added a research item
The Philippine election system includes a party-list system intended to ensure that 20 per cent of House of Representatives seats are occupied by marginalised and underrepresented groups like the urban poor or indigenous communities. But what is supposed to benefit the poor is instead ending up with the rich. In Philippine election cycles, media coverage tends to focus on the presidential and senatorial elections. In 2022, the presidential race has received even more media attention as Ferdinand 'Bongbong' Marcos Jr  , son of the late dictator Ferdinand Marcos, remains the frontrunner  in a recent voter survey. Little attention  is given to the party-list election, despite its purpose of providing the marginalised and underrepresented with a voice. In 2022, 177 party-list groups are vying for 63 seats . According to the Commission on Elections (COMELEC), the party-list system  allows 'small political parties and marginalised and underrepresented sectors to obtain possible representation in the House of Representatives, which traditionally is dominated by parties with big political machinery'. Even though the COMELEC acknowledged the domination of the 'big' and the need to accommodate the 'small' as early as 1995, the party-list system has instead been weaponised to East Asia Forum Philippine party-list elections steal from the poor and gi.
These are the slides I used at an online webinar MIDYA-LEKSYON: An Online Lecture with the View towards the Influence and Roles of Media in Election Period on April 13, 2021 organized by the Bachelor of Arts in Communication 2nd year students of the University of Caloocan City-South Campus.
Spin & sell: How political ads shaped the 2004 elections by Glenda M. Gloria, Ana Maria L. Tabunda, and Carmela S. Fonbuena explains how political advertisements played a role in the winning and losing of selected presidential and senatorial candidates. The book—an undertaking of Newsbreak, Pulse Asia, Foundation for Communication Initiatives, and Konrad Adenauer Foundation—focuses on the nature of such advertisements and how the electorate received them.