Project

Effects of a school-based health intervention programme in marginalized neighbourhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa: The KaziBantu project

Goal: The KaziBantu project is a specially tailored school-based intervention programme aimed at consolidating the practice of physical education and ensuring the physical literacy and healthy active living of school children and teachers.

The KaziBantu Project (Kazi – active, Bantu – people: KaziBantu – Active People) is dedicated to creating long-lasting positive changes in health, and to provide opportunities for physical activity, by implementing a multi-faceted approach to address the health problems faced within disadvantaged settings in low- and middle-income countries. This will be achieved through two programmes: KaziKidz and KaziHealth.

Trial registration: The study was registered on 11 July 2018 with ISRCTN https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN18485542

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Project log

Ivan Müller
added a research item
Objectives To determine the prevalence of individual cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and clustered CVD risk among children attending schools in periurban areas of Gqeberha and to investigate the independent association between clustered CVD risk, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Methods Baseline data were collected in a cross-sectional analysis of 975 children aged 8–13 years. We measured the height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, full lipid panel, 20 m shuttle run performance and accelerometry. The prevalence of individual risk factors was determined, and a clustered risk score (CRS) was constructed using principal component analysis. Children with an elevated CRS of 1 SD above the average CRS were considered ‘at-risk’. Results We found 424 children (43.3%) having at least one elevated CVD risk factor: 27.7% elevated triglycerides, 20.7% depressed high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and 15.9% elevated total cholesterol. An elevated clustered risk was identified in 17% (n=104) of the sample; girls exhibited a significantly higher CRS >1 SD than boys (p=0.036). The estimated odds of an elevated clustered risk are doubled every 2 mL/kg/min decrease in VO 2 max (95% CI 1.66 to 3.12) or every 49 min reduction in MVPA (95% CI 27 to 224). Conclusion A relatively high prevalence of elevated individual and clustered CVD risk was identified. Our results have also confirmed the independent inverse association of the clustered CVD risk with physical activity and CRF. These indicate that increased levels of CRF or MVPA may aid in the prevention and reduction of elevated clustered CVD risk.
Ivan Müller
added a research item
Introduction: Hypertension in children has increased globally over the past 20 years; yet, little is known about this issue among disadvantaged communities from low- and middle-income countries. Age-, sex-, and height-adjusted normative tables are the “gold” standard for the diagnosis and estimation of pediatric hypertension worldwide, but it is unclear whether the use of international standards is appropriate for all contexts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare different international references to identify hypertension among South African school-aged children from disadvantaged communities. Methods: Blood pressure, weight, and height were measured in a cohort of 897 children aged 8–16 years from eight peri-urban schools in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. Cross-sectional prevalence of hypertension was calculated according to American, German, and global normative tables, as well as pseudo-normative data from the own study population. Isolated systolic hypertension and body mass index (BMI) were considered markers for cardiovascular disease. Multinomial logistic regression was used to compare the likelihood of blood pressure categorization with increasing BMI levels. Results: Hypertension prevalence ranged from 11.4% with the pseudo-normative study tables to 28.8% based on the German reference. Global guidelines showed the highest agreement both among international standards (92.5% with American guidelines) and with the study reference (72.5%). While the global and the American references presented higher systolic over diastolic hypertension rates (23.6 vs. 10.6% and 24.2 vs. 14.7%, respectively), the American guidelines predicted the highest increased risk for hypertension stage 2 [odds ratio, 1.72 (95% confidence interval: 1.43–2.07)] with raising levels of BMI. Conclusion: Our results support the heterogeneity of blood pressure estimates found in the South African literature, and highlight the underrepresentation of African children in international guidelines. We call for caution in the use of international standards in different contexts and advocate for the development of normative tables that are representative of the South African pediatric population necessary to ensure an accurate identification of hypertension both from the clinical and epidemiological perspective.
Nandi Joubert
added a research item
Introduction: Available data within LMICs indicate that the disease profile is moving towards a profile seen in more Westernised countries, where more deaths are being attributed to chronic NCDs. With most of the risk factors preventable through healthy lifestyle behaviours, more emphasis needs to be placed on primary prevention strategies. One way to address this is to incorporate health promotion interventions within already established workplace structures. Although massive increases in data and analysis have occurred in many fields over the last decade, data still lacks within LMICs, especially health data. Barriers to health data collection, profiling, and exchange, have been attributed to poor infrastructure, lack of training and insecurity (Akhlaq et al., 2016). As health behaviour interventions rely on initial health data and profiling as a fundamental starting point, it is important to address difficulties surrounding health data handling within lower-resourced settings (Michie et al., 2011). Methods: The KaziBantu project, ‘Healthy Schools for Healthy Communities’, is implemented in primary schools in low resourced settings within South Africa’s poorest province, the Eastern Cape. The project aims to promote physical activity and healthy lifestyle behaviour in both schoolchildren, through the KaziKidz toolkit, and their teachers, through KaziHealth, a workplace health intervention program (Müller et al., 2019). KaziHealth consists of five steps: risk assessment, health risk profiling, lifestyle coaching, self-monitoring and evaluation of goals achieved. The Kazi- Comprehensive Health Assessment Tool, or KaziCHAT for short, was developed to ease the assessment, profiling, and storage of health and wellness data within KaziHealth. KaziCHAT has the ability to track longitudinal data, and provide a summary to the participant, which can be accessed with an easy-to-use cell phone application. KaziCHAT further allows interdisciplinary healthcare team to collaborate and share patient data. Results: The KaziCHAT platform has the functionality to store and rate body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, physical activity and fitness data, psychosocial health and parasitology data. Each category has various assessment methods, depending on availability within the settings. A random glucose sample or a full glycosylated haemoglobin assessment can be used, depending on availability and need, for example. To date, a total of 500 health profiles has been captured, each with around 400 data points, within the KaziCHAT platform. Discussion/Conclusion: Although LMIC populations have been identified as having a high risk of NCDs, little is known about risk factors present, health behaviours practised and the effectiveness of interventions to improve these. An important gap in the literature will be addressed by examining these risk factors and determining the efficacy of a workplace health intervention programme in primary school settings with the help of the KaziCHAT platform.
Ivan Müller
added an update
How to create lasting change in an education system and contribute to quality physical education (QPE) in accordance with UNESCO principles? The Short Learning Program (SLP) KaziKidz Foundation Phase (Grade 1-3) has been officially accredited by the South African Council for Educators (SACE; [https://www.sace.org.za/]). In South Africa, teachers must earn 150 continuing professional development (CPD) points per three-year cycle. These points can be earned by attending accredited courses, among other things. Teachers can now earn 15 CPD points by participating in the KaziKidz Foundation Phase Short Learning Program (with its didactic and pedagogical teaching and learning content) and report these points to SACE as part of their continuing professional development activities.
 
