Archived project

Enhancing Scaling Readiness of Root, Tubers and Banana (RTB) Innovations

Goal: To develop and test ‘scaling readiness’ approach and tools for RTB Innovations aiming to improve livelihood systems in low and middle income countries.

For more information: https://twitter.com/ScalingReady

Methods: Econometric Modeling, Qualitative Data Analysis, Social Network Analysis, Quantitative Analysis, Text Analysis, Innovation Landscape Maps, Event Log, Learning System for Agricultural Research for Development, Learning Log, LESARD

Date: 1 February 2017 - 31 December 2021

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Project log

Murat Sartas
added a research item
This chapter describes the development and scaling-out of flash dryer innovations for more efficient production of high-quality cassava flour (HQCF) and starch at small-scale. The diagnoses of cassava-processing SMEs revealed their energy expenditures for drying were considerably higher than large-scale industrial companies, which was mostly due to sub-optimal design of flash drying systems. As a result, small-scale production of cassava starch and HQCF often incurs high production costs, incompatible with market prices of final products. Taking stock of this situation, RTB scientists have developed several innovations to optimize energy efficiency and costs, including longer drying pipe, re-engineered heat exchanger, larger blower for higher air velocity, and higher product:air ratio. This was based on numerical modeling to determine the key design features of energy-efficient flash dryers, followed by construction and demonstration of a pilot-scale prototype. As a result, improved small-scale flash dryers are now being scaled-out to the private sector in various countries, using the Scaling Readiness methodological framework and achieving 10-15% gains in productivity and incomes. A methodology for diagnosis of process efficiency is also described, to identify technical bottlenecks and to document and measure the outcomes and impacts during the implementation of scaling-out projects.
Murat Sartas
added 4 research items
COVID-19 has transformed the way of work in the international science and knowledge ecosystem. The transformation was especially prominent in collaborative sectors that put interdisciplinary and multi-stakeholder engagements at their core such as innovation and scaling. This document provides a short training plan and describes the modules for increasing the capacity of research managers and research support teams in designing and operationalizing innovation and scaling projects in low and middle-income countries.
Scaling Readiness is a science-based approach for managing social innovation projects and portfolios. Its design and products are informed by existing challenges for interventions aiming to achieve impact at scale. This presentation provides the list of the specific scientific and practical solutions Scaling Readiness provides and explains the key contributions of Scaling Readiness.
CGIAR Initiative Harnessing Digital Technologies for Timely Decision Making Across food, land and water systems aims to support inclusive agricultural transformation and sustainable food, land, and water management by improving information systems and strengthening digital innovation ecosystems. Scaling Readiness has a major potential to contribute to the objectives of the initiative. This presentation introduces Scaling Readiness, its implementation cases and provides details about its most relevant products to the lead designers of the initiative.
Murat Sartas
added a research item
This blog presents lessons learned from implementing specific strategic options adapted to Colombia, Dominican Republic, Nigeria and DR Congo to overcome the bottlenecks limiting transfer and adoption of the flash dryer innovations. It describes the low-cost flash drying technology for cassava concisely and describes how Scaling Readiness contributed to management decisions about scaling the flash dryer in Colombia, Dominican Republic, Nigeria and DR Congo. Full blog can be accessed here https://flashdryer.cirad.fr/news/evolution-of-innovation-and-flash-dryer-scaling-strategies
Marc Schut
added a research item
This document provides an overview of objectives, design principles, workflows, results and ideas for future work related to the integration of Scaling Readiness into ProPAS. It includes references to instructional video on how to properly use Scaling Readiness in ProPAS. The document explains some of the basic principles of Scaling Readiness and how these have been operationalized in ProPAS. The document can serve for internal or external use. More information at: https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/110688.
Murat Sartas
added a research item
The Orange Fleshed Sweetpotato (OFSP) Puree for Safe and Nutritious Food Products, and Economic Opportunities for Women and Youths project in Malawi was officially launched in July 2019 following the inception workshop that took place in Kenya in March. This project in Malawi is building on the previous work done under the Root out Hunger project and USAID FTF project with Universal Industries, SUSTAIN, MISST, DIVERSIFY and the experience of the ongoing work being done by the RTC-ACTION. With the RTB Scaling project, CIP and its implementing partners have been able to reach more beneficiaries with puree utilization technology than previously envisaged with the ongoing programs. The project has been implemented through stakeholder engagement. The different stakeholders have been engaged during the project launch, stakeholder meetings, trainings, as well as through the media, which has resulted in increased awareness of OFSP puree utilization and its products, increased knowledge, increased visibility as well as an increased number of people accessing the OFSP puree based products. The stakeholders involved include the private sector, farmers, government departments, the Malawi Bureau of standards, NGOs, and donors. Major achievements deliverables include, stakeholder engagements reports, documentaries and special programs aired on both the TVs and radio stations, newspaper articles, capacity building/trainings of farmers and women groups on grading and product preparations respectively, participation and sponsorship of the National Agriculture Fair, participation at the National Food Day, new processor identification and increased production and sales of the OFSP puree based baked and fried products. This study was undertaken as part of, and funded by, the CGIAR Research Program on Roots, Tubers and Bananas (RTB) and supported by CGIAR Trust Fund contributors via the project under the name “Orange Fleshed Sweetpotato Puree for Safe and Nutritious Food Products and Economic Opportunities for Women and Youth,” hereafter the project. RTB is a partnership collaboration of five research centers, led by the International Potato Center, with decades of experience in these crops on different continents, including