Project

Effects of protein administration on body composition, strength, muscle structure, immunological and haematological markers in athletes

Goal: Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, U.S. National Institutes of Health. Identifier: NCT02425020 in resistance trained athletes

ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02675348 in endurance trained athletes

Updates
0 new
3
Recommendations
0 new
1
Followers
0 new
78
Reads
1 new
730

Project log

Fernando Naclerio
added a research item
Post workout multi-ingredient admixtures are commonly used to maximize recovery after exercise. The present double-blind, cross-over study compared the acute effects of ingesting a protein-vegan multi-ingredient (VGMT) vs. maltodextrin (MALT) on indices of muscle function. Ten trained males, (26.8 ± 1.9 years) performed two identical, 3-day resistance training periods (one workout-session per day) while receiving either VGMT or MALT (10 min after the completion of each workout). Following a baseline evaluation, we conducted assessments at, 1-h, 24-h and 48-h after the 3-day training period. Primary outcome included the evoked tensiomyography contraction velocity (Vc) of vastus medialis (VM), biceps femoris long head (BFLH) and anterior deltoids (AD). Secondary outcomes involved strength and power performance while the other tensio-myography variables [muscle displacement (Dm), contraction time (Tc)] were considered as exploratory. After 1-h, all the tensiomyogra-phy variables measured at VM and BFLH were similarly depressed in both treatments. Only MALT showed a significantly lower Vc (À0.02 m. s À1 , 95% CI, À0.04, À0.01) in the AD. After 24-h, the VGMT treatment normalized all tensiomyography values. Conversely, impaired scores were observed in Vc for the VM (À0.03 m. s À1 , 95% CI, À0.06, À0.01) and BFLH (À0.02 m. s À1 , 95% CI, À0.05, 0.01) in the MALT treatment. Particularly, the Vc in VM was lower (p ¼ 0.043) in MALT compared to VGMT. Overall, both treatments required 48-h to regain their performance capacity; however, VGMT produced better vertical jump and squat performance at 24-h vs. MALT. Compared to MALT, a vegan-protein multi-ingredient appears to hasten the recovery of muscular function over a 24-h period.
Fernando Naclerio
added a research item
Objective: Beef protein extracts are growing in popularity in recent years due to their purported anabolic effects as well as to their potential benefits on hematological variables. The present randomized, controlled, double-blind, cross-over study aimed to analyze the effects of beef protein supplementation on a group of male elite triathletes (Spanish National Team). Methods: Six elite triathletes (age, 21 ± 3 years; VO 2max , 71.5 ± 3.0 mlÁkgÁmin À1) were randomly assigned to consume daily either 25 g of a beef supplement (BEEF) or an isoenergetic carbohydrates (CHO) supplement for 8 weeks, with both conditions being separated by a 5-week washout period. Outcomes, including blood analyses and anthropometrical measurements, were assessed before and after each 8-week intervention. Results: No effects of supplement condition were observed on body mass nor on skinfold thicknesses , but BEEF induced significant and large benefits over CHO in the thigh cross-sectional area (3.02%, 95%CI ¼ 1.33 to 4.71%; p ¼ 0.028, d ¼ 1.22). Contrary to CHO, BEEF presented a significant increase in vastus lateralis muscle thickness (p ¼ 0.046), but differences between conditions were not significant (p ¼ 0.173, d ¼ 0.87). Although a significantly more favorable testosterone-to-cortisol ratio (TCR) was observed for BEEF over CHO (37%, 95% CI ¼ 5 to 68%; p ¼ 0.028, d ¼ 1.29), no significant differences were found for the hematological variables (i.e., iron, ferritin, red blood cell count, hemoglobin or hematocrit). Conclusion: Beef protein supplementation seems to facilitate a more favorable anabolic environment (i.e., increased TCR and muscle mass) in male elite triathletes, with no impact on hemato-logical variables.