Ivan Müller
added a research item
Being physically active contributes to the development of physical competence and fitness as well as to the child’s cognitive, social and emotional development. Physical Education (PE) plays a crucial role in the holistic education and development of children. Yet, in many schools from marginalised neighbourhoods, PE is not given the recognition and importance it deserves. For this reason, the KaziKidz teaching material was developed for teachers, principals, school staff or for those responsible from the Department of Education, in order to contribute to and support the quality of PE in these schools. The exercises and games in this book are easy to use, do not require a lot of material and are met with much joy and enthusiasm by the learners. The teaching material was developed by a team of South African and Swiss experts. The lessons meet the requirements of the South African Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) and are supported by the Department of Education, Eastern Cape. The learning content of this KaziKidz book is part of a Short Learning Program (SLP) KaziKidz Foundation Phase, which was officially accredited by the South African Council for Educators (SACE) in November 2021. In South Africa, teachers have to acquire 150 continued professional development CPD-points per three-year-cycle. Teachers can obtain 15 CPD-points by attending the KaziKidz Foundation Phase SLP and report these points to SACE as part of their professional development activities. The content of this KaziKidz learning book should be understood as a contribution to Quality Physical Education (QPE) in accordance with the principles of UNESCO (https://en.unesco.org/themes/sport-and-anti-doping/sports-education/qpe). We hope you enjoy the lessons - Gqeberha and Basel, the UNESCO Chair Team on 'Physical Activity and Health in Educational Settings' from the University of Basel (Switzerland) and Nelson Mandela University (South Africa) (https://unesco-chair.dsbg.unibas.ch/en/).
Ivan Müller
added a research item
Physical Education (PE) is a part of a balanced holistic curriculum in schools. There is scientific evidence that PE contributes to the healthy development of learners, improves their academic performance and promotes their joy of life in the school setting. The main goals of this project here are closely connected to UNESCO’s sustainable development goals (SDGs), namely «good health and well-being» (SDG3) and «quality education» (SDG4). Teachers are often overloaded with tasks and duties. It is obvious that they need support and tools which facilitate their work. That is why these KaziKidz Cue Cards (with open access on https://kazibantu.org/kazikidz/) were developed - a portable tool to support daily outdoor teaching. These cue cards (Grade 1 to 7) are a summary of and a useful addition to the KaziKidz Lesson Plan Manuals and provide complete PE lessons, readily available and easy to implement while teaching outside on the field. They are designed in the form of a hand-sized booklet or can be saved on the cell phone, thus enabling the teacher to present the topics in a well prepared and motivating way. The lessons are in line with the South African Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) requirements and supported by the Department of Education, Eastern Cape. They are implementable especially in resource scarce schools and have been tested and evaluated by teachers and learners from South Africa. The learning content of these KaziKidz cue cards is part of a Short Learning Program (SLP) KaziKidz Foundation Phase, which was officially accredited by the South African Council for Educators (SACE) in November 2021. In South Africa, teachers have to acquire 150 continued professional development CPD-points per three-year-cycle. Teachers can obtain 15 CPD-points by attending the KaziKidz Foundation Phase SLP and report these points to SACE as part of their professional development activities. The content of these KaziKidz cue cards should be understood as a contribution to Quality Physical Education (QPE) in accordance with the principles of UNESCO (https://en.unesco.org/themes/sport-and-anti-doping/sports-education/qpe). KaziKidz and its cue cards was developed under the auspices of the UNESCO Chair «Physical Activity and Health in Educational Settings» (https://unesco-chair.dsbg.unibas.ch/en/home/).
Ivan Müller
added a research item
While neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) do not feature prominently in the burden of disease statistics of South Africa, some NTDs are common in disadvantaged populations, especially in children growing up in poor neighborhoods. Moreover, the general wellbeing of primary schoolchildren from poor neighbourhoods may also be affected by lack of nutritional value, since schoolchildren usually eat food served by tuck shops and vendors during school hours. The KaziKidz toolkit (with open access on https://kazibantu.org/kazikidz/) is a holistic educational and instructional tool for primary school teachers and tries to make an educational contribution to these issues. The lessons have been designed in conjunction with South Africa’s Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS). Ready-to-use assessments can be found at the end of each section which may be integrated into formal assessments of learner performance and can supplement the school academic curricula. The aim is to lead learners through content, games and activities, and conducted in a joyful manner that encourages and promotes a healthy lifestyle throughout childhood into adolescence. Kazi and lesson plans in green will guide through the Health, Hygiene and Nutrition teaching materials. The learning content of this KaziKidz book is part of a Short Learning Program (SLP) KaziKidz Foundation Phase, which was officially accredited by the South African Council for Educators (SACE) in November 2021. In South Africa, teachers have to acquire 150 continued professional development CPD-points per three-year-cycle. Teachers can obtain 15 CPD-points by attending the KaziKidz Foundation Phase SLP and report these points to SACE as part of their professional development activities. The content of this KaziKidz learning book should be understood as a contribution to Quality Physical Education (QPE) in accordance with the principles of UNESCO (https://en.unesco.org/themes/sport-and-anti-doping/sports-education/qpe). KaziKidz was developed under the auspices of the UNESCO Chair ”Physical Activity and Health in Educational Settings” (https://unesco-chair.dsbg.unibas.ch/en/home/).
