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Enhanced Recovery of Heavy Oil
Despite the global green energy drive and diversification drive by most African countries it is a known fact that the world is still currently depending on fossil fuel for its energy demands. As the world’s population is on the increase so are our energy demands. Most African Oil producing countries are trying to diversify their economies by venturing into exporting of Agricultural products and goods (Nigeria is one such country). Nigeria is a country that is located in West Africa and is currently struggling to diversify its economy due to her almost 100 percent dependants on crude oil for her mostly internally generated revenue/ energy supply. Global energy demand is increasing with increasing population growth and oil production from conventional oil/ gas reservoirs are fast declining. Hence, there is a dare need for oil producing nations in Africa like Nigeria to seriously start considering oil production from unconventional heavy oil reservoirs. This researched work and its findings are intended to point government, its relevant agencies and oil companies towards the possibilities of venturing into heavy oil production from its unconventional reservoirs using our Program A and B that runs on a robust and versatile in-situ combustion model called “Nelson and McNeil In-situ Combustion Model”. This study considered two case scenarios (Case 1: A heavy oil reservoirs in Venezuela and Case 2: Five heavy oil reservoirs in the Niger Delta) and both cases having similar reservoir properties
This research work looked at the applicability concept of waterflooding as a key option for enhanced recovery of oil from stratified reservoirs in the Niger Delta, South of Nigeria. Waterflooding is a secondary recovery technique that commences after a homogeneous or multi-layered (stratified) reservoir has reached its economic limit by every possible primary recovery drives (i.e. natural drive mechanisms). The research also covered for Niger Delta the sweep/displacement efficiency deliverability of multi-layered (stratified) reservoirs, reservoir permeability ordering, the effect of waterflooding rates, and effectiveness of waterflooding schemes for multi-layered oil reservoirs, fractional flow of water during waterflooding processes, and the frontal advancement of the water front along the reservoir bed at a given time (t) in days.
This research work looked at the concept and analysis of waterflooding as a means of enhancing oil production at commercial scale from oil reservoirs in the Niger Delta, south of Nigeria. It covers the linear flow profile of water injection through an input end (well 1) and production of oil and water at the output end (well 2). Relying on some basic assumptions, the researchers looked critically at solutions derived to show the relationship between relative permeability ratio and water saturations. This was inputted as data for performance prediction of waterflooding scheme. The researchers also looked at the fractional flow equations/ curves and fractional advance formulas/ curves with applicable sketches, illustrations, and graphs. We also evaluated the effect of waterflooding rates/ permeability ordering in Niger Delta oil reservoirs, the effectiveness of waterflooding scheme in these reservoirs, fractional flow of water during the waterflooding processes, the frontal advancement during waterflooding exercise, and the sweep/ displacement efficiencies of the whole process.
As at today, Nigeria is supposed to be well positioned to generate about 40000 MW of power on a daily basis for at least 68 years from the Country's indigenous gas reserves that is estimated at 181 Tcf. This enormous gas reserve makes Nigeria the largest gas superpower in Africa and the ninth largest in the world. Despite her massive gas resources, Nigeria generates only about 4000 KW of power from gas utilization in full operation from its gas-powered turbine plants. This is not up to one-tenth of the abundance of its existing gas resources. Power generation and supply today in Nigeria is still very epileptic due to shortage of gas supply to its gas-powered turbine plants. As an overview, this research work focused on the enormous potentials and production capabilities of gas produced from tight gas sands and shale gas formations in the United States (Case 1) and outside the United States (Case 2). Our research work also looked at gas production from tight gas sands/shale gas formations and their respective potentials that are relevant to the economic growth of any nation (as in case 1 and 2 respectively). The intent of this study is to spur relevant stakeholders in Nigeria and other African countries to critically start looking at how best to harness the potentials of gas production from tight gas sands and shale gas formations. This can without doubt boost their nation's economy on commercial basis globally.
Enhanced Recovery of Heavy Oil in the Niger Delta using ISC
ISC reservoir candidacy/project screening criteria and selection
Hydraulic Fracturing from Unconventional Gas Reservoirs using the PKN hydraulic fracturing model
Oil productions from conventional reservoirs are rapidly declining worldwide. Hence, there is a serious need for the Nigerian government to start looking at viable thermal EOR methods such as in situ combustion (ISC) as a means of enhancing possible heavy oil production in its Niger Delta region. This study looked at the applicability of ISC using the Nelson and McNeil model by subjecting the model's equations, assumptions, and correlations (as outlined in the ISC Handbook; Partha, 1999 Partha, S. S. (1999). In-situ combustion handbook - principles and practices. Tulsa, OK: BDM Petroleum Technologies.) to a foreign scenario (Case 1) and a Nigerian scenario (Case 2) to evaluate and compare performances.