four CGIAR research centers (Bioversity International, the International Center for Tropical Agriculture, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and the International Potato Center) and the French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development (CIRAD). By working with more than 360 other partners, these five centers mobilize complementary expertise and resources; avoidduplication of efforts, and create synergies to increase the benefits of their research for smallholder farmers, consumers, and other stakeholders. This report presents stakeholder management strategy for the project done by Ms. Jean Pankuku and Dr. Murat Sartas following the Stakeholder Engagement Approach for Scaling in threes (SEAS-3n). SEAS-3n is a unified approach, developed by Dr. Murat Sartas, for combining the identification of stakeholders in 3 steps, assessing their involvement in 9 levels, and engaging them through 27 options. Initially, it describes the project. Afterward, it presents its stakeholders in Malawi, the involvement level of each stakeholder in the project, and the innovations it works on as well as the best strategic stakeholder engagement option that improves the involvement. For further queries about the project and the report, please contact Ms. Pankuku via jeanpankuku@gmail.com. For questions about SEAS-3n please contact Dr. Murat Sartas via murat.sartas@gmail.com.
Murat Sartas
added 5 research items
Small-scale flash drying is a promising technology to meet the increasing demand for high-quality cassava flour (HQCF). The technology significantly reduces fungal and dust contaminations in HQCF and reduces health risks for consumers. However, the configuration and operating conditions of existing flash dryers are sub-optimal, leading to high energy use and operating costs. These can mean the difference between profitability and loss because margins in HQCF and starch production are small. Since 2013, the CGIAR Roots, Tubers and Bananas (RTB) program in collaboration with local stakeholders across Nigeria, have developed a numerical modelling method to design energy- and cost-efficient flash dryers, and proven its effectiveness through the construction and testing of a pilot-scale dryer. Scaling Readiness was used to identify bottlenecks for the uptake of the improved small-scale flash dryer innovation to the private sector. Through two fieldwork data collection periods and online semi-structured interviews, the methodological approach sought to achieve in-depth insights into local social dynamics and institutional relationships. The analysis highlighted the role of training sessions and sustained technical support that shape the capacity of stakeholders – and therefore, the increased uptake of flash dryer innovation. It also suggests that there is a relationship between the economic value of the innovation and stakeholders’ willingness to adopt it across scales, as represented in project partners’ discourses. For example, during the first six months after training, two cassava processors (out of seven) adopted innovations and increased their processing capacity by 23% and 50%, and profitability by 8% and 10%, corresponding to extra income about $10,000/year/processor. We conclude that using the Scaling Readiness approach in collaboration with relevant private sector actors can improve uptake of agro-industrial innovations such as flash dryers, leading to gains in income and public health. This study was undertaken as part of, and funded by, the CGIAR Research Program on Roots, Tubers and Bananas (RTB) and supported by CGIAR Trust Fund contributors via the project under the name “Scaling Small Scale Flash Drying System for Cassava Starch and Flour Production”, hereafter the project. RTB is a partnership collaboration of five research centers, led by the International Potato Center, with decades of experience in these crops on different continents, including four CGIAR research centers (Bioversity International, the International Center for Tropical Agriculture, the International institute of Tropical Agriculture and the International Potato Center) and the French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development (CIRAD). By working with more than 360 other partners, these five centers mobilize complementary expertise and resources; avoid duplication of efforts; and create synergies to increase the benefits of their research for smallholder farmers, consumers and other stakeholders. This report presents stakeholder management strategy for the project done by Dr. Alejandro Taborda. Mr. Simon Lukombo and Dr. Murat Sartas following the Stakeholder Engagement Approach for Scaling in threes (SEAS-3n). SEAS-3n is a unified approach, developed by Dr. Murat Sartas, for combining identification of stakeholders in 3 steps, assessing their involvement in 9 levels and engaging them through 27 options. Initially, it describes the Flash dryer System. Afterwards, it presents its stakeholders in Nigeria, the involvement level of each stakeholder in the system and the innovations it works on as well as the best strategic stakeholder engagement option that improves the involvement. For further queries about the project and the report please contact Dr. Alejandro Taborda via latabordaandrade@gmail.com and Dr. Suraju Adegbite via adegbitesirojdeen@yahoo.com . For questions about SEAS-3n please contact Dr. Murat Sartas via murat.sartas@gmail.com.
Small-scale flash drying is a promising technology to meet the increasing demand for high-quality cassava flour (HQCF). The technology significantly reduces fungal and dust contaminations in HQCF and reduces health risks for consumers. However, the configuration and operating conditions of existing flash dryers are sub-optimal, leading to high energy use and operating costs. These can mean the difference between profitability and loss because margins in HQCF and starch production are small. Since 2013, the CGIAR Roots, Tubers and Bananas (RTB) program in collaboration with local stakeholders across Democratic Republic of Congo, have developed a numerical modelling method to design energy- and cost-efficient flash dryers, and proven its effectiveness through the construction and testing of a pilot-scale dryer. Scaling Readiness was used to identify bottlenecks for the uptake of the improved small-scale flash dryer innovation to the private sector. Through two fieldwork data collection periods and online semi-structured interviews, the methodological approach sought to achieve in-depth insights into local social dynamics and institutional relationships. The analysis highlighted the role of training sessions and sustained technical support that shape the capacity of stakeholders – and therefore, the increased uptake of flash dryer innovation. It also suggests that there is a relationship between the economic value of the innovation and stakeholders’ willingness to adopt it across scales, as represented in project partners’ discourses. For example, during the first