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This is an Open Access Journal / article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. All rights reserved. Freshwater mussels are bivalve inhabitants of inland waters represented on all continents except Antarctica. They are among the most endangered animal taxa. In the present study population estimation and phylogenetic study of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) was conducted. Totally 3019 animals in 5 different species of freshwater mussels were recorded in Cauvery river, Srirangam, Tiruchirapplli district, Tamil Nadu, India. They were belonging to two genera, Lamellidens and Parreysia and one family Unionidae. Parreysia favidens was recorded in maximum number and minimum numbers of Lamellidens corrianus were recorded in Cauvery river. Phylogenetic study result revealed that there was close relationship between Lamellidens corrianus and Lamellidens marginalis and distantly related species were Lamellidens corrianus and Parreysia corrugata. ABSTRACT RESEARCH ARTICLE
The productivity of an aquatic environment is directly correlated with the population density of planktons. The present study was focused on the population and diversity of planktons as ecological indicator for identifying the ecological quality of freshwater pond located at Ananthamangalam, Nagapattinum district, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 51 taxa of different classes of planktons were identified from the water sample collected from the study area. The planktons comprises phytoplanktons, Cyanobacteria, algae, diatoms, protista and protozoa. The phytoplankton was found being most abundant taxa. Species richnesss and diversity of planktons was found to be more during monsoon season. Fluctuations in the plankton count were observed among the seasons. Large number of planktons were identified during post monsoon season and less numbers of planktons were identified during Pre Monsoon season. From this study it is concluded that the freshwater pond located at Ananthamangalam showed the seasonal variations in plankton population, high diversity and more richness of Species.
The present study describes the anti-implantation activity of Thespesia populnea bark extracts (ethanol, ethyl acetate, and aqueous)on female albino rats. Extracts were tested for possible anti-implantation activity in albino female rats of the proestrus cycle after overnight cohabitation with males of proven fertility. The drugs were administered to pregnant female rats from day 1 to 7 th day of pregnancy. On the 8 th day, the rats were laparotomies under light anesthesia, and the numbers of implantation sites were counted, and the reproductive hormonal levels were assessed. The present results revealed that the short term treatment of T. populnea bark extracts reduced the number of implantation sites in the uterus. It also significantly altered the reproductive hormonal level by increasing FSH and LH level and decreasing progesterone, prolactin, and estradiol level. Thus, it is concluded that T. populnea extracts possess significant anti-implantation activity.
Urbanization is the important contribution to the environmental pollution especially freshwater habitat. Water pollution is a primary reason for the pollution of environment, ecosystem and human health. Molluscans are most important groups of invertebrates in an ecosystem with regard to biomass, diversity, spatial or tropic relationships. Freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoida) are important component of ecosystems and used as a biological indicator for water pollution. This is due to the special characteristic features that makes as a good biological indicator. There are more sensitive to the toxins and heavy metals such as, copper, zinc, cadmium etc. the accumulation toxins and heavy metal in the shell and organs of freshwater mussels indicating the contaminant nature of the water bodies.
Cancer is one of the most dangerous diseases globally, and it appears due to extreme free radical damage, some chemicals, and a lack of physical activity which dispute causes damage to the cellular DNA, protein, and lipids. A number of treatment methods are available, but they cause unwanted side effects. The use of plant-derived products in the treatment of cancer prominently reduces adverse and toxic side effects. The present study investigated the antiproliferative effects of Naraveliya zeylanica L. against the human lung cancer cell line A549. The cytotoxicity potential of ethanol extract of N. zeylanica was tested on A549 cell line by dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranging from 100-1000 μg/mL, and the viability of treated cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Different morphological changes in the cells and mode of cell death were analyzed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining, single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay and Hoechst staining methods. JC1 staining was adopted to check mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Ethanol extract of N. zeylanica significantly inhibited the growth of lung cancer (A549) cells with induction of apoptosis. The IC50 concentration of (435.50 ± 0.05 μg/ml) the extract remarkably induced the A549 cell apoptosis and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential. Taken together, our findings indicated that the ethanol extract of N. zeylanica possessed potent antiproliferative and apoptotic activities.
Traditional plant therapies increasing in recent decade has a new wave of the research interest in plant kingdom. Scientific studies on a number of medicinal plants indicate that promising phytochemical compounds can be developed new drugs for many health problems. Ventilago maderaspatana (Red creeper) is medicinal plant traditionally used for the control of various diseases such as dyspepsia, leprosy, puruitis, etc. Chemical studies have shown that, stem bark contains Flavonoids, tannins etc. Some parts of its phytochemicals possess anticancer, antidiabetics and antiulcers activities. Thus, the present review made an attempt to highlight the ethno botanical and traditional uses as well as phytochemical and pharmacological studies on V. maderaspatana and it will help to develop new ailments for the treatment of various diseases.
