Project

Forest-human-machine interplay UNITE

Goal: Our goal is to to leverage the development towards biosociety, in which management and utilisation of forests will be both climate-smart, resource-efficient and multifunctional to ensure forest resilience, sustainable provisioning of versatile ecosystem services for the society, climate change mitigation, and meaningful living for generations to come.

Date: 1 July 2020 - 31 December 2024

Updates
0 new
9
Recommendations
0 new
2
Followers
0 new
50
Reads
1 new
751

Project log

Eetu Wallius
added a research item
The commonly applied strategies for promoting compliance with public health and safety policies can be inefficient and coercive, posing a need to examine novel motivational strategies to aid in this endeavor. Gamification, which aims to foster engagement and intrinsic motivation towards mundane activities and behaviors, is one of the vanguard design approaches among behavioral change support systems. Despite the increasing interest in gamification, the corpus lacks studies on its effects on policy compliance. Therefore, this study examines the relationships between gamification design types, gameful experience, and policy compliance in the social distancing context (during COVID-19) using a vignette-based online experiment (n=937). Based on the results, gameful experience mediates the positive relationships between achievement and progression-based, competitive, and immersive gamification and policy compliance, while social gamification is not associated with gameful experience. The results provide evidence of gamification's potential as a non-coercive method of helping people follow policies.
Annika Susanna Kangas
added a research item
Economically-oriented forestry aims to sustain timber harvest revenues, while ecologically-oriented management supplies suitable habitat for species using deadwood as primary habitat. As these objectives are conflicting, planning for economic and ecological sustainability involves compromise and trade-offs. We analyze the spatial trade-offs between the economic value from timber harvesting and the volume of deadwood in the boreal forest. We assess these trade-offs from three perspectives: (1) landscape characteristics, affected by conservation strategies; (2) forest management promoting either economic or ecological values; (3) uncertainty in inventory errors undermining the estimate of the two sustainability objectives. To reveal the tradeoffs between the forest economic and ecological values we simulated and optimized a production landscape in Finland 30 years into the future accounting for uncertainty in biomass and deadwood inventories. We found that, with a limited reduction in timber harvesting (7%), (i) the amount of deadwood increased more in non-aggregated (45%) than in aggregated (16%) stands, (ii) constraining stands in adjacent areas further increased deadwood (21%) respect to the matrix and (iii) 7% of connected stand area harbored ≥20 m3/ha deadwood supporting survival of near-threatened species. Our results demonstrate that the structure of the landscape for biodiversity can be improved with limited economic losses. However, improving habitat configuration requires larger economic losses than only increasing habitat amount, but its ecological benefits are larger both for common and red-listed species. We found that management oriented towards stand aggregation not only creates connected areas with high deadwood of high value biodiversity but also improves the value of the whole matrix by decreasing intensive timber harvesting and energy wood collection. Finally, we found that uncertainties alter the estimate of the potential of the forest landscape to supply deadwood, and this can affect the choice of management actions to allocate over the landscape. To conclude, our results demonstrate the trade-offs between economic forest use and conservation are affected differently by landscape characteristics, forest management and uncertainty in inventory errors. As such these drivers should be considered when optimizing the forest for multiple uses.
Annika Susanna Kangas
added a research item
The volume models that have been used in Finland for the last 40 years, while generally well thought-out, exhibit an illogical behaviour for small trees. In recent studies, tree stem form was observed to have changed in time and also involve spatial variation attributable to environmental factors. It is yet unclear how the stem taper has actually changed. To overcome these problems, we fitted a completely new set of volume and taper curve models and examined whether this change is attributable to the changes in management and environmental factors rather than to measurement errors in the previously used datasets. For the latter, we added a dataset into the analysis, which was smaller but of higher quality due to the destructive nature of the stem taper measurements. We aim at (1) developing a new non-linear variable form factor volume function that works with trees of all sizes, (2) improving the description of the variation of the stem form in time and space by including temperature sum and soil type as predictors, (3) understanding the changes in the stem form by fitting new taper curve models and (4) improving the statistical properties of the predictions by using mixed model techniques and by addressing the effect of parameter uncertainty. To assess the impact of renewing the models, we (5) predicted the mean volume and its confidence interval with each model for forest inventory data at country level. The results show that the tree stem form has a spatial trend that can be described with the temperature sum. Moreover, the changes in stem form also have a spatial trend, with largest changes in Lapland. The difference is mostly observable in the lowest part of the stem, and it is especially large in the largest pines. We conclude that environmental variables can help to improve national stem taper functions in countries with pronounced environmental gradients.