Fernando Naclerio
added a research item
Naclerio, F, Larumbe-Zabala, E, Cooper, K, and Seijo, M. Effects of a multi-ingredient beverage on recovery of contractile properties, performance, and muscle soreness after hard resistance training sessions. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-Carbohydrate-protein-based supplements have been proposed for maximizing postexercise recovery. This study compared the effects of postworkout supplementation ingesting a multi-ingredient (MTN) vs. carbohydrate alone (CHO) on the recovery of muscle function and perceived of delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) after hard resistance workouts. In a double-blinded, crossover design, 10 resistance trained men (26.9 6 7.4 years) performed 2 identical 5-day intervention periods while ingesting either MTN or CHO. The subjects performed one workout per day during the first 3 days. Thereafter, they were assessed 1, 24, and 48 hours after the completion of the third workout session. Primary outcome was tensiomyography (muscle displacement [Dm], contraction time [Tc], and contraction velocity [Vc]) of the vastus medialis (VM) and biceps femoris long head (BFLH). Secondary outcomes were performance and DOMS. At 24 hours, both conditions decreased (p , 0.05) Dm (MTN 21.71 6 1.8, CHO 21.58 6 1.46 mm) and Vc (MTN 20.03 6 0.03, CHO 0.03 6 0.04 m·s 21) in the VM. At 48 hours, all tensiomyography variables were recovered under the MTN while remained depressed (p , 0.01) in CHO (VM, Dm 1.61 6 1.60, Vc 20.04 6 0.04 m·s 21 ; BFLH, Dm 1.54 6 1.52, Vc 20.02 6 0.02 m·s 21). Vertical jump performance decreased in CHO, but not in MTN. Although both conditions decreased upper-body strength and power at 1 hour, values returned to baseline in 24 hours for MTM while needed 48 hours in CHO. DOMS similarly increased at both 24 and 48 hours in both conditions. Compared with the ingestion of only carbohydrates, postworkout multi-ingredient supplementation seems to hasten recovery of muscular contractile properties and performance without attenuating DOMS after hard resistance workouts.
Fernando Naclerio
added a research item
Whey is one of the high-quality sources of protein with a higher proportion of indispensable amino acids (IAA) compared to other sources. Its high leucine concentration makes whey an optimal protein source to maximize muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and to attenuate muscle protein breakdown at rest and following exercise. This review describes the main characteristics of the currently commercialized whey protein products and summarizes the available scientific evidence on the use of whey protein supplementation to maximize muscle mass gain in young adults without considering the impact on strength performance. Results of studies conducted in humans to date indicate that the integration of whey protein in the diet of resistance-trained individuals is effective in order to maximize muscle mass accretion. Nonetheless, the observed improvements are minimized when the total daily protein intake reaches a minimum of  1.6 g/kg. Under resting conditions, a single serving of ~0.24 g/kg body mass seems to be enough for stimulating a maximal postprandial response of MPS. Although this amount is effective to significantly promote an anabolic response after exercise, higher single doses of protein >0.40 g/kg after high volume workouts, involving large muscle mass, along with a minimum daily protein intake of >1.6 g/kg have been proposed as optimal to maximally stimulate MPS. Additionally, it seems that consuming whey protein as a part of a multi-ingredient admixture composed of carbohydrate, other protein sources and creatine monohydrate is more beneficial in order to maximize muscle mass gain in young resistance trained individuals. These recommendations need to be confirmed by studies analyzing the MPS response to different workout configurations using a variety of intensities, training volumes (low, moderate or high) and the amount of the exercised muscle mass.
Fernando Naclerio
added a research item
An active lifestyle together with optimal nutrition is essential for preserving independent living and quality of life as people ageing. The minimum recommended daily intake for protein (0.8 g/kg) has been considered insufficient for supporting muscle growth and development in young and maintaining muscle mass in adults. Particularly older adults need a higher amount of daily protein intake (~1.0 to 1.2 g/kg or higher in more active elderly people) for maintaining muscle health because of the “anabolic resistance condition” in aged muscle. The quality of protein is essential to promoting muscle mass accretion and health. Beef is a high-quality protein source rich in essential amino acids, essential, fatty acid and micronutrients that is now available as a hydrolysed powder. Recent studies suggested the potential benefits of integrating this novelty form of beef into a regular diet for improving nutrition in athletes or elderly affected by the anabolic resistance condition or those suffering from difficulties in chewing or swallowing.
