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Effects of tillage and residue management on yield components and yield of maize in second cropping after barley

Goal: Key words :
Maize, nitrate, protein, residue management, second cropping, tillage

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Mehdi Khoshkharam
added 2 research items
Goji berry, Ginger and Ginseng are ancient Chinese herbs which have been used for thousand years as Traditional Chinese Medicine in China and other Asian countries as foods to promote good health and as drugs to treat disease. The keywords of Goji berry, ginger, ginseng, traditional Chinese medicine were searched in Google Scholar, Scopus, Research Gate and PubMed. The most important Goji pharmacological usages are improving function, enhances the bodys ability to adapt to a variety of noxious stimuli; it significantly inhibits the generation and spread of cancer cells and can improve eyesight and increase reserves of muscle glycogen and liver glycogen which may increase human energy and has anti-fatigue effect. Ginger has been widely used for arthritis, cramps, sprains, sore throats, rheumatism, muscular aches, pains, vomiting, constipation, indigestion, hypertension, dementia, fever and infectious diseases. Several pharmacological activities have been reported for ginseng extracts including effects on the central nervous system; antipsychotic action; tranquilizing effects; protection from stress ulcers; increase of gastrointestinal motility; endocrinological effects; enhancement of sexual behaviour; or synthesis of carbohydrates, lipids, RNA, and proteins. These versatile medicinal plants are unique sources of various types of chemical compounds which are responsible of the various activities of the plant. Traditional medicinal plants are cheaper, locally available and easily consumed as medicinal preparations and of course they are organic.
Fennel is a plant belonging to the Apiacea (Umbelliferae) family, and used by humans for a long time for medicinal purposes. In order to evaluate the influence of different materials on germination and seedling growth of three cultivars of fennel, an experiment was conducted in 2018. The cultivars of fennel were Isfahan, Yazd, and Shiraz in main plots, and three materials including 100% soil, 50% diatomite + 50% soil, and 100% diatomite in subplots, were analyzed in a split plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design (CRBD) with three replications. The highest total germination percentage, coefficient of velocity of germination, epicotile length, fresh epicotile weight and dry epicotile weight was related to Isfahan. The maximum speed of germination, mean germination time, fresh length and dry leaf weight was achieved in Shiraz cultivar. The higher values of total germination percentage, speed of germination and mean germination time were related to 100% soil, while application of 50% of soil + 50% of diatomite had obtained the maximum values of radicle length, epicotile length, fresh epicotile weight, dry leaf weight and dry epicotile weight. The maximum values of coefficient of velocity of germination and fresh leaf weight was achieved in application of 100% diatomite. It seems that application of 50% soil + 50% diatomite and Isfahan and Shiraz cultivars have a great potential of seed germination of seedling growth.
M. Hesam Shahrajabian
added a research item
In order to estimate the water requirement of barley and wheat by using of ET-HS model, a research was conducted at Research Farm of Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Iran. ET-HS model is used to determine irrigation water quantity and irrigation schedule for different crop. The study was based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications and six treatments. The irrigation treatments included irrigation to supply 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150% of crop water demand on the basis of ET-HS model during growing season and control treatment (conventional irrigation), which was irrigation on the basis of 70 mm evaporation from Class A evaporation pan during growing season. In barley experiment, the highest values for number of fertile tiller, maximum LAI, total dry matter in maximum LAI stage, number of grain per spike, a thousand seed weight (35.56 g), grain yield (7877.9 kg/ha), biological yield (17689.7 kg/ha) and harvest index (44.45%) was obtained for irrigation according to 100% of crop water demand on the basis of ET-HS model. In wheat experiment, the highest number of fertile spike, number of grain per spike, 1000 grain weight, grain yield, biological yield was obtained for irrigation treatment on the basis of 100% ET-HS model; moreover, the maximum harvest index was related to control treatment, followed by irrigation on the basis of 100% of ET-HS model. Conclusively, the appropriate irrigation treatment was 100% of crop water demand on the basis of ET-HS model during the growth season for both crops.