Abstract- A pioneering study was conducted to reveal the spider’s diversity in Puthanampatti village, Tiruchirappalli District, Tamil Nadu. There were 13 species of spiders belonging to 13 genera of 6 families collected from Puthanampatti village, Thiruchirappalli District, Tamil Nadu, South India. The families Araneidae and Oxyopideae exhibited maximum species. Among the families, Araneidae was the dominant with 6 species. Out of 13 species 6 species were collected from the plantation area, 5 species from the agricultural habitat and 4 species from human habitation. No variation was observed in the species richness and diversity among the habitat while significant variation was observed in the population density among the different habitats.
Phylogenetics is the study of evolutionary relatedness amongst organisms. The genetic relationships between species can be represented using phylogenetic trees. Studies of the phylogeny of organisms can help explain the similarities and differences among species. There are various techniques used to create phylogenetic trees and most of them rely on aligned genetic sequences to perform this task. Probably the most popular genetic sequence alignment algorithm is ClustalW. The freshwater mussel family Unionidae is one of the largest families in the Bivalvia and includes over 670 species. The present study was carried out for the construction of phylogenetic tree and to evaluate the relationship among the four groups. The mitochondrial COI gene of the different species of Lamellidens, Parreysia corrugata and Musculium indicum was retrieved from GeneBank. Multiple sequence alignment and Phylogenetic tree construction was done by using online software ClustalW. The sequences were converted to FASTA format. From the result of phylogenetic analysis L. marginalis and L. consorbrinus were closely related species and, L. marginalis and Musculium indicum were distantly related species. From the study it is concluded that all the four species of bivalvia confirmed their relationship among them.
Environmental volatility chiefly influences health status of hens in the poultry farms and this results in disturbances of egg production in many ways. The ideal temperature for a hen is 18-24 0 C. The heat stress is an important environmental challenge which the emerging poultry industry faces. The feed intake is decreased due to heat stress. The egg production is decreased by increasing heat stress and it leads to increasing breakage of eggs which resulting from poor shell thickness. On the other hand, cool climate also affect the hens' health status and hens are exposed to several diseases.
The isolated pure principles from successive extracts of Ethanol, Ethylacetate and Aqueous extract of Thespesia populnea L (bark) has been studied on post-implantation stages of the uterus of rats so as to elucidate its antifertility mode of action. The crude extracts were tested for possible antiimplantation activity in wistar albino rats of normal proestrus cycle after overnight cohabitation with males of proven fertility. The day when spermatozoa were detected in vaginal smear was treated as 1 st day to 7 th day of pregnancy at the dose level of 14.3mg/kg/b.wt/day. On the 8 th day, the rats were laprotomized under light anesthesia and the numbers of implantation sites and corpora lutea were noted. The biochemical estimation results showed that successive increase in the Acid phosphate, Alkaline phosphate level (One way ANOVA; p<0.005) and the decrease in protein and cholesterol level (One way ANOVA; p<0.0.05). The aqueous extract of T. populnea was administered there was a significant reduction in all these biochemical constituents except ACP level when compared to their respective control groups. The role of these biochemical transformations has been discussed in relation to anti-implantation action of the extract. The results, it is concluded that all extracts of T. populnea bark exhibited female antifertility activity by reducing implants. It was found that aqueous extract and ethyl acetate extract of T. populnea bark were more effective than the ethanol extract.
The nanoparticle used for drug delivery and other medical related are increasing widely. But their toxic nature should be evaluated for prescribing them to medical usage. In the present study, an attempt was made to analyze the toxic nature of vitamin C doped MgS nanoparticle against freshwater fish Oreochromis mossambicus. Vitamin C doped MgS nanoparticle was synthesized by chemical method and its characteristic feature was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope. The size of particles was in the range of 191 nm to 405nm. Biochemical parameters such as carbohydrate, protein and DNA levels were estimated in muscle, gill and liver tissues of vitamin C doped MgS nanoparticle treated fishes Oreochromis mossambicus. An increased level of biochemical parameters such as carbohydrate, protein, DNA and liver marker enzymes such as ALP, ACP and bilirubin was observed and it confirmed that vitamin C doped NgS nanoparticle was toxic to freshwater fish Oreochromis mossambicus. The overall study concludes that the vitamin C doped MgS nanoparticle is toxic to the fresh water fish Oreochromis mossambicus at lethal dose.