six months after training, two cassava processors (out of seven) adopted innovations and increased their processing capacity by 23% and 50%, and profitability by 8% and 10%, corresponding to extra income about $10,000/year/processor. We conclude that using the Scaling Readiness approach in collaboration with relevant private sector actors can improve uptake of agro-industrial innovations such as flash dryers, leading to gains in income and public health. This study was undertaken as part of, and funded by, the CGIAR Research Program on Roots, Tubers and Bananas (RTB) and supported by CGIAR Trust Fund contributors via the project under the name “Scaling Small Scale Flash Drying System for Cassava Starch and Flour Production”, hereafter the project. RTB is a partnership collaboration of five research centers, led by the International Potato Center, with decades of experience in these crops on different continents, including four CGIAR research centers (Bioversity International, the International Center for Tropical Agriculture, the International institute of Tropical Agriculture and the International Potato Center) and the French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development (CIRAD). By working with more than 360 other partners, these five centers mobilize complementary expertise and resources; avoid duplication of efforts; and create synergies to increase the benefits of their research for smallholder farmers, consumers and other stakeholders. This report presents stakeholder management strategy for the project done by Dr. Alejandro Taborda. Mr. Simon Lukombo and Dr. Murat Sartas following the Stakeholder Engagement Approach for Scaling in threes (SEAS-3n). SEAS-3n is a unified approach, developed by Dr. Murat Sartas, for combining identification of stakeholders in 3 steps, assessing their involvement in 9 levels and engaging them through 27 options. Initially, it describes the Flashdryer System. Afterwards, it presents its stakeholders in DRC, the involvement level of each stakeholder in the system and the innovations it works on as well as the best strategic stakeholder engagement option that improves the involvement. For further queries about the project and the report please contact Dr. Alejandro Taborda via latabordaandrade@gmail.com and Mr. Simon Lulombo via s.lukombo@cgiar.org. For questions about SEAS-3n please contact Dr. Murat Sartas via murat.sartas@gmail.com
The orange fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP) puree for safe and nutritious food products and economic opportunities for women and youths in Kenya, Uganda and Malawi is a two year project which seeks to engage the large-scale industrial bakers with OFSP puree whilst empowering the informal sector to adopt OFSP puree in their products. OFSP puree is made from fresh roots which are steamed and mashed to a paste/puree which is then utilised as an ingredient in baked and fried products such as bread, buns, cakes and doughnuts.Adoption of OFSP puree in the informal sectors in Kenya,Uganda and Malawi has the potential to revolutionise the OFSP value chains in Africa by reaching the large consumer base who buy food informally in the three countries. This study was undertaken as part of, and funded by, the CGIAR Research Program on Roots, Tubers and Bananas (RTB) and supported by CGIAR Trust Fund contributors via the project under the name “Orange Fleshed Sweetpotato Puree for Safe and Nutritious Food Products and Economic Opportunities for Women and Youth”, hereafter the project. RTB is a partnership collaboration of five research centers, led by the International Potato Center, with decades of experience in these crops on different continents, including four CGIAR research centers (Bioversity International, the International Center for Tropical Agriculture, the International institute of Tropical Agriculture and the International Potato Center) and the French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development (CIRAD). By working with more than 360 other partners, these five centers mobilize complementary expertise and resources; avoid duplication of efforts; and create synergies to increase the benefits of their research for smallholder farmers, consumers and other stakeholders. This report presents stakeholder management strategy for the project done by Dr. Mukani Moyo and Dr. Murat Sartas following the Stakeholder Engagement Approach for Scaling in threes (SEAS-3n ). SEAS-3n is a unified approach, developed by Dr. Murat Sartas, for combining identification of stakeholders in 3 steps, assessing their involvement in 9 levels and engaging them through 27 options. Initially, it describes the project. Afterwards, it presents its stakeholders in Uganda, the involvement level of each stakeholder in the project and the innovations it works on as well as the best strategic stakeholder engagement option that improves the involvement. For further queries about the project and the report please contact Dr. Moyo via mukani.moyo@cgiar.org. For questions about SEAS-3n please contact Dr. Murat Sartas via murat.sartas@gmail.com.
Marc Schut
added a research item
Scaling of innovations is a key requirement for addressing societal challenges in sectors such as health, agriculture, and the environment. Research for development (R4D) programs, projects and other interventions struggle to make particular innovations go to scale. Current conceptualizations of scaling are often too simplistic; more systemic and multidimensional perspectives, frameworks and measures are needed. There is a gap between new complexity-aware theories and perspectives on innovation, and tools and approaches that can improve strategic and operational decision-making in R4D interventions that aim to scale innovations. This paper aims to bridge that gap by developing the key concepts and measures of Scaling Readiness. Scaling Readiness is an approach that encourages critical reflection on how ready innovations are for scaling and what appropriate actions could accelerate or enhance scaling. Scaling Readiness provides action-oriented support for (1) characterizing the innovation and innovation system; (2) diagnosing the current readiness and use of innovations as a proxy for their readiness to scale; (3) developing strategy to overcome bottlenecks for scaling; (4) facilitating and negotiating multi-stakeholder innovation and scaling processes; and (5) navigating and monitoring the implementation process to allow for adaptive management. Scaling Readiness has the potential to support evidence-based scaling strategy design, implementation and monitoring, and – if applied across multiple interventions – can be used to manage a portfolio of innovation and scaling investments.
Murat Sartas
added a research item
