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Evaluation of iron, copper and aluminum resources in China;Carbon dioxide accounting and evaluation in Sichuan province

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Xiandan Cui
added 2 research items
More and more attention is paid to application of material flow accounting for the sustainability of resource management. This paper evaluates the dynamics stocks and flows associated with the U.S. copper industry based on historical data of copper consumption during1900–2016. This paper shows the current in-use stocks and predicts the amount of scrap generation until 2031 of different consumption scenarios. During1900–2016, about 60% of consumed copper transformed to scrap, the rest still existed in in-use stocks. The change of copper consumption during 2016–2031 has little effect on the amount of scrap generation in 2031. For sectors, building construction is the largest consumer of copper, with an average of 37% of total consumption. But scrap generated from building construction is only 16,800 Gg, far less than the 33,900 Gg generated from electric and electronic products. This is due to the generally long-life expectancy of building construction. Besides, the maximum amount of in-use stocks is 74,400 Gg in the calculation period, 67% (about 49,700 Gg) of which is from building construction. Several recycling indicators defined from different perspectives also have been measured. All recycling indicators in the U.S. are higher than the global average. However, compared to the considerable amount of scrap generation, recycled copper for domestic consumption is very small, only accounting for 8.1% in the past decades. This is because of large amount of export scrap and high recovery costs.
Due to the rapid economic development in China, the conflict between the increasing traditional energy consumption and the severe environmental threats is more and more serious. To ease the situation, greater use of wind energy in China could be the solution for energy conservation and sustainable environment in the long run. This paper describes the presentation of wind power in China, which covers distribution, bases, installed capacity, power generation from the spatial perspective and the environmental benefit. In addition, grey model (GM(1,1) ) and scenario analysis are employed to forecast the installed capacity in China from 2017 to 2025, then the evaluation of two methods is presented. By this research, the results are shown as the following: (1) the North region has great wind energy with 2500-3000 giga watt (GW) and the offshore wind energy in the Southeast is abundant; (2) the Inner Mongolia base located in North China makes a great contribution to wind power as well as having great potential for wind power development with the potential of 1300 GW; (3) the growth rate of installed capacity and wind power generation in China is declining with 100% in 2006 to 30% in 2015, 107% in 2009 to 17% in 2015, respectively; (4) the "three North" region has made a great contribution to current installed capacity and wind power generation with 74% and 71%, respectively; (5) wind power has significant environmental benefits with coal reduction of 23,887 × 10⁴ tce, CO2 reduction of 66,854 × 10⁴ tons and SO2 reduction of 173 × 10⁴ tons in total from 2008 to 2015; (6) the installed capacity in China from 2017 to 2025 is predicted utilizing a GM(1,1) model with 38,311.1810 × 10³ GW in 2025, while, with a scenario analysis, the installed capacity will reach up to 40,000 × 10³ GW in 2025 under the high GDP growth rate and 29,000 × 10³ GW in 2025 under the low GDP growth rate, respectively. Finally, it can be concluded that China has a solid foundation for the wind power development due to its abundant wind resources and great potential for wind power. Furthermore, the sustainable development can be guaranteed, and reduction in energy usage as well as emissions can be achieved by promoting wind power widely and effectively.