John Alexander Pulgarin Diaz
added a research item
The European spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important forest insect pest in Central and Northern Europe as it causes destructive damage in Norway spruce (Picea abies). As a result of ongoing climate change, its damages have increased and shifted northwards, affecting wood production and other ecosystem services. Therefore, we need locally adapted forest management practices, which consider increasing risk of damages and enhance preparedness. To find out patterns and causes for I. typographus damages in Finland, we compared forest and stand characteristics, and environmental factors in non-attacked P. abies stands with those in stands harvested due to I. typographus damage. Further, we analysed the distance between the nearby (0-5 km) recent clear-cuts (age 0-4 years) and the stands harvested due to wind or I. typographus damage. For this, we used forest-declaration-use, showing bark beetle damage maps and forest-stock data freely accessible from the Finnish Forest Centre (Metsäkeskus). During 2012–2020, the total number of declarations of harvesting operations due to I. typographus damage were 4691, with an epidemic phase (2013–2016), aggregated in south-eastern Finland and showing a northward distribution shift. We found evidence that bark beetles don’t select P. abies stands at random, in terms of “forest variables” (soil type, fertility class, development class or mean diameter of tree stand, and distance to recent clear-cuts). Also, the “beetle pressure” variable “distance to earlier attacks” in some cases increased the frequency of I. typographus damages, unlike distance to earlier wind damages — probably due to the quick remotion of wind damaged trees, prompted by law. A substantial part of the P. abies stands may be vulnerable to I. typographus attacks. Our findings may provide necessary support for adapting forest management practices, which consider increasing risk of outbreaks and enhance preparedness.
Blas Mola-Yudego
added a research item
Bioenergy can contribute to the development of a more sustainable environmental friendly alternative in rural areas in China. The perceptions, preferences and awareness concerning bioenergy among farmers are assessed in a systematic study of 594 Chinese farmers in 33 towns in the province of Shaanxi, using a generalized mixed model approach. In addition to the farmer's background and socio-economic variables, the spatial variation in the perceptions is addressed by mapping the residual between-county variation. The overall awareness of bioenergy as a viable alternative is still low (N = 80). Education and preferences on centralized heating systems play the most important role to explain the willingness to use biomass for domestic use or bioenergy from power plants. Users of large amounts of coal and electricity for heating increase the willingness to pay for bioenergy; users of firewood and raw residues are less prone to change their current energy uses. Nearly 75 % of farmers see bioenergy as a promising alternative to current consumption and production patterns of energy. The results show that not only the farmer's profile but the local context concerning energy mix, land uses and socio-economic factors are influencing their views, presenting defined spatial patterns and reflecting local geographies. Over one-third of respondents provide spontaneous recommendations to develop bioenergy markets. The results contribute to a better understanding of farmers' motivations, perceptions and views concerning energy uses, and can be used as an empirical basis for local energy planning towards a more sustainable energy transition in rural areas.
Blas Mola-Yudego
added a research item
The treatment of agricultural waste plays an important role in the sustainability of agricultural production and the well-being of rural communities. The present study analyzes the existing sources of agricultural waste in rural communities, their current disposal, and the farmers' attitudes towards waste management. The data is based on a survey in 21 communities in agricultural areas in Shaanxi (N = 359 farmers interviewed). The results provide a description of the main agricultural waste in the region based on empirical data. The responses highlight the farmers' experience, reputation, and engagement at recycling domestic waste as the main variables shaping their attitudes towards agricultural waste disposal. Farmers prefer treating primarily biowaste, mostly used for biogas generation or crop fertilizer at the farms. Improving waste management facilities, accessibility and economic incentives are identified as the main factors that could increase recycling rates, as well as the importance of training campaigns and instructions related to waste handling and recycling. The analysis captured the general trends in agricultural waste treatment and future directions and provides a basis for better designing waste and management alternatives.