Mehdi Khoshkharam
added 2 research items
In order to determine the influence of tillage and residue management on yield, protein and nitrate of maize (cv. SC 704) in climatic condition of Esfahan, Iran, an experiment was conducted at research farm, faculty of agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Esfahan (Khorasgan) branch in 2009 and 2010. Three factors randomized complete block design with Split-split plot combined over years was used to determine the influence of plant density and nitrogen on forage and seed yield of maize. The main plots were years, 2009 and 2010. The subplots were different kinds of tillage system, namely disk harrow, tooth harrow and moldboard, and Split-subplots were consist of 100% burning of barely residues, 50% burning of barley residues, 100% residue retention and 50% residue retention. The experimental field was under cultivation of barley. In this experiment the highest final plant height, stem diameter, LAI, total fresh yield, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight, ear dry weight, and total dry yield were recorded in 2009, while the maximum protein percentage was achieved in 2010. The higher values of total fresh yield, ear dry weight and total dry weight was recorded with disk harrow, as compared to those of other treatments; however, the maximum protein percentage was achieved by using of moldboard. The highest final plant height, LAI, total fresh yield, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight and total dry yield were obtained by 100% burning, however, the maximum protein percentage was related to 50% residue retention. Moreover, the values of fresh forage yield and dry forage yield were appropriate in 50% reside retention. Retaining crop residues can warrant improvements in the sustainability in crop productivity. Using tooth harrow followed by residue retention in maize cropping after barley, was recommended to farmers in climatic condition of Isfahan.
Seed dormancy is one of the major problems in agricultural studies, especially for medicinal plants. Anise (Pimpinella anisum L.)is an important economic medicinal plant with dormant seeds and distributed only in its natural habitats. An experiment was conducted as a Factorial layout within a completely randomized design with four replications to evaluate the effects of some pretreatment factors on primary growth and germination characteristics of anise.Pre-chilling treatments were 0, 15, 30 and 45 days treatments and hormone treatments were GA3 (Gibberellic Acid), BA (benzyladenine), kinetin (Kinetinnetin), GA3+BA, GA3+kinetin BA+kinetin, GA3+BA+kinetin, KNO3, H2SO4 and distilled water as a control treatment.Prechilling treatment effects on coleoptile and radicle length, seedling length, germination percentage, mean time for germination, germination rate and seed vigor index showed significant differences (p<0.01) among them. Similarly,different hormone treatments also had significantly different influence on coleoptile and radicle length, seedling length, germination percentage, mean time germination, germination rate and seed vigor index. The highest germination percentage and germination rate was related to the usage of BA+ kinetin. The highest values for radicle length and uniformity of seed germination were achieved in BA and kinetin, respectively. Moreover, application of GA3+BA+kinetin had given the highest seed vigor index. It seems that application of exogenous GA3+KİNETİN and BA+kinetin concentration, which is provided mostly by chilling treatment, is the most effective factor for breaking the seed dormancy. On the basis of the results, usage of 45 days moist prechilling accompanied with application of GA3+kinetin and BA+kinetin in Esfahan cultivar was appropriate.
Mehdi Khoshkharam
added 2 research items
Allelopathy is the direct or indirect effect of plants through chemical compounds produced by the plants itself.. An experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effect of plant organs extract (leaf, stem, root and total), and different rice extract densities (0%, 25%, 50% and 100%) on the germination and seedling growth of corn with four replications was used. Treatments included Different plant organ extract showed significant impact on germination rate, germination percentage, coleoptile weight, radicle weight, radicle length and coleoptile length of corn. Rice extract densities effect on germination percentage, coleoptiles weight, radicle weight, radicle length and coleoptiles length was significant. The interaction between rice extract and plant organs had significant effect on radicle weight and coleoptiles length. Control treatment (0% rice extract density) had obtained the highest germination rate, germination percentage, coleoptiles weight, radical weight, radical length and coleoptiles length. All experimental characteristics decreased with increase rice extract densities. The higher values for germination rate, germination percentage, coleoptile weight, radicle weight, radicle length and coleoptiles length was related to stem extract, followed by root, leaf and total extract. According to the results of this trial, it can be concluded that one of the reasons of the decrease of cultivated plants operation after rice, is the presence of allelopathic materials in herbaceous remains of this plant.