Background and Aim: Several synthetic contraceptive piles and mechanical contraceptive devices are available today but these methods possess several side effects. Herbal medicinal plants have been used as safe alternatives of these contraceptive methods. Methods: In the present study, the effect of oral administration (6.6 mg/kg/bwt/day for 15 days) of Thespesia populnea bark extracts (ethanol, ethyl acetate, and aqueous) on the ovulation of female albino rats was investigated. Changes in the duration of different stages of estrous cycle, number of egg production, and reproductive hormonal levels were assessed after the continuous treatment T. populnea extracts. Results: Treatment with ethanol, ethyl acetate, and aqueous extracts caused extend in the duration of estrus, diestrus, and proestrus stages. They also reduced the number of egg in oviduct especially ethyl acetate extract drastically reduced the egg production. Significant reduction in the follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, progesterone, and estradiol levels and an increase in the prolactin level in the extract treated rats. From the results, it is concluded that all extracts of T. populnea bark exhibited female antiovulation activity. It was found that aqueous extract and ethyl acetate extract of T. populnea bark was more effective than the ethanol extract
A pioneering study was conducted to reveal the spider’s diversity in Puthanampatti village, Tiruchirappalli District, Tamil Nadu. There were 13 species of spiders belonging to 13 genera of 6 families collected from Puthanampatti village, Thiruchirappalli District, Tamil Nadu, South India. The families Araneidae and Oxyopideae exhibited maximum species. Among the families, Araneidae was the dominant with 6 species. Out of 13 species 6 species were collected from the plantation area, 5 species from the agricultural habitat and 4 species from human habitation. No variation was observed in the species richness and diversity among the habitat while significant variation was observed in the population density among the different habitats.
The export of poultry products contributes significantly in India's total export. As far as India's export of poultry products are concerned, exporting of dried eggs and liquid eggs contribute a substantial portion. India has been exporting poultry products such as eggs, preserved or processed egg products, processed poultry meat even live birds to rest of the world. The dried eggs or powdered eggs and preserved liquid eggs are used as nutrient supplement and they are easily available at all seasons. There had been a fluctuating trend in the exports of dried and liquid eggs from India due to health factors associated with the poultry products. The availability of poultry equipment, feed additives, vaccines and pharmaceuticals in India has a good potential for exports.
The present study was designed to validate the antiulcer potential of ethanolic extract of carrot and radish on alcohol induced gastric ulcer in albino rats in order to an alternative treatment for alcoholic patients. Gastric ulcer was artificially induced in the albino rats by administering aspirin and antiulcer activity of the selected vegetables was evaluated by assessing the free acidity, total acidity, ulcer index and histoarchitecture of the stomach. Ethanol extract and fresh juice of carrot significantly decreased the free acid level and total acid output in aspirin induced ulcer rats. Similarly, fresh juice and ethanolic extract of radish remarkably decreased the free acid level and total acid output in aspirin induced ulcer rat model. Ulcer score was comparatively found to be low in the ethanol extract of carrot and radish treated rats. The percentage of curation index was observed to be high in the radish treated rats and in the carrot extract treated rats as well. Further the histological studies also supported by these results and they recovered the cellular damage caused by aspirin. From the results, it is concluded that both the radish and carrot have antiulcer activity and thus it may be recommended for the treatment of gastritis and gastric ulcer in alcohol abuse patients.
This research work was designed to study the effect of grey water on the yield of vegetable crop (radish) under field conditions. Availability of irrigation water at reasonable cost is one of the most important factors for agricultural development. Conjunctive use of fresh and grey water can successfully be adopted for cultivation. The waste water was collected from the Sir. CVR ladies hostel, Nehru Memorial College, Puthanampatti. An experiment was laid out at the research plot of Nehru Memorial College, Puthanampatti, Tiruchirappalli. The collected samples were subjected to systemic analysis of the below stated physiochemical parameters and biological testing. The tested physiochemical parameters are pH, Dissolved oxygen (DS), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Salinity and conductivity. Treated waste water samples were serially diluted and microbial analysis was done for identify the bacterial colonies. It was observed that the higher level of vegetative yield of radish crop and provides maximum return at 100% sewage water. Plant height, root length and girth significantly increased with the increase of sewage content in the grey water. The crop production using waste water favourably altered the physicochemical parameters of the soil and water. The present study shows the good yield and water use efficiency of radish (Raphanus Sativus) crop increase with an increase in grey water.
