Archived project

Entitlement, belief in life as zero-sum game and subjective well-being: 42-nation study

Goal: This project aimed at examine relationship between entitlement (active, passive, and revenge), belief in life as zero-sum game and subjective well-being (both hedonia and eudaimonia) across cultures. Currently project is closed with data from 42 countries (student samples).

Methods: Questionnaire Design

Date: 1 January 2014 - 1 December 2015

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Project log

Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska
added a research item
This article presents a short research report on the relationship between perceived antagonism in social relations measured using the Belief in a Zero-Sum Game (BZSG) scale, life satisfaction, and positive and negative affect. Given that individuals who believe that life is like a zero-sum game are likely to perceive their daily interactions with others as unfair, we expected that individuals with high BZSG experience more negative affect and fewer positive one, resulting in a lower satisfaction with life. In addition, we examined whether country-level BZSG may play a moderating role in these associations. Data were collected from student samples (N = 7146) in 35 countries. Multilevel modelling revealed that perceived social antagonism in social relations is negatively associated with satisfaction with life and that this relationship is mediated by both positive and negative affect at the individual level. The relation of individual BZSG and negative affect on satisfaction with life were weaker in societies with higher country-level BZSG, suggesting that the effects of BZSG may be less detrimental in these countries. These findings extend previous knowledge about predictors of life satisfaction and suggest that social beliefs might also be an important factor that influences subjective well-being. The contribution of the study is that the separate treatment of life satisfaction and positive and negative affect may be helpful in many research situations, particularly from a cross-cultural perspective.
Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska
added a research item
This study examines factors related to willingness to host refugees. We examined the role of national attitudes (patriotism, nationalism), out-group attitudes (classic and modern prejudice), and zero-sum thinking: Belief in a Zero-Sum Game and psychological entitlement in attitudes towards hosting refugees. We proposed including zero-sum thinking as possible mediator between national attitudes and attitudes toward refugees based on assumption that nationalism is a competitive attitude toward out-groups, while patriotism does not. Structural equation modeling based on a Polish national sample ( N = 1,092) revealed that patriotism is positively associated with willingness to host refugees, through its negative association with prejudice via decreasing zero-sum thinking. Nationalism was negatively associated with willingness to host refugees, through prejudice via increasing zero-sum thinking. Findings are discussed in the context of current refugee policies. Keywords: national attitudes, refugees, prejudice, belief in a zero-sum game, psychological entitlement
Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska
added a research item
On the basis of findings obtained from students samples from 27 countries (N = 6192) applicability of three-dimensional entitlement model on individual and cultural level were tested. In the article we present theoretical model allowing for cross-cultural comparisons of entitlement attitudes and its relations to socio- economic development of societies (including functioning of democracy and economy) and cultural values by Shalom Schwartz. Obtained results are discussed in the terms of John Berry’s eco-cultural model and Ronald Inglehart’s human development theory. Keywords: cultural entitlement attitudes, social development, ecocultural model, human development the- ory, cultural values W oparciu o dane z prób studenckich z 27 krajów (N = 6192) sprawdzano uniwersalność trójwymiarowego modelu postaw roszczeniowych – zarówno w obrębie badanych prób krajowych, jak i na poziomie ponad- kulturowym. W artykule przedstawiamy model teoretyczny umożliwiający porównania międzykulturowe w odniesieniu do postaw roszczeniowych oraz związki wyróżnionych postaw ze wskaźnikami rozwoju socjoekonomicznego społeczeństw (w tym funkcjonowania demokracji i gospodarki) oraz wartościami kul- turowymi Schwartza. Uzyskane wyniki omawiamy w odniesieniu do modelu ekokulturowego Berry’ego oraz teorii rozwoju ludzkiego Ingleharta. Słowa kluczowe: postawy roszczeniowe, rozwój społeczny, model ekokulturowy, teoria rozwoju ludzkiego, wartości kulturowe
Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska
added a research item
Objective: The Mental Health Continuum – Short Form is a brief scale measuring positive human functioning. The study aimed to examine the factor structure and to explore the cross cultural utility of the MHC-SF using bifactor models and exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM). Method: Using multigroup confirmatory analysis (MGCFA) we examined the measurement invariance of the MHC-SF in 38 countries (university students, N = 8,066; 61.73% women, mean age 21.55 years). Results: MGCFA supported the cross-cultural replicability of a bifactor structure and a metric level of invariance between student samples. The average proportion of variance explained by the general factor was high (ECV = .66), suggesting that the three aspects of mental health (emotional, social, and psychological well-being) can be treated as a single dimension of well-being. Conclusion: The metric level of invariance offers the possibility of comparing correlates and predictors of positive mental functioning across countries; however, the comparison of the levels of mental health across countries is not possible due to lack of scalar invariance. Our study has preliminary character and could serve as an initial assessment of the structure of the MHC-SF across different cultural settings. Further studies on general populations are required for extending our findings.
