Project

Facilitation of green adaptation techniques for reduction of seasonal water scarcity in Costa Rica

Goal: This proposal aims to understand Costa Rica’s water-related challenges in vulnerable communities to identify and test adaptation options for coping with water scarcity. Specifically, we will learn from two case studies: i) Coastal aquifers salinization in the Santa Cruz Canton; and ii) Water scarcity in Pacific insular communities. We will focus on understanding the biophysical and socio-economical dynamics of both case studies to then test and assess the feasibility for implementing robust adaptation measures. In both cases this will involve strengthening cooperation between German and Costa Rican stakeholders; gaining insights about the water scarcity drivers through literature reviews, and collecting available hydrological data; estimate water use and determine water availability seasonality; and identifying suitable green adaptation measures based on ecosystem dynamics, e.g. building infrastructure for increasing rainfall water recharge. We highlight that beyond the importance of expanding the scientific knowledge about the drivers of both case studies, this proposal intends to develop strategic green approaches for contributing to water risk reduction in communities with severe constraints for achieving water security.

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Private Profile
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Uno de los principales elementos para el progreso de una región es el recurso hídrico, ya que es el servicio ecosistémico base para el desarrollo de la vida y las actividades socioeconómicas. Uno de los principales retos en la gestión hídrica latinoamericana es la escasa en información disponible para facilitar la toma de decisiones. Aunque hay grandes avances sobre las tendencias o los posibles escenarios de cambio climático y sus impactos, estos todavía no se traducen en instrumentos para garantizar el abastecimiento del recurso hídrico a toda la población en general. Aunado a esto, el constante incremento de las actividades económicas y el crecimiento demográfico en las últimas décadas han propiciado el cambio de uso de la tierra en áreas sensibles para la disponibilidad del recurso hídrico. El propósito de este trabajo es modelar el comportamiento de la recarga del acuífero Huacas-Tamarindo, por medio de la modelación hidrológica numérica gestionada con el software ArcSWAT versión 2012. Además, se integraron escenarios de disponibilidad hídrica considerando los efectos proyectados del cambio climático. Los resultados del balance hídrico señalan que entre los meses de julio y octubre se presentan los mayores volúmenes de agua en el acuífero. El modelo hidrológico presenta una precipitación total de 2.336,4 mm en el año 2019, una evapotranspiración de 795,2 mm y un flujo de corriente de 68.941,3 mm. Los escenarios proyectados indican que la oferta hídrica es suficiente para cubrir las concesiones de agua brindadas actualmente. No obstante, eventos extremos del clima y la irregularidad de las extracciones representan dos factores adicionales que pueden comprometer la seguridad hídrica. El modelo parametrizado es un insumo importante para la toma de decisiones sobre el aprovechamiento y disponibilidad del recurso hídrico en la región, ya que permite a las autoridades y actores interesados correspondientes contar con una referencia numérica para mejorar al manejo del recurso hídrico.
Catalin Stefan
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This document contains the report of the workshop entitled “Green adaptation strategies for water security in the Central American dry corridor” organized in Nicoya, Costa Rica, on 26 March 2019. The workshop represented the official kick-off meeting of the bilateral German - Costa Rican project “Facilitation of green adaptation techniques for reduction of seasonal water scarcity in Costa Rica”. The project is funded by the German Ministry of Education and Technology (BMBF) and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Telecommunications in Costa Rica (MICIIT), and is implemented by Technische Universität Dresden (TUD) and Universidad Nacional Costa Rica (UNA)
Andrea Suárez
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TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITÄT DRESDEN (TUD)
Department of Hydrosciences,
Research Group INOWAS
01062 Dresden
GERMANY
Mesoamerican Center of Sustainable Development of the Dry Tropics (CEMEDE)
Sede Regional Chorotega, Campus Nicoya
Guanacaste
COSTA RICA
Water Resources Center for Central America and The Caribbean (HIDROCEC)
Sede Regional Chorotega, Campus Liberia
Guanacaste
COSTA RICA
 
Andrea Suárez
added a project goal
This proposal aims to understand Costa Rica’s water-related challenges in vulnerable communities to identify and test adaptation options for coping with water scarcity. Specifically, we will learn from two case studies: i) Coastal aquifers salinization in the Santa Cruz Canton; and ii) Water scarcity in Pacific insular communities. We will focus on understanding the biophysical and socio-economical dynamics of both case studies to then test and assess the feasibility for implementing robust adaptation measures. In both cases this will involve strengthening cooperation between German and Costa Rican stakeholders; gaining insights about the water scarcity drivers through literature reviews, and collecting available hydrological data; estimate water use and determine water availability seasonality; and identifying suitable green adaptation measures based on ecosystem dynamics, e.g. building infrastructure for increasing rainfall water recharge. We highlight that beyond the importance of expanding the scientific knowledge about the drivers of both case studies, this proposal intends to develop strategic green approaches for contributing to water risk reduction in communities with severe constraints for achieving water security.