Ivan Müller
added a research item
Physical Education (PE) plays a critical role in the education of a child and schools can make a meaningful contribution to the goal of achieving the recommended daily physical activity WHO guidelines by incorporating PE lessons into the school curriculum. The KaziKidz toolkit (with open access on https://kazibantu.org/kazikidz/) is a holistic educational and instructional tool for primary school teachers. The lessons have been designed in conjunction with South Africa’s Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS). Ready-to-use assessments can be found at the end of each section which may be integrated into formal assessments of learner performance and can supplement the school academic curricula. The aim is to lead learners through content, games and activities, and conducted in a joyful manner that encourages and promotes a healthy lifestyle throughout childhood into adolescence. The “Moving-to-music” lessons are designed to support teachers to develop personal, physical and psychological skills through dance and movement experiences. With the ready-made lessons, teachers are empowered to teach dance and conduct dance lessons in a school setting. Teachers do not require any prior knowledge or training in dance. Where teachers are absent, community members or learners will be able to read these instructions and facilitate a meaningful dance experience. The main section contains exploring new movements or concepts, musical songs and creative individual and group activities. The action-song-lessons contain instructions to facilitate the basic steps in the form of a song. Creative-dance-lessons focus on each learner’s own way of moving, as learners are encouraged to explore new ways of moving through specific prompts and creative collaborative work. Kazi and lesson plans in red will guide through the Moving-to-music teaching material. The learning content of this KaziKidz book is part of a Short Learning Program (SLP) KaziKidz Foundation Phase, which was officially accredited by the South African Council for Educators (SACE) in November 2021. In South Africa, teachers have to acquire 150 continued professional development CPD-points per three-year-cycle. Teachers can obtain 15 CPD-points by attending the KaziKidz Foundation Phase SLP and report these points to SACE as part of their professional development activities. The content of this KaziKidz learning book should be understood as a contribution to Quality Physical Education (QPE) in accordance with the principles of UNESCO (https://en.unesco.org/themes/sport-and-anti-doping/sports-education/qpe). KaziKidz was developed under the auspices of the UNESCO Chair ”Physical Activity and Health in Educational Settings” (https://unesco-chair.dsbg.unibas.ch/en/home/).
Ivan Müller
added a research item
Physical Education (PE) plays a critical role in holistic childhood education and development. To be physically active contributes to the development of physical competence and fitness, as well as to the cognitive, social and emotional development of the child. PE plays a critical role in the education of a child, whereas schools can make a meaningful contribution to the goal of achieving the recommended daily physical activity WHO guidelines by incorporating PE lessons into the school curriculum. The KaziKidz toolkit (with open access on https://kazibantu.org/kazikidz/) is a holistic educational and instructional tool for primary school teachers from grade 1 to 7. The lessons have been designed in conjunction with South Africa’s Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS). Ready to-use assessments can be found at the end of each section which may be integrated into formal assessments of learner performance and can supplement the school academic curricula. The aim is to lead learners through content, games and activities, and conducted in a joyful manner that encourages and promotes a healthy lifestyle throughout childhood into adolescence. Kazi and lesson plans in blue will guide through the Physical Education teaching material. The learning content of this KaziKidz book is part of a Short Learning Program (SLP) KaziKidz Foundation Phase, which was officially accredited by the South African Council for Educators (SACE) in November 2021. In South Africa, teachers have to acquire 150 continued professional development CPD-points per three-year-cycle. Teachers can obtain 15 CPD-points by attending the KaziKidz Foundation Phase SLP and report these points to SACE as part of their professional development activities. The content of this KaziKidz learning book should be understood as a contribution to Quality Physical Education (QPE) in accordance with the principles of UNESCO (https://en.unesco.org/themes/sport-and-anti-doping/sports-education/qpe). KaziKidz was developed under the auspices of the UNESCO Chair ”Physical Activity and Health in Educational Settings” (https://unesco-chair.dsbg.unibas.ch/en/home/).
Siphesihle Nqweniso