Fernando Naclerio
added a research item
The impact of animal protein blend supplements in endurance athletes is scarcely researched. The authors investigated the effect of ingesting an admixture providing orange juice and protein (PRO) from beef and whey versus carbohydrate alone on body composition and performance over a 10-week training period in male endurance athletes. Participants were randomly assigned to a protein (CHO + PRO, n = 15) or a nonprotein isoenergetic carbohydrate (CHO, n = 15) group. Twenty grams of supplement mixed with orange juice was ingested postworkout or before breakfast on nontraining days. Measurements were performed pre- and postintervention on body composition (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak), and maximal aerobic speed. Twenty-five participants (CHO + PRO, n = 12; CHO, n = 13) completed the study. Only the CHO + PRO group significantly (p < .05) reduced whole-body fat (mean ± SD) (-1.02 ± 0.6 kg), total trunk fat (-0.81 ± 0.9 kg), and increased total lower body lean mass (+0.52 ± 0.7 kg), showing close to statistically significant increases of whole-body lean mass (+0.57 ± 0.8 kg, p = .055). Both groups reduced (p < .05) visceral fat (CHO + PRO, -0.03 ± 0.1 kg; CHO, -0.03 ± 0.5 kg) and improved the speed at maximal aerobic speed (CHO + PRO, +0.56 ± 0.5 km/hr; CHO, +0.35 ± 0.5 km/hr). Although consuming animal protein blend mixed with orange juice over 10 weeks helped to reduce fat mass and to increase lean mass, no additional performance benefits in endurance runners were observed.
Fernando Naclerio
added a research item
Objective: This study examines the long-term effects of ingesting hydrolyzed beef protein versus carbohydrate on indirect markers of immunity during 10-week of endurance training in master-aged triathletes (n=16, age 35–60 years old). Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to either hydrolyzed beef protein (PRO, n=8) or non-protein isoenergetic carbohydrate (CHO, n=8) condition, which consisted of ingesting 20 g of each supplement, mixed with water, once a day immediately post-workout, or before breakfast on non-training days. Salivary Human Neutrophil Peptides (HNP1-3) were measured before and after performing an incremental endurance test to volitional exhaustion at both pre and post intervention. Additionally, baseline levels of platelets, neutrophils, eosinophil basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes were determined at pre and post intervention. Results: No significant changes in baseline concentration and secretion rate of salivary HNP1-3 were observed either treatment. The CHO group showed a non-significant decrease in resting HNP1-3 concentrations following the intervention (p=0.052, effect size d=0.53). Protein supplementation demonstrated a significant reduction in lymphocyte counts pre-to-post intervention (mean [SD]: 2.30 [0.57] vs. 1.93 [0.45] 103/mm3, p=0.046, d=0.77) along with a moderate but not statistically significant increase (d=0.75, p=0.051) of the Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte ratio. Conclusions: In master-aged triathletes, post-workout ingestion of only protein, with no carbohydrate, may not be as effective as carbohydrate alone to attenuate negative long-term changes of some salivary and cellular immunological markers. Future studies should consider the co-ingestion of both macronutrients.
Fernando Naclerio
added a research item
Appropriate nutritional supplementation is crucial for athletic performance, particularly for female endurance athletes as their numbers steadily increase. This report involves a set of six case studies examining the effects of ingesting a post-workout supplement containing beef, or whey or carbohydrate on iron status, blood indices, muscular thickness, peak oxygen consumption (VO2 max) and body composition in six female masters-age (> 35 years old) triathletes. Over a 10-week training period, a 20 g supplement was ingested immediately post workout or during breakfast on the non-training days. Of the six analyzed cases, two ingested protein powder from beef, two consumed whey, and two consumed maltodextrin. Data showed that concomitant with increased dietary iron ingestion, levels of the iron-storage protein ferritin increased in beef-consumers (by 56% and 74 %) and carbohydrate-consumers (by 71% and 27 %), but decreased in whey-consumers (by 55% and 36%). Contrastingly, the effect on transferrin levels was highly variable between participants in each supplementation case. The whey-consumers showed reduced RBC count (by 6%), hematocrit (by 8%) and red blood cell distribution width (by 14% and 5%). While one beef- consumer showed a remarkable 34% increase in platelets, the whey and carbohydrate-consumers showed reduced platelets, but increased neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio. Vastus medialis thickness reduced in carbohydrate-consumers (by 6% and 5%), unlike the beef and whey-consumers. Females consuming beef increased iron stores and platelets, while those ingesting whey were unable to maintain specific RBC indices. Only the four athletes ingesting protein-containing supplements were able to maintain muscle thickness, thereby averting muscle loss.