Samuli Junttila
added 3 research items
Physiological processes cause movements of tree stems and branches that occur in a circadian rhythm and over longer time periods, but there is a lack of quantitative understanding of the cause-and-effect relationships. We investigated the movement of tree branches in a long-term drought experiment and at a circadian time scale using time-series of terrestrial laser scanning measurements coupled with measurements of environmental drivers and tree water status. Our results showed that movement of branches was largely explained by leaf water status measured as leaf water potential in a controlled environment for both measured trees (R2 = 0.86 and R2 = 0.75). Our hypothesis is that changes in leaf and branch water status would cause branch movements was further supported by strong relationship between vapor pressure deficit and overnight branch movement (R2 = [0.57–0.74]). Due to lower atmospheric water demand during the nighttime, tree branches settle down as the amount of water in leaves increases. The results indicate that the quantified movement of tree branches could help us to further monitor and understand the water relations of tree communities.
Water plays a crucial role in maintaining plant functionality and drives many ecophysiological processes. The distribution of water resources is in a continuous change due to global warming affecting the productivity of ecosystems around the globe, but there is a lack of non-destructive methods capable of continuous monitoring of plant and leaf water content that would help us in understanding the consequences of the redistribution of water. We studied the utilization of novel small hyperspectral sensors in the 1350–1650 nm and 2000–2450 nm spectral ranges in non-destructive estimation of leaf water content in laboratory and field conditions. We found that the sensors captured up to 96% of the variation in equivalent water thickness (EWT, g/m²) and up to 90% of the variation in relative water content (RWC). Further tests were done with an indoor plant (Dracaena marginate Lem.) by continuously measuring leaf spectra while drought conditions developed, which revealed detailed diurnal dynamics of leaf water content. The laboratory findings were supported by field measurements, where repeated leaf spectra measurements were in fair agreement (R² = 0.70) with RWC and showed similar diurnal dynamics. The estimation of leaf mass per area (LMA) using leaf spectra was investigated as a pathway to improved RWC estimation, but no significant improvement was found. We conclude that close-range hyperspectral spectroscopy can provide a novel tool for continuous measurement of leaf water content at the single leaf level and help us to better understand plant responses to varying environmental conditions.
Understanding the relationship between plant water status and productivity and between plant water status and plant mortality is required to effectively quantify and predict the effects of drought on plants. Plant water status is closely linked to leaf water content that may be estimated using remote sensing technologies. Here, we used an inexpensive miniature hyperspectral spectrometer in the 1550–1950 nm wavelength domain to measure changes in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) leaf water content combined with leaf gas exchange measurements at a sub-minute time resolution, under increasing vapor pressure deficit, CO2 concentrations, and light intensity within the measurement cuvette; we also developed a novel methodology for calibrating reflectance measurements to predict leaf water content for individual leaves. Based on reflectance at 1550 nm, linear regression modeling explained 98–99% of the variation in leaf water content, with a root mean square error of 0.31–0.43 g cm−2. The prediction accuracy of the model represents a c. ten-fold improvement compared to previous studies that have used destructive sampling measurements of several leaves. This novel methodology allows the study of interlinkages between leaf water content, transpiration, and assimilation at a high time resolution that will increase understanding of the movement of water within plants and between plants and the atmosphere.
Annika Susanna Kangas
added a research item
Inter-tree competition can be assessed using relatively simple indices derived from tree diameters, heights and locations, but they have often been found to be deficient for predicting tree growth. To better understand these linkages, we measure dimensions of Scots pine and Norway spruce crowns, which are assumed to be affected by competition pressure. We extract these features from terrestrial laser scanning point clouds and model their dependencies on competition. Our results indicate that while competition is a major determinant for crown morphology, the characteristics and most applicable indices of the two species are contrasting. We interpret our results primarily by light competition: pines are seeking for light and invest their resources on widening the crown only in suitable conditions, while spruce may grow large despite of shortage of light. We conclude that shade tolerance affects strongly on the identification of actual competitors, which should be addressed when modelling competition.