Multi-stakeholder platforms have become mainstream in projects, programmes and policy interventions aiming to improve innovation and livelihoods systems, i.e. research for development interventions in low-and middle-income contexts. However, the evidence for multi-stakeholder platforms' contribution to the performance of research for development interventions and their added value is not compelling. This paper focuses on stakeholder participation as one of the channels for multi-stakeholder platforms' contribution to the performance of research for development interventions, i.e. stakeholder participation. It uses a quantitative approach and utilizes descriptive statistics and ARIMA models. It shows that, in three Ugandan multi-stakeholder platform cases studied, participation increased both in nominal and in unique terms. Moreover, participation was rather cyclical and fluctuated during the implementation of the research for development interventions. The study also shows that, in addition to locational and intervention factors such as type of the area along a rural-urban gradient targeted by the intervention and human resources provided for multi-stake-holder platform implementation, temporal elements such as phases of research for development intervention objectives and the innovation development process play significant roles in influencing participation. The study concludes that contribution of multi-stakeholder platforms to the performance of research for development projects, programs, policies and other initiatives is constrained by locational and temporal context and conditional on the participation requirements of the objectives pursued by research for development intervention.
Dietmar Stoian
added a research item
Banana Xanthomonas Wilt (BXW) is an important emerging and non-curable infectious plant pathogen in sub-Saharan Africa that can cause up to 100% yield loss, negatively impacting sustainable access to food and income to more than 100 million banana farmers. This study disentangles adopters into partial and full adopters to investigate the factors that are relevant to sustain the adoption process of BXW control practices and quantifies the impact of adopting the practices. Data from a randomly selected sample of 1200 banana farmers in Uganda where the disease is endemic was used. A multinomial logit model was used to determine the factors affecting adoption of control practices and augmented inverse probability weighting was employed to estimate the impacts of adoption on banana productivity and sales. Results show that training a woman farmer and having diverse sources of information about BXW control practices increased adoption of the control practices and reduced the disease incidences. Farmers who adopted all the recommended control practices achieved significantly the highest values of banana production and sales. We conclude that improving information access through farmers’ preferred communication channels, having women-inclusive trainings, and a combination of cultural practices are effective ways for sustaining adoption of the control practices.
Sam Namanda
added 2 research items
Ugandan farmers preferred vine cuttings from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam.) plants maintained during the dry season in a swamp or by irrigation as planting material rather than cuttings from volunteer plants growing from unharvested roots. The latter were late and weevil-infested, though readily available. To improve their earliness, roots planted 5, 10, 15, or 25 cm below ground at the start of the dry season were watered from 5 or 10 weeks before the start of the rains. Only those planted 10 cm deep emerged satisfactorily; those watered for 10 weeks produced more vines. To improve survival, roots were stored under various conditions before planting and watering: roots stored in dry sand in a roofed building survived especially well and sprouted prolifically, producing many cuttings. This method of producing vine cuttings, called the Triple S method, was validated by farmers in the Lake Zone of Tanzania, which has a harsher climate than Uganda. In addition to providing farmers with ample early and healthy planting material for little and infrequent watering, it provided convenience and ownership. We would like to thank the many farmers and extension agents that supported us in Uganda and Tanzania but particularly Mr. Ekinyu and Mr. Sois. We also thank the Reaching End Users Project of HarvestPlus and the Sweet Potato Action for Security and Health in Africa Project of the International Potato Center. Dr. Ricardo Labarta assisted us with the design of the survey instrument.
Surveys were made of the seed systems used in Uganda, Tanzania, and Rwanda and to investigate the reasons underlying them. Along the equator in Uganda, where rainy seasons are evenly spaced and occur twice a year, vine cuttings from mature plants only are used as planting material. Where there is a long dry season, the seed system includes a diversity of means of conservation: the passive production of volunteer plants from groundkeeper roots sprouting when the rains come; small-scale propagation of plants in the shade or backyard production using waste domestic water; and relatively large-scale propagation in wetlands or irrigated land. The last is the only means of obtaining sufficient quantity for sales, but is also the most expensive. Volunteers only produce planting material one or two months after the start of the rains and tend to be regarded as common property; nevertheless, they are an important source of planting material for poorer farmers. Although farmers perceive multiple benefits from planting early, planting material is in short supply at the beginning of the rains and mainly larger scale farmers gain these benefits. Farmers select carefully to avoid using plants with symptoms of virus disease as planting material and may also remove any diseased plants from crops.
Marc Schut
added a research item
Scaling of agricultural, food and other livelihoods innovations is one of the biggest challenges for research and development organizations. One of the key problems is the lack of approaches that can facilitate evidence-based decision making on which activities and partnerships can support scaling of innovation towards achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Scaling Readiness is unique in that it provides integrated, science-based options for assessing and accelerating scaling of agri-food systems innovations. It provides managers and donors with a standardised process and indicator framework to measure scaling readiness at project, portfolio or organizational levels.
Marc Schut
added an update
The CGIAR Research Program on Roots Tubers and Bananas has developed Scaling Readiness. Scaling Readiness can support organisations, projects and programs in achieving their ambitions to scale innovations. Scaling Readiness encourages critical reflection on how “ready” innovations are for scaling, and what appropriate actions could enhance scaling.
We have developed an animated video that explains what Scaling Readiness is all about and how it can support you in achieving your project's or organisational scaling of innovation objectives in an effective way.
 
