Project

Energy and Cost Efficient Design of Buildings

Goal: In this project, methodologies, methods and techniques for designing the energy and cost efficient buildings are addressed.

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Ergo Pikas
added a research item
Motivated by the European Green Deal framework, an ambitious 30-years long renovation strategy has been established in Estonia. This renovation strategy requires a substantial increase in the annual renovation capacity. New capabilities in terms of industrialization and digitalization of sustainable renovation processes need to be promoted. This explorative research aims to identify and understand existing practices, main barriers, and opportunities to industrialize and digitalize sustainable renovation of existing apartment buildings. Interviews and secondary data sources are used for data collection and analysis. Still, many barriers exist, and more research and development in core elements of the industrialized renovation of apartment buildings is required. For example, further standardization of renovation products and processes is needed. Also, digitalization and automation of industrialized renovation of apartment buildings were the least developed core element.
Ergo Pikas
added 7 research items
Cost optimal and as energy efficient as possible facade solutions, including window properties, external wall insulation, window-to-wall ratio and external shading were determined with energy and daylight simulations in the cold climate of Estonia. Heating dominated in the energy balance and therefore windows with higher number of panes and low emissivity coatings improved energy performance. The window sizes resulting in best energy performance for double and triple glazing were as small as daylight requirements allow, 22-24% respectively. For quadruple and hypothetical quintuple glazing the optimal window-to-wall ratios were larger, about 40% and 60% respectively, because of daylight utilization and good solar factor naturally provided by so many panes. The cost optimal facade solution was highly transparent triple low emissivity glazing with window-to-wall ratios of about 25% and external wall insulation thickness of 200 mm (U=0.16). Dynamic external shading gave positive effect on energy performance only in case of large window sizes whereas due to high investment cost it was not financially feasible. Limited number of simulations with Central European climate showed that triple glazing with double low emissivity coating and window-to-wall ratio of about 40%, i.e. slightly larger and with external shading compared to Estonian cost optimal one, clearly outperformed conventional design.
This study provides information about development of cost-effective facade solutions during the last 5 years and illustrates the importance of different variables such as accuracy of window models, construction costs, energy prices, interest rate and inflation. The cost-effective South, East and West facade solutions were triple windows with window-to-wall ratio 22-40% and external wall mineral wool insulation thickness 150-200 mm, whereas larger windows could be used in the North facade. The economic variables and construction price changes have had the largest influence on the analysis of cost-effective facade solutions. Lowest energy use was achieved with large quadruple windows and automated external venetian blinds with an advanced control algorithm. Wider market uptake of efficient window solutions could allow more architectural freedom from the point of view of energy-efficient and financially feasible facade design. Using detailed window models instead of standard windows did not influence the cost-optimal facade solutions, but had energy and load effects in both directions.
Energy and investment intensity of integrated renovation variants were studied to determine cost optimal energy savings by 2030 as a part of new Estonian energy roadmap preparation. For major residential and non-residential building types, 3–4 renovation variants with different ambition were defined, all including the installation of adequate ventilation system in order not to compromise indoor climate. Cost optimal energy performance level of renovation corresponded in most cases to minimum energy performance requirements of new buildings. In most of building types cost optimal renovation cost was slightly below or higher of 200 €/m2 which could be seen as major barrier in residential buildings needing support schemes in order to realize the potential. Cost optimal energy savings were remarkable in heating energy, which was reduced by factor of 3 to 4, but electricity use tended to increase in most of building types while retail and industrial buildings showed strong electricity reduction potential. The reduction in electricity use by 2030 was without and with new construction 7 and −8%, respectively. By 2030 cost optimal renovation saved 16% of final energy, but with the inclusion of new construction the reductions in final energy and non-renewable primary energy were 8% and 0% respectively.
Ergo Pikas
added a project goal
In this project, methodologies, methods and techniques for designing the energy and cost efficient buildings are addressed.