Fernando Naclerio
added a research item
Nutritional supplements are popular among athletes to improve performance and physical recovery. Protein supplements fulfill this function by improving performance and increasing muscle mass; however, their effect on other organs or systems is less well known. Diet alterations can induce gut microbiota imbalance, with beneficial or deleterious consequences for the host. To test this, we performed a randomized pilot study in cross-country runners whose diets were complemented with a protein supplement (whey isolate and beef hydrolysate) (n= 12) or maltodextrin (control) (n= 12) for 10 weeks. Microbiota, water content, pH, ammonia, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed in fecal samples, whereas malondialdehyde levels (oxidative stress marker) were determined in plasma and urine. Fecal pH, water content, ammonia, and SCFA concentrations did not change, indicating that protein supplementation did not increase the presence of these fermentation-derived metabolites. Similarly, it had no impact on plasma or urine malondialdehyde levels; however, it increased the abundance of theBacteroidetesphylum and decreased the presence of health-related taxa includingRoseburia,Blautia, andBifidobacterium longum. Thus, long-term protein supplementation may have a negative impact on gut microbiota. Further research is needed to establish the impact of protein supplements on gut microbiota.
Fernando Naclerio
added an update
@The manuscript published by the Jornal of American College of Nutrition "Effects of Supplementation with Beef or Whey Protein Versus Carbohydrate in Master Triathletes" describes part of the results obtained with endurance master athletes. We are currently working on the results obtained with young endurance athletes who ingested a blend whey + beef protein or maltodextrin during 10 weeks.
 
Fernando Naclerio
added a research item
Objective: The present study compares the effect of ingesting hydrolyzed beef protein, whey protein, and carbohydrate on performance, body composition (via plethysmography), muscular thickness, and blood indices of health, including ferritin concentrations, following a 10-week intervention program. Methods: After being randomly assigned to one of the following groups-beef, whey, or carbohydrate-24 master-age (35-60 years old) male triathletes (n = 8 per treatment) ingested 20 g of supplement mixed with plain water once a day (immediately after training or before breakfast). All measurements were performed pre- and postinterventions. Results: Only beef significantly reduced body mass (p = 0.021) along with a trend to preserve or increase thigh muscle mass (34.1 ± 6.1 vs 35.5 ± 7.4 mm). Both whey (38.4 ± 3.8 vs 36.9 ± 2.8 mm) and carbohydrate (36.0 ± 4.8 vs 34.1 ± 4.4 mm) interventions demonstrated a significantly (p < 0.05) decreased vastus medialis thickness Additionally, the beef condition produced a significant (p < 0.05) increase in ferritin concentrations (117 ± 78.3 vs 150.5 ± 82.8 ng/mL). No such changes were observed for the whey (149.1 ± 92.1 vs 138.5 ± 77.7 ng/mL) and carbohydrate (149.0 ± 41.3 vs 150.0 ± 48.1 ng/mL) groups. Furthermore, ferritin changes in the beef group were higher than the modification observed in whey (p < 0.001) and carbohydrate (p = 0.025) groups. No differences were found between whey and carbohydrate conditions (p = 0.223). No further changes were observed. Conclusion: Ingesting a hydrolyzed beef protein beverage after workout or before breakfast (nontraining days) can be effective in preserving thigh muscle mass and in improving iron status in male master-age triathletes.
Fernando Naclerio
added a research item
Preliminary data of and sport nutrition project aimed to analyse the impact of an oral supplementation with a blend hydrolysate beef and protein, or only carbohydrate on body composition, and iron status in males endurance athletes.