Annika Susanna Kangas
added a research item
In the remote sensing of forests, point cloud data from airborne laser scanning contains high-value information for predicting the volume of growing stock and the size of trees. At the same time, laser scanning data allows a very high number of potential features that can be extracted from the point cloud data for predicting the forest variables. In some methods, the features are first extracted by user-defined algorithms and the best features are selected based on supervised learning, whereas both tasks can be carried out automatically by deep learning methods typically based on deep neural networks. In this study we tested k-nearest neighbor method combined with genetic algorithm (k-NN), artificial neural network (ANN), 2-dimensional convolutional neural network (2D-CNN) and 3-dimensional CNN (3D-CNN) for estimating the following forest variables: volume of growing stock, stand mean height and mean diameter. The results indicate that there were no major differences in the accuracy of the tested methods, but the ANN and 3D-CNN generally resulted in the lowest RMSE values for the predicted forest variables and the highest R² values between the predicted and observed forest variables. The lowest RMSE scores were 20.3% (3D-CNN), 6.4% (3D-CNN) and 11.2% (ANN) and the highest R² results 0.90 (3D-CNN), 0.95 (3D-CNN) and 0.85 (ANN) for volume of growing stock, stand mean height and mean diameter, respectively. Covariances of all response variable combinations and all predictions methods were lower than corresponding covariances of the field observations. ANN predictions had the highest covariances for mean height vs. mean diameter and total growing stock vs. mean diameter combinations and 3D-CNN for mean height vs. total growing stock. CNNs have distinct theoretical advantage over the other methods in complex recognition or classification tasks, but the utilization of their full potential may possibly require higher point density clouds than applied here. Thus, the relatively low density of the point clouds data may have been a contributing factor to the somewhat inconclusive ranking of the methods in this study. The input data and computer codes are available at: https://github.com/balazsan/ALS_NNs.
Jyrki Kangas
added a research item
Climate change, global population growth, declining natural resources and the loss of biodiversity challenge us to move towards a global bioeconomy, based on the sustainable utilisation of renewable natural resources in the production of energy, products and services. The linear economic model based on fossil raw materials and products is coming to an end. Major global agreements and policy goals––the Paris Climate Agreement and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals––have given a mandate for our economic model to be changed. There is the need for a new economic paradigm that will place the basis for human prosperity within the planetary boundaries. One essential part of this new paradigm has to be a forest-based circular bioeconomy. The shift to this bio-based economic paradigm should be a long-term strategy for decoupling economic growth from climate change and environmental degradation. Developments in science and technology are laying the foundations for the bioeconomic age. Bio-based products have already emerged that can substitute for fossil- based materials, such as plastics, chemicals, textiles, cement and many other materials. Now, the big question is how to turn these scientific and technological successes into a global economic paradigm shift, and in a sustainable way. This requires us to look at the potential synergies and trade-offs that such a change will inevitably bring and how these can be integrated with the economic, ecological and social goals of society. Right now, we know that climate change will take place in this century, although there is uncertainty as to the degree of disruption it will bring. It will have an impact on forests. Like humans, trees are mortal. Climate change threatens to increase the mortality rate of trees. Disturbances, such as droughts, fires, storms and bark- beetle outbreaks, have already become stronger, more extensive and more damaging. This trend requires us to adapt to climate change and to build resilience in our forests against climate change. So, how can we do this? These themes and questions are the focus of this book, which builds upon recent scientific evidence concerning forests and climate change, and examines how the development of a forest bioeconomy can help to address the grand challenges of our time. In the book, experts analyse the economic, ecological and social dimensions of forests and climate change, along with the basis for, and shaping of, a forest-based bioeconomy, and the links between these. In this way, it provides information on the potential of forests and forest-based products to help in mitigating climate change, and the types of measures that can be taken to adapt forests to climate change, thereby building forest resilience. The book outlines a climate-smart forestry approach, based on three main objectives. First, reducing net emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Second, adapting and building forest resilience to climate change. Third, sustainably increasing forest productivity and economic welfare based on forestry. The climate-smart forestry approach is illustrated by case studies from Czech Republic, Finland, Germany and Spain––countries that have quite different forests and forest sectors. Finally, we suggest the types of policy measures required to address the challenges of developing, and increase the opportunities associated with, a sustainable forest bioeconomy. To the best of our understanding, this is the first book devoted to examining the links between climate change and a forest bioeconomy, and outlining the need for a climate-smart forestry approach to address the many needs we have for forests. The book is directed at forest- and environment-sector stakeholders and decision- makers, as well as the research community, the broader education sector and the media.