An appropriate sustainable agricultural technology system is an important technical support of the promotion of sustainable agricultural development. Properly management of residues can warrant the improvement of sustainability in crop productivity. The research was conducted in 2011 at Experimental Field of Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Isfahan, Iran. A strip layout randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The experiment was related to the effects of green manures of barley, rye, triticale and clover ,two levels of farm yard manure, namely, 30 and 60 t/ha and one treatment of chemical fertilizer as a control treatment were arranged in main strip and decomposition time of manures in two levels, one and four weeks after returning. Cover crop had significant influence on stem diameter, ear height, final plant height, leaf and stem fresh weights, stem and ear dry weights, fresh forage yield, nitrate leaf and protein content. Moreover, fresh forage yield, biological yield, of leaf nitrate, nitrate of stem, protein and ash were influenced by different managements. The highest plant height, leaf, stem fresh weight, ear and, stem and ear dry weight were related barley green manure treatment. The maximum stem diameter, plant height, ear fresh weight, leaf, stem and ear dry weights were obtained in the treatment of four weeks fo residue retention. The highest biological yield and fiber percentage of forage corn were observed in the treatment of residue retention for four weeks and crop residue incorporation, respectveily. Besides, there were no signfiicant differences for these both experimental characteristics between mentioned above treatments and residue burning. The highest fresh forage yield, protein and ash percentages were achieved in residue burning treatment. In conclusion, it seems that residue burning accompained with usage of triticale as a green manure was the best choice to achieve high quality, but for obtaining the highest fresh forage yield and biological yield of forage corn, triticale plantation can be replaced by barley. Keywords: Cover crops, Manure, Geen manure, Forage corn.
Mehdi Khoshkharam
added 6 research items
If residues are managed properly, then it can warrant the improvement in the sustainability in crop productivity. Green manures not only supply the plant nutrients but also improve the soil health. This research was conducted in 2011 at Khaton Abad Agricultural Research Station of Islamic University (Khorasgan Branch), Esfahan, Iran. A strip layout within randomized completely block design with three replications was used. The experiment was related to the effects of green manure and farm yard manure on forage yield and chemical characteristics. Green manures included barley, rye, triticale and clover with two levels of farm yard manure, namely, 30 and 60 t/ha and one treatment of chemical fertilization as a control treatment in main strip and decomposition time of manures in two levels, the first one was one day after turning green manure to soil and the second one was four weeks after returning of them. Crop had significant influence on stem diameter, plant height from ear to the ground, final plant height, leaf fresh weight, stem fresh weight, stem dry weight and ear dry weight. Moreover, different kinds of management had significant effect on stem diameter, plant height from ear to the ground, final plant height, leaf fresh weight, stem fresh weight, ear fresh weight, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight and ear dry weight. Crop and management interaction had significant influence on stem diameter, plant height from ear to the ground, final plant height, leaf fresh weight, stem fresh weight, ear fresh weight, stem dry weight and ear dry weight. The highest plant height from ear to the ground, final plant height, leaf fresh weight, stem fresh weight, ear fresh weight, stem dry weight and ear dry weight were related to the field after cultivation of barley as a green manure. The maximum stem diameter, plant height from ear to the ground, final plant height, ear fresh weight, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight and ear dry weight were obtained in four weeks of residue retention. To conclude, four weeks of residue retention accompanied by using of barley as a green manure led to the highest yield and yield components of forage corn in this experiment. In near future, the importance of these types of investigation will become increasingly important with increasing environmental concerns and obtain healthy products.
In order to evaluate the initial growth and germination rate of silage com under various fertility systems, an experiment was done at 2011 in Khaton Abad Agricultural Research Station of Islamic University (Khorasgan Branch), Esfahan, Iran (latitude 32°40' N, longitude 51°58' E and 1570 m elevation). A strip layout within randomized completely block design with three replications was used. The experiment was related to the effects of green manure and farm yard manure on forage yield and chemical characteristics. Green manures included barley, rye, triticale and clover with two levels of farm yard manure, namely, 30 and 60 t/ha and one treatment of chemical fertilization as a control treatment in main strip and decomposition time of manures in two levels, the first one was one day after turning green manure to soil and the second one was four weeks after returning of them. Crop and management interaction had significant influence on the average time of seedling emergence, seedling emergence percentage, radicle length, radicle length/coleoptile length ratio, radicle dry weight, coleoptile dry weight and radicle dry weight/coleoptile dry weight ratio. The maximum germination seed rate, coleoptile length, radicle dry weight, coleoptile dry weight and radicle dry weight/coleoptile dry weight were related to forage corn in which barley was used as a green manure. However, the maximum average time of seedling emergence and seedling emergence percentage were related to the forage com field in which triticale was returned to the soil. The highest average time of seedling emergence, seedling emergence percentage, radicle length, coleoptile length and radicle dry weight were obtained in four weeks of residue retention. So, it seems that four weeks of residue retention and using barley as a green manure showed better initial growth and germination in this experiment.
Mehdi Khoshkharam
added a project goal
Key words :
Maize, nitrate, protein, residue management, second cropping, tillage