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Gender Research

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Malte Wattenberg
added 2 research items
Relevance & Research Question: Technical progress through digitalisation is constantly increasing. Currently, the most relevant and technically sophisticated technology is artificial intelligence (AI). Women are less frequently involved in research and development on AI, clearly in the minority in STEM-professions and study programmes, and less frequently in management positions. Previous AI applications have often been based on data that under-represents women and thus map our society with existing disadvantages and injustices. So do men and women have different ideas about the role and significance of AI in the future? Do women have different requirements or wishes for AI? Methods & Data: Following the previously conducted in-depth literature research, a combination of qualitative interview study [n=6] and quantitative online survey [n=200] is planned. The target group will consist of company representatives and students whereby the evaluation of differences and correlations will be based in particular on gender. Results: A literature review of existing studies reveals that while more people are in favour of AI development than against it, it is mainly men with a high level of education and income. According to their self-awareness, women have a lower understanding of AI than men. Moreover, AI research and development is predominantly in the hands of men. Just under 25% of those employed in the AI sector are women, in Germany even only 16%. Old stereotypes are thus not only the basis for decisions regarding the development of AI but also incorporated into the data basis for AI: Voice and speech recognition systems are less reliable for female voices, as is face recognition for female faces. Search engines more often present male-connoted image and text results for gender-neutral search terms. The expected results of the questionnaire will be gender-relevant aspects in the perception, evaluation, development and use of AI. Added Value: The identification of gender-relevant differences in the perception and attitude towards AI will enable developers and researchers to be sensitised to the possible risks of AI applications in terms of prejudice and discrimination. In addition, opportunities for using AI to strengthen gender equality will be recognized.
As a central obstacle to the introduction of digitisation, many companies cite primarily the lack of suitable specialists with specific skills. One solution could be to increase the labour market participation of qualified women and persons with a migrant background. In order to harness the potential of skilled women and migrant women to shape the digital transition, companies and organisations need to reduce their reservations about women and people with a migrant background. Special measures must be used to raise awareness of diversity and highlight its benefits. Qualified women with and without a migration background in particular can play a major role in the context of digitisation due to their specific competences. According to experts, social, intercultural and risk management skills attributed to women and female immigrants are particularly necessary in the digitised world of work. But what specific skills do executives need in times of Industry 4.0? And are there gender-and culture-specific differences? This paper describes the results of an online survey of 515 students and company representatives that was conducted in Germany in the period from November to December 2018. Participants were asked to assess different competences, behaviours and knowledge resources in terms of their relevance to leadership in the world of work of the future. It turns out that "openness to change", "IT and media literacy", "learning aptitude" and "the ability to think in context" are specific competences that industry managers need, according to the respondents. In addition, "problem-solving competence" is important for students and "communicative competence" for company representatives. While the origin of the participants does not seem to have any influence, gender-and age-dependent differences can be observed in the results. For example, the women surveyed consider the four competences "innovation competence", "decision-making ability", "ability to think in context" and "willingness to make decisions" to be less relevant than men do. A comparison between generations also reveals some noticeable differences. Older respondents rated "openness to change", "self-organisation" and "problem-solving competence" as particularly relevant.
Malte Wattenberg
added 3 research items
In der postindustriellen exportorientierten Gesellschaft der Bundesrepublik ist interkulturelles Wissen ein wichtiges Gut, und die Potenziale von qualifizierten Personen mit Migrationshintergrund sind - insbesondere vor dem Hintergrund des demografischen Wandels - besonders wertvoll. Und doch haben qualifizierte Zuwanderinnen auf dem Weg zu einer Karriere mit vielen Hindernissen zu kämpfen. Als Frauen werden sie durch die "gläserne Decke" aufgehalten, wegen des Migrationshintergrunds müssen sie sich häufig gegen Vorurteile durchsetzen. In dem Forschungsprojekt "IMAGE - Inklusion von Migrantinnen für mehr Anerkennung, Gleichberechtigung und Effizienz", das von dem Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung gefördert wurde, wurden Erfolgsfaktoren für die Arbeitsmarktintegration und Karrieren von hochqualifizierten Migrantinnen untersucht, die wirtschaftlichen und sozialen Auswirkungen der kulturellen Vielfalt analysiert und Best Practices aus Unternehmen und Organisationen gesammelt. Die Ergebnisse aus dem Forschungsprojekt, untermauert durch die aktuellen Statistiken und Studien, werden in diesem Buch dargestellt. Anhand von Forschungsergebnissen und praktischen Beispielen werden die Erfolgsfaktoren für Migrantinnen-Karrieren und geeignete Instrumente für ihre Unterstützung erläutert. Darüber hinaus werden vielfältige Nutzenaspekte und Mehrwerte einer breiten Teilhabe von qualifizierten Migrantinnen in Unternehmen und Organisationen aufgezeigt. Das Buch richtet sich an Führungskräfte und Personalverantwortliche in Unternehmen und Organisationen, Diversity- und Gleichstellungsbeauftragte, karriereorientierte Frauen mit und ohne Migrationshintergrund, an die Politik und breite Öffentlichkeit.
Malte Wattenberg
added a research item
Digitalization has not only affected production conditions but also gender relations by creating favourable conditions that promote gender equality in companies and make use of female resources and competencies. To seize this opportunity, the digital work environment must be collaboratively designed. Currently, in the predominantly male world of IT and engineering, women are still outnumbered. A quantitative online-study with 28 closed questions on the attitudes and competencies of Young Professionals regarding digitalization was conducted from July to September 2017 in Germany. Results were analysed for trends in gender and generations. The participants (n=400, thereof female=273, male=127, in employment=221) consisted mostly of Generations Y and Z, who are at the beginning of their working lives. Several causes of the ongoing gender disparity were confirmed during analysis. While Young Professionals of both genders show interest in digital technologies, this interest was more pronounced among male respondents. Moreover, compared to men of the same age, young female respondents more intensively use the internet and social media while being less interested in technical functioning. Regarding necessary competencies in the digitalized world, male respondents were particularly interested in the importance of problem solving, optimization skills, and interdisciplinary cooperation. Female respondents placed more value on media, social, and communication competencies, as well as personal responsibility. Since leadership roles are traditionally associated with problem solving and decisiveness instead of social competence, these differences could represent barriers in women’s careers. However, these discrepancies also indicate that qualified women have more opportunity to become supporters and role models for new participatory leadership. Additionally, this study reveals clear stereotypes regarding women’s competencies. Male respondents generally believed that female IT and media competence, as well as their interest in technology are still less compared to men. These study results indicate that future measures should strive to sensitize managers and provide targeted training and support for women. Furthermore, these results contribute to the broad public and scientific discussion concerning the issue of gender parity in the context of digitalization.
Malte Wattenberg
added a research item
Die Digitalisierung verursacht gravierende Veränderungen in der Lebens- und Arbeitswelt. Die Prozesse wirken sich dabei unterschiedlich auf die beiden Geschlechter aus und werden in der Wahrnehmung von Männern und Frauen unterschiedlich bewertet. Allerdings liegen praktisch keine fundierten Ergebnisse der Genderforschung in Bezug auf die Digitalisierung vor. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt die Erkenntnisse einer Untersuchung zu den grundlegenden Einstellungen der Young Professionals hinsichtlich der Digitalisierung aus der Genderperspektive dar, um mögliche Unterschiede der Wahrnehmungen und Bewertungen zwischen Frauen und Männern zu identifizieren. Darüber hinaus sollen Schlussfolgerungen zu den möglichen frauenspezifischen Eigenschaften und Kompetenzen für die Gestaltung der Digitalisierung abgeleitet werden.