Lauri Mehtätalo
added a research item
My talk on UEF data-driven seminar about "The benefit of subject-matter theory in model building: the case of tree stem volume." We propose a new variable form-factor function for modelling tree stem volume and use it in an extensive data set of three species in data sets where part has been collected manually and part using terrestrial laser scanning. The talk is based on a submitted MS "Mixed linear and non-linear tree volume models with regionally varying parameters" by by Kangas A, Pitkänen TP, Mehtätalo L and Heikkinen J,
Annika Susanna Kangas
added a research item
Since the 1990’s, forest resource maps and small area estimates have been produced by combining national forest inventory (NFI) field plot data, optical satellite images and numerical map data using a non-parametric k-nearest neighbour method. In Finland, thematic maps of forest variables have been produced by the means of multi-source NFI (MS-NFI) for eight to ten times depending on the geographical area, but the resulting time series have not been systematically utilized. The objective of this study was to explore the possibilities of the time series for monitoring the key ecosystem condition indicators for forests. To this end, a contextual Mann-Kendall (CMK) test was applied to detect trends in time-series of two decades of thematic maps. The usefulness of the observed trends may depend both on the scale of the phenomena themselves and the uncertainties involved in the maps. Thus, several spatial scales were tested: the MS-NFI maps at 16 × 16 m2 pixel size and units of 240 × 240 m2, 1200 × 1200 m2 and 12 000 × 12 000 m2 aggregated from the MS-NFI map data. The CMK test detected areas of significant increasing trends of mean volume on both study sites and at various unit sizes except for the original thematic map pixel size. For other variables such as the mean volume of tree species groups, the proportion of broadleaved tree species and the stand age, significant trends were mostly found only for the largest unit size, 12 000 × 12 000 m2. The multiple testing corrections decreased the amount of significant p-values from the CMK test strongly. The study showed that significant trends can be detected enabling indicators of ecosystem services to be monitored from a time-series of satellite image-based thematic forest maps.
Eetu Wallius
added a research item
Purpose Several freight operations rely on human cognition and behavior. Tackling these aspects, gamification transforms activities to resemble game-like experiences. Since the freight transportation sector is rapidly adopting gamification, the purpose of this study is to provide an overview that synthesizes the state-of-the-art and plot future directions for research and the practice of gamifying this area. Design/methodology/approach A systematic review of the gamification of freight transportation was conducted. After screening 691 studies, 40 relevant studies were analyzed. Findings Most studies found positive psychological and behavioral outcomes from gamification. Literature mainly focused on tackling the operational-level issues of road and maritime transportation modes by implementing simulation games. Research limitations/implications Besides elaborating how gamification can improve freight transportation, the authors describe directions still uncovered by the current corpus, such as research design and temporality and the variety of modes and tasks. Practical implications Practical implications emerged from the studies, primarily focusing on understanding users, tasks and contexts, targeting different audiences and transportation modalities, and balancing motivational affordances, while considering the demands of the freight transportation domain, including dynamic, spatially dispersed environments and cooperation between multiple stakeholders. Social implications The transportation of goods dominates much of the global economy and ecology. Therefore, gamifying this domain has a huge societal impact potential, especially related to issues of sharing economy, safety, environmental sustainability and social media. Originality/value Beyond providing an original overview of gamified freight transportation, this study maps current research gaps and describes practical recommendations.
Timo P Pitkänen
added a research item
Presentation on processing national terrestrial laser scanning data at Natural Resources Institute Finland, given in the UNITE flagship project Scientific Advisory Committee meeting May 11, 2021.
Samuli Junttila
added a research item
A summary of our recent findings related to measuring plant-water relations using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS).