Marc Schut
added an update
A 2-pager that summarises where we are with Scaling Readiness
 
Murat Sartas
added a research item
This data is a set of literature sources that Scaling Readiness Approach (SRA) was built upon. Specifically, it presents i) Complex Adaptive Systems, ii) innovation Systems, iii) organization science and iv) implementation science literature sources published on different livelihood sectors such as agriculture, health, environment, natural resource management etc.
Marc Schut
added a research item
Scaling Readiness has been developed by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and Wageningen University (WUR) under the CGIAR research program on Roots Tubers and Banana (RTB). Scaling Readiness supports research, development and donor organizations in the design, implementation and monitoring of efficient scaling strategies.
Marc Schut
added an update
During the World Food Prize award ceremony in Des Moines (USA), the CGIAR organises a Side Event entitled: "Reaching Millions, The Science of Scaling". RTB Flagship Leader Dr Marc Schut will share experience from the Scaling Readiness work conducted under the CGIAR Research Program on Roots Tubers and Banana (RTB). Other speakers include 2016 World Food Prize Co-Laureate Dr Maria Andrade, Chief Technology Officer Neal Gutterson of Corteva Agriscience. The session will be moderated by The Chair of the CGIAR System Management Board, Dr Marco Ferroni.
Date and time: October 17, 2018 from 19:30-21:30PM at Downtown Des Moines Marriot, Dubuque Room.
 
Dietmar Stoian
added a research item
Innovation Platforms are fast becoming part of the mantra of agricultural research for development projects and programmes. Their basic tenet is that stakeholders depend on one another to achieve agricultural development outcomes, and hence need a space where they can learn, negotiate, and coordinate to overcome challenges and capture opportunities through a facilitated innovation process. This important publication provides a critical analysis of Innovation Platforms, their defining features, key functions, and what they can and – as importantly – cannot do. It will be invaluable reading both for those who fund development projects and programmes and would like to understand when Innovation Platforms are the approach of choice, and for those practitioners who implement and facilitate Innovation Platforms and would like to understand better their design principles and practical implementation issues. Because Innovation Platforms have been successful in addressing agricultural challenges, there is a risk that they will be promoted as a panacea for all problems in the agricultural sector. As the authors make clear, however, not all constraints will require Innovation Platforms and, if there is a simpler and cheaper alternative, that should be the first choice. It is essential to think more critically about when, how, and in what form Innovation Platforms can contribute meaningfully to Agricultural development impacts. The document was developed through a learning collaboration between CGIAR research centres and other academic and more applied research centres. Eleven of the 15 CGIAR centres participated and contributed their expertise and experiences across multiple agricultural systems, geographies, and types of complex constraint. The booklet provides information grounded in a rich practical experience of key design and implementation principles, and the financial and human resources that need to be made available, and it makes suggestions for more effective monitoring, evaluation, and learning. It also lists reference materials, answers frequently asked questions, and provides a decision support tool for research, development, and funding agencies. All in all, this publication offers a lot for those who aspire to make sensible use of Innovation Platforms in pursuing agricultural development!
Marc Schut
added an update
The uptake and impact of agricultural research innovations in developing countries – often referred to as ‘scaling’ – has not lived up to expectations. One reason is that research and development communities operate under different mandates, time frames and incentive structures. Agricultural research focusses on developing innovations to address global challenges. Research often has limited direct beneficiaries, and it takes a relatively long time to translate findings into practical outcomes. Agricultural development is concerned with translating innovations into local solutions for larger numbers of users so that their impact becomes more substantial. Public and private development agencies have short time horizons and may not be prepared to wait for findings of longer term research processes.
Actively connecting pathways of research and development to achieve scaling of innovation has been a contentious area for the international agricultural research for development community. ‘Science of scaling’ seeks to bridge the gap between research and development by supporting research, funding and public and private development agencies in making informed decisions on how to optimize having impact at a practical scale.
We encourage submissions that present empirical evidence of (i) what strategies can enhance the design, implementation and monitoring of scalable research innovations, (ii) how science-based decision support tools influenced public or private scaling partners as a vehicle for scaling, (iii) tools and approaches for scaling that address needs of different research user groups (e.g. farmers of different gender and age groups); (iv) well-posed and planned but ultimately unsuccessful scaling initiatives from which insights can be drawn for the research and development community. Submissions must analyse critical (success) factors related to the technological, institutional and organizational dimensions of scaling of innovation and provide supporting empirical evidence.
Submissions are via Elsevier’s Agricultural Systems website, undergo standard review and editorial processes, and must fit within the scope of the journal and the aim of this Special Issue.
Please address queries about the Special Issue to Dr Marc Schut (M.Schut@cgiar.org).
Manuscript Preparation and Submission
All manuscripts must be submitted through the online submission system of Agricultural Systems. During the submission process, it must be indicated that the manuscript is intended for this Special Issue by selecting “VSI: Science of scaling”. More information can be found here: https://www.journals.elsevier.com/agricultural-systems/call-for-papers/call-for-submissions-to-a-special-issue-science-of-scaling-c.
Before submission, authors should carefully read the journal's ‘Author instructions’ (https://www.elsevier.com/journals/agricultural-systems/0308-521x/guide-for-authors ). All papers will be evaluated by the Guest Editors and then reviewed by at least two reviewers.
Publication Timeline
  • Manuscript submission open: 01 July 2018
  • Manuscript submission deadline: 31 December 2018
  • Expected publication date: June- June/July 2019
 