added a research item
Hypertension and overweight are growing public health concerns in school-aged children. We examined whether cardiorespiratory fitness and sport participation contribute to the prevention of hypertension and overweight. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 853 children aged 8-13 years in eight primary schools in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Cardiorespiratory fitness, sport participation, body mass index, and blood pressure were assessed at baseline and after a physical activity intervention, which took place at two time-points (July-September 2015 and February-April 2016) for 10 weeks each. Mixed logistic regressions were employed to analyze the data. At baseline, 18.8% of the children were classified as overweight/obese and 13.5% as hypertensive. High cardiorespiratory fitness and high sport participation were negatively associated with overweight/obesity, while high sport participation was associated with lower risk for hypertension. Longitudinally, normal weight children who initially had higher cardiorespiratory fitness showed less decrease in this variable, while those who participated in the physical activity intervention were less likely to become overweight/obese. High cardiorespiratory fitness and sport participation are linked with children's weight status. Children who are fit and participate regularly in sport outside school hours are less likely to be hypertensive. Our findings highlight the importance of regular extracurricular physical activity and maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness levels.
Siphesihle Nqweniso
added 2 research items
People from low- and middle-income countries still face challenges stemming from parasitic infections. Additionally, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and their risk factors are rapidly increasing, which puts South African children at an elevated risk of a dual disease burden, with negative consequences for child development and wellbeing. Contrastingly, regular physical activity (PA) is associated with decreased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine whether PA is associated with the double infection-CVD phenotype burden in South African schoolchildren. 801 children (402 boys, 399 girls; mean age 9.5 years) from eight schools from disadvantaged neighbourhoods were included. Data assessment took place between February and March 2015 in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Children who achieved PA recommendations (physically active on 6-7 days/week for at least 60 min), who were active, but below recommended standards (2-5 physically active days/week), or who were insufficiently active on almost all days (0-1 physically active days/week) were compared with regard to systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, percent body fat and infection with soil-transmitted helminths. Moderate and high self-reported PA levels were associated with lower BMI, lower body fat and lower risk of being hypertensive. Conversely, children with high self-reported PA were more likely to be infected with soil-transmitted helminths than peers with low PA levels. Promoting PA in disadvantaged areas is worthwhile to prevent NCD later in life, but should be combined with regular anthelminthic treatment to comprehensively improve children’s health and wellbeing.
Obesity-related conditions impose a considerable and growing burden on low- and middle-income countries, including South Africa. We aimed to assess the effect of twice a 10-week multidimensional, school-based physical activity intervention on children’s health in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. A cluster-randomised controlled trial was implemented from February 2015 to May 2016 in grade 4 classes in eight disadvantaged primary schools. Interventions consisted of physical education lessons, moving-to-music classes, in-class activity breaks and school infrastructure enhancement to promote physical activity. Primary outcomes included cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI) and skinfold thickness. Explanatory variables were socioeconomic status, self-reported physical activity, stunting, anaemia and parasite infections. Complete data were available from 746 children. A significantly lower increase in the mean BMI Z-score (estimate of difference in mean change: −0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.24 to −0.09; p < 0.001) and reduced increase in the mean skinfold thickness (difference in mean change: −1.06; 95% CI: −1.83 to −0.29; p = 0.007) was observed in intervention schools. No significant group difference occurred in the mean change of cardiorespiratory fitness (p > 0.05). These findings show that a multidimensional, school-based physical activity intervention can reduce the increase in specific cardiovascular risk factors. However, a longer and more intensive intervention might be necessary to improve cardiorespiratory fitness.
Ivan Müller
added an update
Health and well-being of schoolchildren and teachers is not granted in many underprivileged areas of low-and-middle-income countries. Therefore, these children and teachers cannot achieve their full cognitive potential with impact on the development of their working capacity.
KaziBantu is working to make a positive contribution, by giving teachers and learners the tools to live healthier lives. This Swiss-South African initiative aims to improve the health and well-being of teachers and learners at low-resourced primary schools in several African countries.
Guided by the UNESCO Chair on 'Physical Activity and Health in Education Settings', KaziBantu is rolling out two key projects: KaziKidz and KaziHealth. You can see an overview here.
The UNESCO Chair Team Port Elizabeth and Basel, March 2020
Link:
 