Jyrki Kangas
added an update
UNITE general presentation at UNITE's Scientific Advisory Committee 11 May 2021
 
Annika Susanna Kangas
added an update
Slides from Luke_SLU co-operation meeting
 
Jyrki Kangas
added an update
UNITEsta lyhyt kuvaus Stakeholder Boardin kokouksessa 6.5.2021
 
Samuli Junttila
added 2 research items
Physiological processes cause movements of tree stems and branches that follow a circadian rhythm, but there is a lack of quantitative understanding of the cause-and-effect relationships. We investigated the diurnal movement of tree branches using time-series of terrestrial laser scanning measurements coupled with measurements of environmental drivers and tree water status. Our results showed that diurnal movement of branches was largely explained by leaf water status. This conclusion was supported by the significantly lower overnight branch movement in leaf-off than leaf-on conditions. Our findings conclude that alteration in leaf water status causes systematic branch movements following a diurnal rhythm. Due to lower atmospheric water demand during the nighttime, tree branches settle down analogously to sleep as the amount of water in leaves is increasing. The results indicate that quantified movement of tree branches could help us to further monitor and understand the water relations of tree communities.
During the past decades, extreme events have become more prevalent and last longer, and as a result drought-induced plant mortality has increased globally. Timely information on plant water dynamics is essential for understanding and anticipating drought-induced plant mortality. Leaf water potential (ΨL), which is usually measured destructively, is the most common metric that has been used for decades for measuring water stress. Remote sensing methods have been developed to obtain information on water dynamics from trees and forested landscapes. However, the spatial and temporal resolutions of the existing methods have limited our understanding of the water dynamics and diurnal variation of ΨL within single trees. Thus, we investigated the capability of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) intensity in observing diurnal variation in ΨL during a 50-h monitoring period. We aimed to improve the understanding on how large a part of the diurnal variation in ΨL can be captured using TLS intensity observations. We found that TLS intensity at the 905 nm wavelength measured from a static position was able to explain 77% of the variation in ΨL for three trees of two tree species with a root mean square error of 0.141 MPa. Based on our experiment with three trees, a time series of TLS intensity measurements can be used in detecting changes in ΨL, and thus it is worthwhile to expand the investigations to cover a wider range of tree species and forests and further increase our understanding of plant water dynamics at wider spatial and temporal scales.
Timo P Pitkänen
added a research item
Root rot, caused by the decay fungus Heterobasidion annosum, damages both below- and above-ground parts of Scots pines (Pinus Sylvestris L.). The diseased pines are often first characterized by deteriorated crowns and they will eventually be killed by the infection, but the process is gradual and difficult to be observed before the symptoms are severe. We tested the applicability of point cloud data produced by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) for quantifying the structural differences between the healthy and the diseased trees. This approach was applied in a mature pine stand in southern Finland, which was known to be infected by H. annosum. We first scanned the stand using TLS, and thereafter felled the trees for detailed inspection and classification of the infection status. From the TLS point cloud, we estimated i) crosscut areas within the lowest 1 m of the stem, identifying potential deformations initiated by the fungus, ii) degree of crown deterioration, often providing the first visual signs of the infection at the level of individual trees, and iii) crown occupancy and open space around the trees, prone to be altered by the mycelial spread of the fungus between the adjacent trees. The results indicate that differences in both stem dimensions and crown deterioration can be detected between the healthy and the diseased trees. The diseased trees were found to have a more swollen butt, but no irregularities in circularity of the crosscuts were detected. In terms of vertical point distribution, the diseased trees had point accumulations at substantially greater heights, reflecting easier penetration of laser beams and sparsity of the crown. Regarding to crown occupancy, the diseased trees had more open space around their crowns, but difference to the healthy trees was not statistically significant. According to a simple prediction test based on the calculated features, up to 85% classification accuracy of the infection status was reached. This study is the first indication that TLS can successfully be applied for detecting structural changes of Scots pines connected to Heterobasidion root rot. Our results also show evidence that H. annosum causes butt swelling, which has rarely been reported as a symptom for Scots pines.
Annika Susanna Kangas
added an update
2.2. UNITE esiintyi medialle. Tässä kalvot mediatilaisuudesta.
 
Annika Susanna Kangas
added an update
UNITE had an on-line kick-off meeting on 26.1. The slides from the meeting are now available.