Murat Sartas
added a research item
Multi-stakeholder platforms (MSPs) have been playing an increasing role in interventions aiming to generate and scale innovations in agricultural systems. However, the contribution of MSPs in achieving innovations and scaling has been varied, and many factors have been reported to be important for their performance. This paper aims to provide evidence on the contribution of MSPs to innovation and scaling by focusing on three developing country cases in Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Rwanda. Through social network analysis and logistic models, the paper studies the changes in the characteristics of multi-stakeholder innovation networks targeted by MSPs and identifies factors that play significant roles in triggering these changes. The results demonstrate that MSPs do not necessarily expand and decentralize innovation networks but can lead to contraction and centralization in the initial years of implementation. They show that some of the intended next users of interventions with MSPs–local-level actors–left the innovation networks, whereas the lead organization controlling resource allocation in the MSPs substantially increased its centrality. They also indicate that not all the factors of change in innovation networks are country specific. Initial conditions of innovation networks and funding provided by the MSPs are common factors explaining changes in innovation networks across countries and across different network functions. The study argues that investigating multi-stakeholder innovation network characteristics targeted by the MSP using a network approach in early implementation can contribute to better performance in generating and scaling innovations, and that funding can be an effective implementation tool in developing country contexts.
Murat Sartas
added 4 research items
The short presentation explains the basics of 1. what is data science 2. why data science is relevant in today's world 3. what is possible to do using data science?
This dataset contains cleaned data for analyzing the performance drivers for multi-stakeholder platforms. Specifically it contains: Action area of intervention Calendar day of the event Number of participants divided by 10 Number of participants Average number of objectives/actions per person Average engagement level of participant Month Duration of Humidtropics Day Starting from the first event of the respective country Month Starting from the first event of the respective country (Binned) Location of the events Dry or Wet Season January Holiday (Dummy) Share of funding by Intervention Organization Number of different items funded by Intervention Organization Research to Delivery Actors Delivery to Research Actors Innovation Stage of the Events Number of intervention champions Number of intervention facilitators Number of organization and monitoring staff MSP Stage of the Events Phase of the MSP
Murat Sartas
added an update
In collaboration with the CIALCA project, RTB Scaling Readiness Team provided training on using open data kit (ODK) system to collect data paperless by using android Apps. Dr. Pypers, Mr Hammond and Mr Sartas presented background information on the usage of ODK and supervised the implementation of it during the training workshop.
For details:
 
Murat Sartas
added a research item
Paperless survey tools such as Open Data Kit (ODK) are becoming mainstream in livelihoods research in the last decade. They provide important advantages in improving the effectiveness and efficiency of data collection. Moreover, since they can be integrated with other data management software such as R, they provide important gains in data reporting and analysis. However, paperless survey tools have also their major setbacks. Therefore, the benefits of using paperless surveys in livelihood research need to be contemplated in detail. This presentation focuses on ODK and highlights the opportunities and challanges of using ODK in livelihood research. It aims to provide fundemental information to beginners of ODK system and helps them to formulate better strategies in using ODKs.
Mariette McCampbell
added a research item
Poster presented during the annual IITA R4D week in Ibadan, Nigeria. The poster presents planned activities on ICT and citizen science for control and prevention of BXW disease in Rwanda
Murat Sartas
added 9 research items
The presentation describes the scaling readiness analysis of the Single Disease Stem Removal approach of managing Banana Xanthomas Disease and Reflects about the learning about scaling of innovations through a research for development program intervention
This presentation is prepared by Boudy van Schagen and Dr. Dietmar Stoian. The presentation 1. describes the Single Diseased Stem Removal (SDSR) of Bioversity international and its partners. 2. presents scaling readiness analysis of the SDSR Case 3. reflects about the learning generated by scaling readiness approach about scaling of innovations through a research for development program intervention
The presentation 1. describes the African Cassava Agronomy Initative (ACAI) Project 2. presents scaling readiness analysis of the ACAI Case 3. reflects about the learning generated by scaling readiness approach about scaling of innovations through a research for development project interventions
Marc Schut
added an update
Dear colleagues,
We invite you to join us for a webinar on Thursday 14 December at 4:00pm – 5:30pm (Central European Time) to share preliminary findings from research to test the Scaling Readiness Approach with IITA, CIAT, Bioversity International and CIP.
The webinar Introducing the Scaling Readiness Approach will include presentations from our Flagship Project 5 leader, Marc Schut (IITA and WUR), Murat Sartas (IITA) and Cees Leeuwis (WUR) and will conclude with a Q&A session with the audience.
The Scaling Readiness Approach is a framework to assess and accelerate the scaling potential of agricultural innovations, supporting agricultural research for development projects and their management in developing scaling strategies and guiding investments in research for development priorities and partnerships.
This is an open webinar, so please share this message with any interested colleagues and partners.
 