The fish consumption per person has doubled on a worldwide basis and hence the fishery waste on land has also increased. The discarding of fish waste creates environmental problems as well as disposal problems. The common practice of disposing the residue of the seafood industry into natural open bodies of water and landfills has on odor problems, floating debris and visible surface slick, attractants of undesirable predator species increased turbidity and dissolved oxygen depression of bodies of water. Conventional methods for reutilization of fish waste are animal feeds, and composting fertilizer. Composting fish waste is a relatively new and an environmentally sound alternative to disposing of fish waste. It is economical, odorless and a biological beneficial practice for sea food operation. The reutilization of fish waste as liquid fertilizer was particularly economical alternative at present, and plant-scale production would be necessary for commercialization. Fish compost can be prepared with fish wastes such as tissues, bones and scales mixed with three different substrates such as sugar, jaggery and palm jaggery in 1:1 ratio. Fish compost characters such as odour, physical state, weight, pH and protein content were estimated. Fertilizer value was estimated by analyzing the blooming effect and tender leaf formation of rose plant. After 48 days, bad odour gradually turned into fruity odour in fish waste mixed with cane sugar, cane jaggery and palm jaggery. They bone and scales of fish became degraded and turned into liquid state. The blooming of flower in the rose plant was increased after applying liquid fertilizer. Therefore, there is a need to find ecologically acceptable means for reutilization of these wastes.
Most of our food consists of agricultural products, which are usually seasonal and spoil quickly. To make food available throughout the year, humans have developed methods to prolong the storage life of products to preserve them. Fruits and vegetables can also become contaminated with microorganisms capable of causing human diseases while still on the plant in fields or orchards, or during harvesting, transport, processing, distribution and marketing, or in the home. The food industry uses a variety of preservation, or processing, methods to extend the shelf life of fruits and vegetables such that they can be consumed year round, and transported safely to consumers all over the world – not only those located near the growing region. Refrigeration is very popular method of storage. Apart from this, the epileptic power supply and low income of farmers in the rural communities makes refrigeration expensive. In the present investigation, different natural preservation techniques were designed and evaluated their effect on the storage or preservation ability. Clay pot refrigerator and UV radiation techniques were designed for preservation of vegetables. To evaluate the effect of the above preservation techniques, the vegetables and fruits were divided in to 6 groups. The morphological characters such as colour, hardness, width, length and weight of study materials were measured and compared these characters of control groups and initial characters. Further, the DPPH free radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity were measured for evaluating the efficacy of preservation techniques. Colour of all vegetables in experimental groups remained unchanged in clay pot refrigerator. Morphologhical values like width, length and weight were measured and not observed any notable changes in clay pot refrigerator. Results of the DPPH and antioxidant activity of experimental groups were compared with the fresh one and vegetable stored in clay pot refrigerator and they were not differed markedly.
Many cities in developing countries have problems in managing their domestic wastewater, especially in big and densely populated cities. The present investigation focused on the effect of horse dung in the treatment of waste water especially black water (refers to toilet water which turned black when stored). The black water was collected from the Sir C. V. Raman women's hostel, Nehru Memorial College (Autonomous), Puthanampatti, Tiruchirappalli. Wastewater generated from the hostel contains bad odors, some non pathogens, fecal Coliforms, fungus etc., and chemicals such as phenols, nitrate, chloride etc., in addition to usual constituents such as urine and faeces. Under such circumstances it becomes essential to treat this water, so that the land or receiving water body can accept the treated water without any objections. Effect of horse dung in the treatment of wastewater was analyzed by analyzing the physico-chemical parameters and biological parameters of septic water before and after treatment with cow dung and compared with control (without treatment of cow dung). Collected samples were treated with cow dung in different concentrations (5g/10 l; 10g/10 l and 25g/10 liters of wastewater). A control (without treatment of cow dung) was maintained. The physicochemical parameters and microbial characteristics were continually analysed from the first day to 10th day. Physicochemical parameters such as pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), chloride, nitrate, phosphate and silicate were analyzed. The black water samples were serially diluted and microbial analysis was done for identification beneficial bacteria present in the samples. The treatment of black water by using cow dung favourably altered the physicochemical characters. Further the present investigation has identified beneficial microbes in cow dung treated waters which are predominantly used for treatment of waste water. They were Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Pseudomonas Putida, Pseudomonas sp., Aspergillus niger, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis with mean count of 6 to 13 colonies. Cow dung has the best activity in the treatment of septic water. The effectiveness of individual microbes identified in this study in waste water treatment should be evaluated.