 
Annika Susanna Kangas
added a research item
Forest Management Inventories (FMIs) provide critical information, usually at the stand level, for forest management planning. A typical FMI includes i) the delineation of the inventory area to stands by applying auxiliary information, ii) the classification of the stands according to categorical attributes, such as age, site fertility, main tree species, stand development, and iii) measurement, modelling and prediction of stand attributes of interest. The emergence of wall-to-wall remote-sensing data has enabled a paradigm change in FMIs from highly subjective, visual assessments to objective, model-based inferences. Previously, optical remote-sensing data were used to complement visual assessments, especially in stand delineation and height measurements. The evolution of airborne laser scanning (ALS) has made objective estimation of forest characteristics with known accuracy possible. New optical and Lidar-based sensors and platforms will allow further improvements of accuracy. However, there are still bottlenecks related to species-specific stand attribute information in mixed stands and assessments of tree quality. Here we concentrate on approaches and methods that have been applied in the Nordic countries in particular.
Jyrki Kangas
added a research item
19 The circular bioeconomy represents a societal paradigm shift and transition challenge that 20 inevitably influences how companies act in their evolving operational environment. The 21 disruptive features may be particularly difficult to foresee, and tackle strategically, in 22 companies with long-term operations and a relatively stable marketplace position, such as 23 firms operating in the forest sector. Here we consider large forest sector companies in a 24 circular bioeconomy sphere and scrutinize opportunities to hasten their socio-technical 25 transition pathway with a combination of open foresight and open innovation activities. We 26 present a synthesis drawn from contemporary strategic business management literature and 27 adapt that to forest sector multinationals. A greater openness to the actors, knowledge, and 28 expertise outside the forest sector may be an essential element of successful bioeconomy 29 transition for incumbent forest sector firms. This requires leadership to shift culture and an 30 investment in the skills and expertise held by company employees. Increased investment in 31 human capital and embracing a broader network of collaborators may pave the way for 32 forest industry companies towards sophisticated corporate foresight and open innovation, 33 corresponding to Future-Fittest status. 34 35 36
Annika Susanna Kangas
added a research item
The prediction of tree stem volumes has conventionally been based on simple field measurements and applicable allometric functions, but terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has enabled new opportunities for extracting stem volumes of single trees. TLS-based tree dimensions are commonly estimated by automatized cylinder-or circle-based fitting approaches which, given that the stem cross-sections are relatively round and the whole stem is sufficiently covered by TLS points, enable an accurate prediction of the stem volume. The results are, however, often deteriorated by co-registration errors and occlusions, i.e., incompletely visible parts of the stem, which easily lead to poorly fitted features and problems in locating the actual treetop. As these defects are difficult to be controlled or totally avoided when collecting data at a plot level, taking advantage of additional field measurements is proposed to improve the fitting process and mitigate gross errors in the prediction of stem volumes. In this paper, this is demonstrated by modelling the stems first as cylinders by only using TLS data, after which the results are refined with the assistance of field data. The applied data consists of various field-measured stem dimensions which are used to define the acceptable diameter estimation limits and set the correct vertical extents for the analyzed tree. This approach is tested using two data sets, differing in the scanning setup, location, and the measured field variables. Adding field data improves the results and, at best, enables almost unbiased volumetric predictions with an RMSE of less than 5%. According to these results, combining TLS point clouds and simple field measurements has the potential to produce stem volume information at a considerably higher accuracy than TLS data alone.
Annika Susanna Kangas
added a research item
The tree stem volume models of Norway spruce, Scots pine and silver and downy birch currently used in Finland are based on data collected during 1968-1972. These models include four different formulations of a volume model, with three different combinations of independent variables: 1) diameter at height of 1.3 m above ground (dbh), 2) dbh and tree height (h) and 3) dbh, h and upper diameter at height of 6 m (d6). In recent National Forest Inventories of Finland, a difference in the mean volume prediction between the models with and without the upper diameter as predictor has been observed. To analyze the causes of this difference, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) was used to acquire a large dataset in Finland during 2017-2018. Field-measured predic-tors and volumes predicted using spline functions fitted to the TLS data were used to re-calibrate the current volume models. The trunk form is different in these two datasets. The form height is larger in the new data for all diameter classes, which indicates that the tree trunks are more slender than they used to be. One probable reason for this change is the increase in stand densities , which is at least partly due to changed forest management. In models with both dbh and h as predictors, the volume is smaller a given h class in the data new data than in the old data, and vice versa for the diameter classes. The differences between the old and new models were largest with pine and smallest with birch.
