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Estimating the Technical Efficiency of Broad Bean Production in the Old Lands of Egypt

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Introduction The broad bean crop is one of the most important leguminous crops in Egyptian agriculture, and its importance is due to its being an essential component of the Egyptian diet. Reliance on it is increasing for a large number of the population as a relatively cheap source of protein compared to high-priced animal protein, as the annual average per capita increased from about 6 kg /year in 1989 to about 7.7 kg/year in 2019 (Food Balance Bulletin) at a time when local production is shrinking and reliance on imports of beans increases to meet consumer needs and the increasing demand for beans. The bean crop and its by-products are also used to feed livestock and poultry, in addition to its role in improving soil properties and increasing the percentage of nitrogen in it, which helps to reduce the use of nitrogenous fertilizers for the next crop in agriculture. The broad bean crop is planted in the winter season with crops of wheat, sugar beet and alfalfa, and in light of the scarcity and relative stability of the cultivated area, it has become difficult to increase the area of broad bean at the expense of any of them. Wheat agricultural policy aims to expand its area as a strategic crop, beet Sugar is subject to contract farming to meet the industrial needs of sugar production companies, and the state relies on it to increase sugar production after stabilizing the sugar cane crop area for considerations of rationalizing the use of irrigation water. Alfalfa is the main winter green fodder crop, in addition to the high net yield per feddan of these crops compared to the broad beans. This makes the vertical expansion programs for the broad bean crop and increasing the productivity of the