Marc Schut
added a research item
This is the second of the series of newsletters that will capture our efforts to develop an approach that will accelerate the scaling of innovations in the CGIAR Research Program on Roots, Tubers and Bananas (RTB). The newsletters will capture the major concepts of Scaling Readiness, activities, and information about the RTB cases in which we are developing and testing the approach. The Scaling Readiness project is an Earmarked Funded project under RTB Cluster 5.4 and is implemented by Wageningen University, IITA, Bioversity International, CIAT and CIP. Innovations are packages In our Scaling Readiness project we perceive innovations as packages of technological, organizational and institutional components that can include new crop varieties, processing equipment , fertilizer blend, best crop, pest, soil management practices and new legislation, collaborations or market arrangements. Consequently, scaling of innovation requires the scaling of the package of components. Whether an innovation is perceived as useful depends the spatio-temporal context in which it is supposed to contribute to achieving specific livelihood objectives. Further details about innovation packages can be accessed in the previous newsletter.
Marc Schut
added an update
As RTB works to improve the food security and incomes of millions of families across the tropics, we are developing and promoting the science of scaling to help research centers achieve the greatest possible uptake, use and impact of their agricultural innovations. RTB scientists will share their experiences and vision of the science of scaling at a symposium this Sunday as part of the Third International Conference on Global Food Security, in Cape Town South Africa.
Read more about RTB's approach to scaling here: http://bit.ly/2AtIHBG
 
Marc Schut
added a research item
This is the third of the series of newsletters that will capture our efforts to develop an approach that will assess and accelerate the scaling of innovations in the CGIAR Research Program on Roots, Tubers and Bananas (RTB). This newsletter aims at introducing and giving visibility to the four case studies that are helping the Scaling Readiness team in developing and testing the tools and methods. In return, these projects are supported by the Scaling Readiness team to develop, implement and monitor strategies to support the scaling of innovations.
Murat Sartas
added a research item
Scaling of agricultural, food and other livelihoods innovations is one of the biggest challenges for research for development (R4D) organizations. For a long time, scaling was done without using evidence which led to disappointing results. Scaling Readiness builds on state-of-the-art science and scientifi c methods in order to: 1. Assess the potential of technologies and innovations to be used at scale; 2. Provide strategies to accelerate the scaling of technologies and other innovations; 3. Measure the performance of projects in terms of enhancing their Scaling Readiness; 4. Inform R4D managers and other key stakeholders about strategic scaling actions and partnerships. The Scaling Readiness approach provides evidence on the scaling potential of agricultural, food and other livelihood innovations pursued by R4D projects implemented by CGIAR and beyond. The approach can inform research and development managers to make more effective and (cost-) effi cient decisions to accelerate scaling of innovations
Marc Schut
added an update
In Wageningen, the Netherlands this week to work on a Scaling Readiness conceptual paper with C. Leeuwis and Murat Sartas...
 