Carles Alsinet
added 2 research items
This report examines the measurement invariance of the Personal Well-being Index with 8 items (PWI-8). University students (N = 5,731) from 26 countries completed the measure either through paper and pencil or electronic mode. We examined unidimensional structure of PWI and performed a Multi-group CFA (MGCFA) to assess the measurement invariance across the 26 countries, using conventional approach and the alignment procedure. The findings provide evidence of configural and partial metric invariance, as well as partial scalar invariance across samples. The findings suggest that PWI-8 can be used to examine correlates of life satisfaction across all included countries, however it is impossible to compare raw scores across countries.
La planificación centrada en la persona es un modelo que pretende promover la calidad de vida y el bienestar personal mediante una intervención personalizada y adaptada a las necesidades, capacidades y potencialidades de la persona. El tránsito de la planificación tradicional a la planificación centrada en la persona requiere un cambio en la intervención profesional que se consigue mediante la formación y la sensibilización. El presente estudio analiza las valoraciones de un grupo de profesionales de servicios sociales sobre las posibilidades del modelo, sus limitaciones y ventajas. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto la pertinencia de la metodología en la intervención que desarrollan los profesionales.
Carles Alsinet
added 2 research items
An exploratory research aiming to know, on one hand, more in detail on how children between 12 and 16 years old use different audiovisual technologies, what do they feel and think when using them, and whom they like to speak about such experience is presented. And on the other hand to study in depth the interactions between adults and children, particularly between parents and their children, referring to these technologies when children are developing activities with them at home or in other places. Answers to questionnaires with several common items, administered separately to pare n t s and children, have been analysed. Children's answers reflect an important level of dissatisfaction when talking with diff e rent adults about media activities. The thesis stating that more and more children socialise on new information and communication technologies with little or no contrast with adults, and shaping specific children's cultures receives support. Crossed answers from parents and their own children show aspects of the media reality which adults overestimate or underestimate in comparison with children, and which is the degree of coincidences and discrepancies between generations in different evaluations. Results are applicable to the improvement of relations between adults and adolescents, taking advantage of the high motivation of the last ones to develop activities using media equipment.
Gisela de Clunie
added 17 research items
The research paper describes the development of a user friendly 3D virtual world. For the research, we modeled building number 3 of the Technological University of Panama, Victor Levi Sasso Campus. For the virtual world development we consider the use of an avatar, which becomes the user's virtual representation that interacts with certain objects in the virtual world. The tools and resources used, because they facilitate the interoperability, were the following: Computer Aided Design software (CAD), Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD), Virtual Reality Technology, Videogame technology and 3D game engine.
Architectural Engineering Technology AET (for its acronym in English, Architectural Engineering Technology) using game development tools for creating 3D virtual environments. Institutions of higher education, using 3D game engines in order for students to acquire skills in designing and modeling using this technology. We describe the development of a project using the UDK 3D game engine (Unreal Development Kit), as a technological tool to create a virtual display.
Os métodos de ensino tradicionais dos sistemas de gerenciamento de aprendizagem (ou LMS do termo em inglês (Learning Management System) são rígidos por natureza e impōem limitações ao processo de ensino. Por terem um padrão fechado, essas ferramentas acabam prejudicando o aluno, pois o impedem de interagir com qualquer pessoa que compartilhe dos mesmos interesses que ele. Por exemplo, o aluno posta uma dúvida sobre um determinado assunto no forum e às vezes espera dias, semanas, sem obter retorno algum. Como resultado, os conceitos de comunidade, relação e interação entre os usuários são necessários para superar essas limitações. Atualmente o Moodle não provém ferramentas que suportam a criação de uma rede social que possa ser articulada pelos participantes. A proposta deste trabalho é o desenvolvimento de um software que possibilite a criação e articulação de redes sociais online no ambiente Moodle de forma automática. A partir disso, espera-se que cada aluno possa ter o seu próprio espaço com comunidades virtuais de prática específicas para as suas necessidades e que eles consigam também a qualquer momento adicionar novas pessoas a essas comunidades, que estejam em qualquer lugar, ou seja, em qualquer Moodle, curso, grupo ou fórum. Assim, ampliando além da rede social, as possibilidades educacionais que a aprendizagem colaborativa oferece.
Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska
added a project goal
This project aimed at examine relationship between entitlement (active, passive, and revenge), belief in life as zero-sum game and subjective well-being (both hedonia and eudaimonia) across cultures. Currently project is closed with data from 42 countries (student samples).