Ivan Müller
added an update
The KaziPlay sub-project aims to complement the KaziBantu program by enhancing playground facilities and toilet ablution facilities at two disadvantaged South African quintile 3 schools in the Northern Area of Port Elizabeth, while one school represents the Northern Area community and the other is a Township school.
In detail, the KaziPlay project entails:
(1) The construction of sports facilities at two selected schools,
  • based upon the needs and requirements of the respective school;
  • based upon the passport-to-health project (https://passport2health.mandela.ac.za/);
  • integrating elements that promote basic motor competencies (http://www.mobak.info); and
  • based on designs that can be reused at other schools from low-and-middle-income settings.
(2) Renovations of the toilet ablution facilities at the two selected schools,
  • based upon the needs and requirements of the respective schools; and
  • based on designs that can be reused at other schools from low-and-middle-income settings.
(3) A rudimentary documentation of the project implementation,
  • a basic set of pictures, including before and after shots; and
  • a tool-kit containing construction sketches and details for each of the implemented solutions that can assist KaziBantu to scale up the work to other schools from low-and-middle-income settings.
In addition, the implemented infrastructure will meet the common safety and quality standards for sports and toilet cleaning facilities and was developed by two South African architects. The first plans and sketches that are still under development can be viewed with the following link.
Link:
 