Murat Sartas
added a research item
This is the first of the series of newsletters that will capture our efforts to develop an approach that will accelerate the scaling of innovations in the CGIAR Research Program on Roots, Tubers and Bananas (RTB). The newsletters will capture the major concepts of scaling readiness, activities, and information about the RTB cases in which we are developing and testing the approach. The scaling readiness project is an Earmarked Funded project under RTB Cluster 5.4 and is implemented by Wageningen University , IITA, Bioversity International, CIAT and CIP. This first newsletter provides (1) the objectives of the scaling readiness project, (2) background on innovations and scaling of innovations, (3) concepts of scaling readiness, and (4) testing of scaling readiness in four RTB projects. 1. Objective of the scaling readiness project Scaling of agricultural innovations is one of the biggest challenges for research for development organisations, in the CGIAR and beyond. For a long time, scaling of innovation was considered to be done at the end of a project, through handing out flyers to farmers, or summary sheets and briefs to policy makers. The results have been very disappointing and the CGIAR is under pressure to demonstrate how research outputs lead to development outcomes and impacts. The thinking about scaling and the science on how best to do it, has been neglected for a long time. The " scaling readiness " project builds on state-of-the-art science and scientific methods to shed more light on how scaling occurs in practice and what tools and methods can accelerate scaling of innovations in agricultural research for development (AR4D) projects. In doing so, the scaling readiness project aims to: 1. Assess the potential of RTB technologies and innovations to be used at scale; 2. Provide strategies to accelerate the scaling of RTB technologies and other innovations; 3. Measure the performance of RTB projects in terms of enhancing their scaling readiness; 4. Inform RTB managers and other key stakeholders about strategic scaling actions and partnerships ;
Marc Schut
added a research item
Innovation Platforms are increasingly being proposed and used in agricultural research for development project and programs. Innovation Platforms provide space to farmers, agricultural service providers, researchers, private sector and other stakeholders to jointly identify, analyse and overcome constraints to agricultural development. Although innovation platforms have been successful in addressing agricultural challenges, there is a risk that they are promoted as a panacea for all problems in the agricultural sector... which would clearly be a big mistake. “We need to think more critically about when, how and in what form Innovation Platforms can meaningfully contribute to agricultural development impacts.” These guidelines support development funders and project developers in thinking about when and in what form innovation platforms can contribute effectively to achieving research and development objectives. It provides information on key design and implementation principles, the financial and human resources that need to be made available, and it makes suggestions for more effective monitoring, evaluation and learning. The guidelines also contain reference materials, Frequently Asked Questions and a decision support tool for research, development and funding agencies.
Murat Sartas
added a research item
The presentation briefly describes 1. Basics of Innovations and scaling in Research for Development programs, projects 2. Fundamental concepts of scaling readiness approach 3. Scaling Support Processes offered for Research for Development Programs, projects.
Marc Schut
added a research item
Innovation platforms (IPs) form a popular vehicle in agricultural research for development (AR4D) to facilitate stakeholder interaction, agenda setting, and collective action toward sustainable agricultural development. In this article, we analyze multilevel stakeholder engagement in fulfilling seven key innovation system functions. Data are gathered from experiences with interlinked community and (sub)national IPs established under a global AR4D program aimed at stimulating sustainable agricultural development in Central Africa. Our findings show that all innovation systems functions required multilevel action, but that fulfillment of specific functions demands for strategic involvement of specific stakeholders at specific levels. We observed that a research-and dissemination-oriented sequence in the functions was prioritized in AR4D IPs and argue that such a sequence may be different in other types of (business) IPs. Our findings provide an incentive to think function oriented about compositional dynamics (stakeholder groups * levels) in innovation processes, rather than striving for equal stakeholder participation.
Murat Sartas
added 2 research items
Social network analysis has been a very important tool for understanding ”relational” problems in variety of scientific fields such as human resource management, security and defense and finance. However, in research for development field, social network analysis is a new approach. This presentation provides basic insights about using social network analysis in research for development fields and present guidelines for implementing a social network research in development.
Social network analysis (SNA) is a comprehensive approach to identify and target critical scaling stakeholders in a comprehensive manner. It not only considers the characteristics of individuals but also whom they connect for knowledge, seeds, money and solving problems. SNA is applicable to scaling strategies of all technologies where the connections between constraints, innovations and stakeholders matter.
Murat Sartas
added an update
We have a twitter account to provide detailed updates about our Scaling Readiness work. Please follow us @ScalingReady https://twitter.com/ScalingReady
 
Marc Schut
added a research item
Summarise and communicate science lessons on Innovation Platforms in Agricultural Research for Development to a mixed audience of development practitioners and donors.
Murat Sartas
added an update
First conceptual of the scaling readiness approach was done in Tanzania together with Cassava Community Sanitation Project led by Dr. James Legg of IITA. For details https://mobile.twitter.com/scalingready
 
Murat Sartas
added a research item
Multi-stakeholder platforms (MSPs) are seen as a promising vehicle to achieve agricultural development impacts. By increasing collaboration, exchange of knowledge and influence mediation among farmers, researchers and other stakeholders, MSPs supposedly enhance their 'capacity to innovate' and contribute to the 'scaling of innovations'. The objective of this paper is to explore the capacity to innovate and scaling potential of three MSPs in Burundi, Rwanda and the South Kivu province located in the eastern part of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In order to do this, we apply Social Network Analysis and Exponential Random Graph Modelling (ERGM) to investigate the structural properties of the collaborative, knowledge exchange and influence networks of these MSPs and compared them against value propositions derived from the innovation network literature. Results demonstrate a number of mismatches between collaboration, knowledge exchange and influence networks for effective innovation and scaling processes in all three countries: NGOs and private sector are respectively over-and under-represented in the MSP networks. Linkages between local and higher levels are weak, and influential organisations (e.g., high-level government actors) are often not part of the MSP or are not actively linked to by other organisations. Organisations with a central position in the knowledge network are more sought out for collaboration. The scaling of innovations is primarily between the same type of organisations across different administrative levels, but not between different types of organisations. The results illustrate the potential of Social Network Analysis and ERGMs to identify the strengths and limitations of MSPs in terms of achieving development impacts.
Murat Sartas
added a project goal
To develop and test ‘scaling readiness’ approach and tools for RTB Innovations aiming to improve livelihood systems in low and middle income countries.
For more information: https://twitter.com/ScalingReady