Juho Hamari
added 15 research items
Computer games and organizations are becoming increasingly interwoven in the 21st century. Sophisticated computer games connected by networks are turning into spaces for organizing. Therefore, it may not be surprising that conventional organizations are now scrounging these games for novel ways to enhance efficiency. The result is the formation of game/organization hybrids; uneasy recontextualizations of partly incompatible ideas, values and practices. We begin this essay by elucidating what it is socially that makes something a game by exploring the notion's anthropological foundations. We then introduce two examples of actual game/organization hybrids; raiding in computer games and gamification in formal organizations. We conclude by discussing the implications of such hybridization and suggest venues for how organization and management scholars can benefit from studying computer games and theories of play.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate why do people spectate eSports on the internet. The authors define eSports (electronic sports) as “a form of sports where the primary aspects of the sport are facilitated by electronic systems; the input of players and teams as well as the output of the eSports system are mediated by human-computer interfaces.” In more practical terms, eSports refer to competitive video gaming (broadcasted on the internet). Design/methodology/approach The study employs the motivations scale for sports consumption which is one of the most widely applied measurement instruments for sports consumption in general. The questionnaire was designed and pre-tested before distributing to target respondents ( n =888). The reliability and validity of the instrument both met the commonly accepted guidelines. The model was assessed first by examining its measurement model and then the structural model. Findings The results indicate that escapism, acquiring knowledge about the games being played, novelty and eSports athlete aggressiveness were found to positively predict eSport spectating frequency. Originality/value During recent years, eSports (electronic sports) and video game streaming have become rapidly growing forms of new media in the internet driven by the growing provenance of (online) games and online broadcasting technologies. Today, hundreds of millions of people spectate eSports. The present investigation presents a large study on gratification-related determinants of why people spectate eSports on the internet. Moreover, the study proposes a definition for eSports and further discusses how eSports can be seen as a form of sports.
Two parallel phenomena are gaining attention in human-computer interaction research: gamification and crowdsourcing. Because crowdsourcing's success depends on a mass of motivated crowdsourcees, crowdsourcing platforms have increasingly been imbued with motivational design features borrowed from games; a practice often called gamification. While the body of literature and knowledge of the phenomenon have begun to accumulate, we still lack a comprehensive and systematic understanding of conceptual foundations, knowledge of how gamification is used in crowdsourcing, and whether it is effective. We first provide a conceptual framework for gamified crowdsourcing systems in order to understand and conceptualize the key aspects of the phenomenon. The paper's main contributions are derived through a systematic literature review that investigates how gamification has been examined in different types of crowdsourcing in a variety of domains. This meticulous mapping, which focuses on all aspects in our framework, enables us to infer what kinds of gamification efforts are effective in different crowdsourcing approaches as well as to point to a number of research gaps and lay out future research directions for gamified crowdsourcing systems. Overall, the results indicate that gamification has been an effective approach for increasing crowdsourcing participation and the quality of the crowdsourced work; however, differences exist between different types of crowdsourcing: the research conducted in the context of crowdsourcing of homogenous tasks has most commonly used simple gamification implementations, such as points and leaderboards, whereas crowdsourcing implementations that seek diverse and creative contributions employ gamification with a richer set of mechanics.
Annika Susanna Kangas
added an update
Finnish Academy has a flagship programme, which after the last decisions involves 10 large consortia. UNITE is one of the 10 flagships.
 
Jyrki Kangas
added a project goal
Our goal is to to leverage the development towards biosociety, in which management and utilisation of forests will be both climate-smart, resource-efficient and multifunctional to ensure forest resilience, sustainable provisioning of versatile ecosystem services for the society, climate change mitigation, and meaningful living for generations to come.