Ivan Müller
added an update
KaziHealth would like to welcome teachers to this South African Short Learning Programme (SLP), entitled “A Healthy Lifestyle for Teachers".
Teaching is generally an occupation with many stresses, as it involves working with and managing people for long periods. This stress, and the long hours of sitting, because teaching can be a sedentary job, can negatively affect teachers’ health. Basically, KaziHealth is a teacher’s health promotion programme that encourages the adoption of healthy lifestyles. This programme will help teachers to reflect on lifestyle choices, and to reconsider unhealthy behaviours that have simply become habits.
Link:
 
Ivan Müller
added an update
The Physical Education Cue Cards are a summary of and a useful addition to the KaziKidz Lesson Plan Manuals. They provide visuals of each phase of a lesson plan, namely Introduction, Main Focus and a suitable, but not too intensive Cool Down/Conclusion. The lessons target grades 1-7 and are aimed at leading learners through movement literacy, games and physical activities to adopt a healthy lifestyle throughout childhood into adolescence.
The lessons are, furthermore, developmentally and didactically sound for meeting the needs of each targeted age group per grade and allow for repetition to facilitate learning. In the event of sports equipment shortages at a school, the lessons can be adapted by using improvised equipment. The seven KaziKidz Lesson Plan Manuals with their accompanying set of cue cards per grade are relevant and valuable educational tools which have been developed in accordance with the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) of South Africa. Teachers are encouraged to make use of these aids to facilitate the teaching of Physical Education in their schools. The cue cards are open access available at www.kazibantu.org.
 
