added a research item
Evolution and the Origins of Life
"Cause of Cambrian Explosion - Terrestrial or Cosmic?" is based entirely on books and articles published by Joseph (2000, 2009a,b,c,d,e, 2010ab, 2013; Joseph & Schild 2010a,b) in which Joseph presented a comprehensive, detailed genetic theory which explained 1) the extraterrestrial origins of life on Earth, (2) the evolutionary biology of extraterrestrial interplanetary horizontal gene exchange; (3) how the genetic information for the evolution of life on Earth has extraterrestrial origins, (4) how extraterrestrial genes, including "silent genes" and the genetic material for the generation of additional genes, were transferred by viruses and prokaryotes into the eukaryotic genome and that these genes (5) contained all the genetic information necessary for the evolution of every species which has walked, crawled, swam or slithered across this planet--including species which never evolved on Earth. 6) It was further detailed as to how various species genetically and biologically altered the environment, which (7) acted on gene selection and "silent gene" activation thereby initiation the evolution of "new" species adapted to a world which had been genetically engineered for their survival. 8) Hence, according to Joseph's theory, when sufficient oxygen, calcium etc. had been secreted or liberated, silent and other genes were activated giving rise to the Cambrian explosion, 9) and the evolution of the eye, brain and skeletal system. (10) As detailed in these books and article by Joseph: Bacteria, archae, and viruses, and perhaps even more complex species, continually fall from space and (11) continue to insert genes, via horizontal gene transfer, into the eukaryotic genome thereby effecting the trajectory of evolution. (12) All these factors explain the step-wise, punctuated equilibrium which characterizes evolution on this planet, and (13) can be summed up as "evolution and metamorphosis." (14). Prior to the research and theorizing of Joseph (2000-2013), no scientist had ever before provided an extraterrestrial-genetics-based theory as to the evolution of life on Earth or the Cambrian Explosion. Although Steel, Wickramasinghe and the coauthors of "Cause of Cambrian Explosion - Terrestrial or Cosmic?" attributed this theory to themselves and to Hoyle and Wickramasinghe, there is no evidence to support this claim, particularly in that Hoyle and Wickramasinghe repeatedly attributed evolution to a god-like extraterrestrial intelligence and only used "key" and "lock" metaphors to explain the role of viruses in evolution. (15). It is concluded that with the exception of material about panspermia the 2018 article, "Cause of Cambrian Explosion - Terrestrial or Cosmic?" is based on the work and theories of Rhawn Joseph, first published in 2000.