Fernando Naclerio
added an update
Published articles
Naclerio, F. E Larumbe-Zabala, E. Ashrafi, N. Seijo, M. Nielsen, B. Allgrove, J. Earnest, C.P Effects of Protein-Carbohydrate Supplementation on Immunity and Resistance Training Outcomes: A double blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 117(2), 267-277 DOI 10.1007/s00421-016-3520-x
Naclerio, F., Seijo, M., Larumbe-Zabala, E., Earnest, C. P. Carbohydrates Alone or Mixing With Beef or Whey Protein Promote Similar Training Outcomes in Resistance Training Males: A Double Blind, Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2017 DOI:10.1123/ijsnem.2017-0003
Naclerio, F. Seijo, M. Larumbe-Zabala, E. Ashrafi, N. Christides, T. Karsten, B. Nielsen, B. V. Effects of Supplementation with Beef or Whey Protein Versus Carbohydrate in Master Triathletes. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2017. DOI 10.1080/07315724.2017.1335248
 
Fernando Naclerio
added a research item
Beef powder is a new high-quality protein source scarcely researched relative to exercise performance. The present study examined the impact of ingesting hydrolyzed beef protein, whey protein, and carbohydrate on strength performance (1RM), body composition (via plethysmography), limb circumferences and muscular thickness (via ultrasonography), following an 8-week resistance-training program. After being randomly assigned to one of the following groups: Beef, Whey, or Carbohydrate, twenty four recreationally physically active males (n=8 per treatment) ingested 20 g of supplement, mixed with orange juice, once a day (immediately after workout or before breakfast). Post intervention changes were examined as percent change and 95% CIs. Beef (2.0%, CI, 0.2-2.38%) and Whey (1.4%, CI, 0.2-2.6%) but not Carbohydrate (0.0%, CI, -1.2-1.2%) increased fat-free mass. All groups increased vastus medialis thickness: Beef (11.1%, CI, 6.3-15.9%), Whey (12.1%, CI, 4.0, -20.2%), Carbohydrate (6.3%, CI, 1.9-10.6%). Beef (11.2%, CI, 5.9-16.5%) and Carbohydrate (4.5%, CI, 1.6-7.4%), but not Whey (1.1%, CI, -1.7-4.0%), increased biceps brachialis thickness, while only Beef increased arm (4.8%, CI, 2.3-7.3%) and thigh (11.2%, 95%CI 0.4-5.9%) circumferences. Although the three groups significantly improved 1RM Squat (Beef 21.6%, CI 5.5-37.7%; Whey 14.6%, CI, 5.9-23.3%; Carbohydrate 19.6%, CI, 2.2-37.1%), for the 1RM bench press the improvements were significant for Beef (15.8% CI 7.0-24.7%) and Whey (5.8%, CI, 1.7-9.8%) but not for carbohydrate (-0.9-23.6%). Protein-carbohydrate supplementation supports fat-free mass accretion and lower body hypertrophy. Hydrolyzed beef promotes upper body hypertrophy along with similar performance outcomes as observed when supplementing with whey isolate or maltodextrin.
Fernando Naclerio
added 2 research items
Beef is anutrient-rich, high quality protein source containing all the essential amino acids in proportions similar to those found in human skeletal muscle. The current study examined the impact of ingesting hydrolysate beef protein, whey protein and carbohydrate on salivary alpha-defensins (HNP1) 3), body composition, jump performance and blood markers of health in college athletes, after an 8-week resistance-training programme.
Fernando Naclerio
added a research item
Background: Even though the positive effects of whey protein-containing supplements for optimizing the anabolic responses and adaptations process in resistance-trained individuals have been supported by several investigations, their use continues to be controversial. Additionally, the administration of different multi-ingredient formulations where whey proteins are combined with carbohydrates, other protein sources, creatine, and amino acids or derivatives, has been extensively proposed as an effective strategy to maximize strength and muscle mass gains in athletes. Objective: We aimed to systematically summarize and quantify whether whey protein-containing supplements, administered alone or as a part of a multi-ingredient, could improve the effects of resistance training on fat-free mass or lean body mass, and strength in resistance-trained individuals when compared with other iso-energetic supplements containing carbohydrates or other sources of proteins. Methods: A structured literature search was conducted on PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, US National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, SPORTDiscus, and Google Scholar databases. Main inclusion criteria comprised randomized controlled trial study design, adults (aged 18 years and over), resistance-trained individuals, interventions (a resistance training program for a period of 6 weeks or longer, combined with whey protein supplementation administered alone or as a part of a multi-ingredient), and a calorie equivalent contrast supplement from carbohydrates or other non-whey protein sources. Continuous data on fat-free mass and lean body mass, and maximal strength were pooled using a random-effects model. Results: Data from