales se refieren a la evaluación cognitiva y afectiva de Corea de los beneficiarios de GKS, sus comportamientos relacionados con Corea, sus percepciones de cómo son tratados por los coreanos, su satisfacción con estudiar en Corea, satisfacción con la universidad y la escuela de idiomas e integración en la sociedad coreana. Los artículos del número especial analizan varios aspectos de GKS como una herramienta de diplomacia pública, incluidos los determinantes de las recomendaciones positivas hacia Corea como destino de estudio o turismo, la relación entre la experiencia de comportamiento, el entorno simbólico y los comportamientos de comunicación, los determinantes de la intención de los estudiantes. permanecer en el país anfitrión, la dinámica de género de la beca, las perspectivas de los estudiantes sobre la justicia basadas en sus experiencias y creencias sobre el país anfitrión, y los determinantes de la satisfacción de los estudiantes con la vida en Corea. Abstract zh 特刊导言:发挥公共外交作用的全球韩国奖学金 大多数政府为国际学生提供奖学金,作为其公共外交工具盒的一部分。不过,有关这些奖学金计划的实证评估却相对稀少。有限的实证研究数量经常引起西方国家的担忧,同时国际学生流动计划在非西方国家中的研究力度仍然不足。本期特刊研究了这两个文献空白。本期特刊收录的所有文章都使用了独特且丰富的数据集,该数据集聚焦于全球韩国奖学金(GKS)获得者对韩国的感知。该数据集由2018和2019年进行的四项调研所组成,调研对象为GKS学生、毕业生、以及获得奖学金但还未前往韩国的学生。共有200多个变量,大多数变量有关于GKS获得者对韩国的认知评价和情感评价、与韩国相关的行为、韩国人如何对待他们的相关感知、他们对在韩国学习的满意度、对学校和语言学校的满意度、以及在韩国社会的融入度。本期特刊文章研究了GKS作为一项公共外交工具的不同方面,包括对韩国作为学习或旅游目的地的积极推荐的决定因素;行为经历、符号环境和传播行为之间的关系;毕业后留在东道国的学生意向;奖学金的性别化动态(gendered dynamics);学生对正义的看法(基于他们在东道国的经历和关于东道国的信念);以及学生对韩国生活的满意度的决定因素。
Kadir Jun Ayhan
added a research item
Through international student mobility programs, such as Global Korea Scholarship (GKS), countries aim to influence international students’ beliefs about and attitudes toward the host country. In this article, we explore GKS’s role in bringing international students to the country and analyze changes in GKS students’ and alumni’s affective and cognitive evaluation of Korea after coming to the country. We compare results based on students’ and alumni’s length of stay, gender, and economic development level of their home country. Our findings suggest that after coming to Korea, GKS recipients evaluate Korea more positively in both affective and cognitive dimensions.
Kadir Jun Ayhan
added a research item
Governments sponsor student-mobility programs with the expectation that students will build a more favorable and informed opinion of the host country which, in turn, will determine more favorable behavior towards the host country. Nevertheless, assessments of this logic are rare. Based on a survey of the Korean Government Scholarship Program’s alumni (n = 579), we analyze the alumni’s country image of South Korea and how this image determines their relationship maintenance behavior with South Korean people. Our findings show that the KGSP alumni’s image of South Korea partly explains the variance in their personal and professional relationship maintenance with South Koreans. Our findings show that the alumni’s emotions about South Korea influence their personal relationship maintenance behavior more than does each of the cognitive dimensions of the country image, while the functional dimension, which evaluates their beliefs about the country’s competencies and the competitiveness of its economic and political systems, has the highest influence on the alumni’s professional relationship maintenance.
Kadir Jun Ayhan
added an update
Korea Foundation was very generous to award us with a new grant for 2019 to continue our project on analyzing KGSP as a public diplomacy tool.
 
Kadir Jun Ayhan
added an update
In 2018, thanks to Korea Foundation's generous support, we were able to generate a very rich dataset. We surveyed about 700 KGSP alumni and about 1200 current KGSP students, asking them more than 200 questions. We are now in the process of analyzing our data and producing manuscripts based on our findings.
We presented our results at various conferences including ISA 2018, ISA Midwest 2018, KISA 2018 among other conferences.
We will present our latest results at ISA 2019 in Toronto.
 
Kadir Jun Ayhan
added a research item
My column for Donga Ilbo Newspaper on our Korean Government Scholarship Program alumni survey.
Kadir Jun Ayhan
added an update
We have completed the survey of KGSP students and alumni. We will soon put updates here on the results of our survey.
 
Kadir Jun Ayhan
added an update
We applied for Korea Foundation's Policy-Oriented Research Program for a research grant.
Our application was successful and Kyoto University of Foreign Studies, on behalf of our research team, is granted $40,000 for this project.
 
Kadir Jun Ayhan
added a project goal
We analyze how KGSP alumni and students cognitively and affectively evaluate Korea and how their evaluation influence their Korea-related behaviors.