Antimicrobial stewardship guidelines (ASGs) represent an important tool to help veterinarians optimize their antimicrobial use with the objective of decreasing antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study was to map and qualitatively assess the ASGs for antimicrobial use in cats and dogs in Europe. Country representatives of the European Network for Optimization of Veterinary Antimicrobial Treatment (ENOVAT) were asked to identify ASGs published in their countries. All collated ASGs updated since January 2010 containing recommendations on antimicrobial therapy for at least three conditions affecting different organ systems in cats and dogs underwent detailed review including AGREE II analysis. Out of forty countries investigated, fifteen ASGs from eleven countries met the inclusion criteria. Several critical principles of antimicrobial use were identified, providing a framework that should assist development of stewardship guidance. The AGREE II analysis highlighted several methodological limitations of the currently available ASGs. This study sheds light on the lack of national ASGs for dogs and cats in multiple European countries and should encourage national bodies to prioritize guideline development in small animals. A greater awareness of the need to use a structured approach to guideline development could improve the quality of ASGs in the future.
Antimicrobial resistance is a public health concern. Understanding any role that urban seagulls may have as a reservoir of resistant bacteria could be important for reducing transmission. This study investigated fecal Escherichia coli isolates from seagulls (herring gulls and lesser black-backed gulls) to determine the prevalence of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) and fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli among gull species from two cities (Taunton and Birmingham) in the United Kingdom (UK). We characterized the genetic background and carriage of plasmid-mediated resistance genes in extended-spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli obtained from these birds. Sixty ESC-R E. coli isolates were obtained from 39 seagulls (39/ 78, 50%), of which 28 (28/60, 46.7%) were positive for plasmid-mediated CTX-M and/or AmpC b-lactamase resistance genes. Among these, bla CTX-M-15 , bla CTX-M-14 , and bla CMY-2 predominated. Three isolates belonging to the B2-ST131 clone were detected, of which two harbored bla CTX-M-15 (typed to C2/H30Rx) and one harbored bla CTX-M-27 and was typed to C1/H30-R (recently described as the C1-M27 sublineage). The plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) gene carriage prevalence (11.7%) consisted of aac(6¢)-Ib-cr and qnrB genes. No carbapenem or colistin resistance genes were detected. Urban seagulls in the UK are colonized and can spread major antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates harboring ESBL and PMQR determinants, including clinically important strains such as the pandemic clone B2-ST131 and the C1-M27 subclade. This is the first report of ST131-C1-M27 subclade in wildlife in the UK and in seagulls worldwide.
The food of animal origin that is the most consumed is the table egg, but laying hens treated with antibiotics can produce eggs contaminated with antibiotic residues. Residues of antibiotics may present a risk for consumer health. Keeping in mind that laying hens almost always suffer from Mycoplasma (Mycoplasma synoviae), for which they are treated with antibiotics, high-quality egg production is even harder. Our research aimed to investigate the influence of three different antibiotics compared to the tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) essential oil administered to naturally infected laying hens with M. synoviae, on antibiotic residues in eggs as well as the egg nutritive and sensory qualities. A total of 20,000 laying hens, housed in one facility and divided into four lines each consisting of 5000 hens naturally infected with M. synoviae, was used. For the antimicrobial therapy, tetracycline (TC), oxytetracycline (OTC) and chlortetracycline (CTC) were used, respectively. As a control, tea tree essential oil (TT) was used. Based on the gained results all tetracyclines treatment residue values were significantly (p < 0.05) higher compared to the control treatment (TT), but without any significant differences (p > 0.05) between themselves. The results showed no differences in the nutritive and the sensory qualities of eggs between the control and the experimental treatments (p > 0.05). Keeping in mind the obtained results from this study, it can be concluded that tea tree essential oil could be successfully used as a natural antibiotic in the treatment of M. synoviae, without any adverse effects on table egg quality.
Dear Colleagues, The global antimicrobial resistance crisis has been the driver of several international strategies on antimicrobial stewardship. Despite their good intentions, such broad strategies are only slowly being implemented in real life. Antimicrobial resistance bacteria flow among humans and animals and actions for fighting the problem must consider both sectors. Antimicrobial usage is one of the potential drivers for antimicrobial resistance. The usage of antibiotics concerning companion and food animals and antimicrobials is undoubtedly beneﬁcial for the prevention of diseases and the improvement of livestock performance. Unfortunately, in veterinary medicine, which is challenged by a shortage of experts in key disciplines related to antimicrobial stewardship, there are few antimicrobial treatment guidelines and diagnostic tests are inferior compared to human microbiology, without providing enough valuable information, which makes it difficult to identify by whom, when, and how the antimicrobial products are used. The main aspects of antimicrobial resistance monitoring remain unsolved in both companion and food animals, the use of appropriate methods for collection of information at the animal and farm levels, and the choice of metrics of measurement of antimicrobial resistance and animal populations at risk. This Special Issue invites researchers interested in antimicrobial resistance monitoring in animals, to optimize veterinary antimicrobial use with special emphasis to help in the development of antimicrobial treatment guidelines and refinement of microbiological diagnostic procedures, in both companion and food animals, and to use the gathered information to improve antimicrobial stewardship. This Special Issue is supported by COST Action CA18217 – European Network for Optimization of Veterinary Antimicrobial Treatment. We would like to encourage the submission of manuscripts that give insight into the aforementioned topics and to create awareness in the population concerning their health. Prof. Dr. Nikola Puvaca Ms. Chantal Britt Dr. Jonathan Gómez-Raja