nine randomized controlled trials were included, involving 11 treatments and 192 participants. Overall, with respect to the ingestion of contrast supplements, whey protein supplementation, administered alone or as part of a multi-ingredient, in combination with resistance training, was associated with small extra gains in fat-free mass or lean body mass, resulting in an effect size of g = 0.301, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.032-0.571. Subgroup analyses showed less clear positive trends resulting in small to moderate effect size g = 0.217 (95 % CI -0.113 to 0.547) and g = 0.468 (95 % CI 0.003-0.934) in favor of whey and multi-ingredient, respectively. Additionally, a positive overall extra effect was also observed to maximize lower (g = 0.316, 95 % CI 0.045-0.588) and upper body maximal strength (g = 0.458, 95 % CI 0.161-0.755). Subgroup analyses showed smaller superiority to maximize strength gains with respect to the contrast groups for lower body (whey protein: g = 0.343, 95 % CI -0.016 to 0.702, multi-ingredient: g = 0.281, 95 % CI -0.135 to 0.697) while in the upper body, multi-ingredient (g = 0.612, 95 % CI 0.157-1.068) seemed to produce more clear effects than whey protein alone (g = 0.343, 95 % CI -0.048 to 0.735). Limitations: Studies involving interventions of more than 6 weeks on resistance-training individuals are scarce and account for a small number of participants. Furthermore, no studies with an intervention longer than 12 weeks have been found. The variation regarding the supplementation protocol, namely the different doses criteria or timing of ingestion also add some concerns to the studies comparison. Conclusions: Whey protein alone or as a part of a multi-ingredient appears to maximize lean body mass or fat-free mass gain, as well as upper and lower body strength improvement with respect to the ingestion of an iso-energetic equivalent carbohydrate or non-whey protein supplement in resistance-training individuals. This enhancement effect seems to be more evident when whey proteins are consumed within a multi-ingredient containing creatine.
Fernando Naclerio
added a research item
Beef is a nutrient-rich, high-quality protein containing all the essential amino acids in proportions similar to those found in human skeletal muscle. Only a few studies so far have analysed the effect of combining beef protein supplementation on resistance exercise performance outcomes and none of them have used hydrolysed high quality powdered beef protein extract. The current study aimed at comparing the impact of an oral supplementation with hydrolysed beef protein, whey protein and carbohydrate on biceps brachialis, vastus lateralis muscle thickness, body composition and strength administered during 8-week resistance training intervention in young recreationally trained college athletes
Fernando Naclerio
added a research item
PurposeTo examine the impact of ingesting hydrolyzed beef protein, whey protein, and carbohydrate on resistance training outcomes, body composition, muscle thickness, blood indices of health and salivary human neutrophil peptides (HNP1-3), as reference of humoral immunity followed an 8-week resistance training program in college athletes. Methods Twenty-seven recreationally physically active males and females (n = 9 per treatment) were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: hydrolyzed beef protein, whey protein, or non-protein isoenergetic carbohydrate. Treatment consisted of ingesting 20 g of supplement, mixed with orange juice, once a day immediately post-workout or before breakfast on non-training days. Measurements were performed pre- and post-intervention on total load (kg) lifted at the first and last workout, body composition (via plethysmography) vastus medialis thickness (mm) (via ultrasonography), and blood indices of health. Salivary HNP1-3 were determined before and after performing the first and last workout. ResultsSalivary concentration and secretion rates of the HNP1-3 decreased in the beef condition only from pre-first-workout (1.90 ± 0.83 μg/mL; 2.95 ± 2.83 μg/min, respectively) to pre-last-workout (0.92 ± 0.63 μg/mL, p = 0.025, d = 1.03; 0.76 ± 0.74 μg/min, p = 0.049, d = 0.95), and post-last-workout (0.95 ± 0.60 μg/mL, p = 0.032, d = 1.00; 0.59 ± 0.52 μg/min, p = 0.027, d = 1.02). No other significant differences between groups were observed. Conclusions Supplementation with a carbohydrate–protein beverage may support resistance training outcomes in a comparable way as the ingestion of only carbohydrate. Furthermore, the ingestion of 20 g of hydrolyzed beef protein resulted in a decreased level and secretion rates of the HNP1-3 from baseline with no negative effect on blood indices of health.
Fernando Naclerio
added a project goal
Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, U.S. National Institutes of Health. Identifier: NCT02425020 in resistance trained athletes
ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02675348 in endurance trained athletes