Ivan Müller
added an update
The KaziKidz Cartoons render important health content and relevant lessons in an age-appropriate way and should spread awareness in a fun and entertaining way while being story-like.
Furthermore, the cartoons are meant to be complementary to KaziKidz, which follows the South African Curriculum Policy Statement (CAPS). Relevant learning content is presented in a child-friendly form using cartoon as a medium, which allows the childlike viewer to identify with the main characters Kazi, Thandi, Jabu and Lulu.
The UNESCO Chair Team wishes you a lot of fun.
 
Ivan Müller
added an update
Dissemination Workshop of the KaziBantu Project with participants from South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Mauritius and Senegal. Physical Education experts from various institutions were present to speak on the expansion of the KaziKidz and KaziHealth programmes.
Link:
 
Ivan Müller
added an update
The main aim of the KaziHealth project is to develop and evaluate the effect of a school-based lifestyle health intervention programme on primary school teachers in disadvantaged communities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.
Link:
 
Ivan Müller
added 2 research items
The aim of the study is to assess the impact of a school- based health intervention package on risk factors for non- communicable diseases, health behaviours and psychosocial health in primary schoolchildren in marginalized communities in Port Elizabeth, South Africa.
The aim of the KaziHealth project is to develop and evaluate the effect of a school-based, lifestyle health intervention programme on primary school teachers in disadvantaged communities from Port Elizabeth, South Africa.
Ivan Müller
added an update
Ivan Müller
added an update
Ivan Müller
added a research item
Background: The burden of poverty-related infectious diseases remains high in low- and middle-income countries, while noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are rapidly gaining importance. To address this dual disease burden, the KaziBantu project aims at improving and promoting health literacy as a means for a healthy and active lifestyle. The project implements a school-based health intervention package consisting of physical education, moving-to-music, and specific health and nutrition education lessons from the KaziKidz toolkit. It is complemented by the KaziHealth workplace health intervention program for teachers. Objectives: The aim of the KaziBantu project is to assess the effect of a school-based health intervention package on risk factors for NCDs, health behaviors, and psychosocial health in primary school children in disadvantaged communities in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. In addition, we aim to test a workplace health intervention for teachers. Methods: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted in 8 schools. Approximately 1000 grade 4 to grade 6 school children, aged 9 to 13 years, and approximately 60 teachers will be recruited during a baseline survey in early 2019. For school children, the study is designed as a 36-week, cluster RCT (KaziKidz intervention), whereas for teachers, a 24-week intervention phase (KaziHealth intervention) is planned. The intervention program consists of 3 main components; namely, (1) KaziKidz and KaziHealth teaching material, (2) workshops, and (3) teacher coaches. After randomization, 4 of the 8 schools will receive the education program, whereas the other schools will serve as the control group. Intervention schools will be further randomized to the different combinations of 2 additional intervention components: teacher workshops and teacher coaching. Results: This study builds on previous experience and will generate new evidence on health intervention responses to NCD risk factors in school settings as a decision tool for future controlled studies that will enable comparisons among marginalized communities between South African and other African settings. Conclusions: The KaziKidz teaching material is a holistic educational and instructional tool designed for primary school teachers in low-resource settings, which is in line with South Africa’s Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement. The ready-to-use lessons and assessments within KaziKidz should facilitate the use and implementation of the teaching material. Furthermore, the KaziHealth interventions should empower teachers to take care of their health through knowledge gains regarding disease risk factors, physical activity, fitness, psychosocial health, and nutrition indicators. Teachers as role models will be able to promote better health behaviors and encourage a healthy and active lifestyle for children at school. We conjecture that improved health and well-being increase teachers’ productivity with trickle-down effects on the children they teach and train. Trial Registration: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 18485542; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN18485542 International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/14097
Ivan Müller
added an update
The KaziBantu Project is now supported by a UNESCO Chair. This UNESCO Chair on Physical Activity and Health in Educational Settings is established for an initial period of four years by means of an agreement between UNESCO and the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland, to initiate programmes that advance teaching, learning and research in areas that are a priority for UNESCO. Furthermore, triangular cooperation with the Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa, is enforced with the aim of addressing needs in the development context. This Chair is also created to institute a new teaching and research unit, or to strengthen an existing teaching or research programme while giving it an international dimension. In consultation with UNESCO, the Chair holder is appointed to lead the activities of the Chair.
 
Ivan Müller
added a research item
Background: The burden of poverty-related infectious diseases remains high in low- and middle-income countries, while noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are rapidly gaining importance. To address this dual disease burden, the KaziBantu project aims at improving and promoting health literacy as a means for a healthy and active lifestyle. The project implements a school-based health intervention package consisting of physical education, moving-to-music, and specific health and nutrition education lessons from the KaziKidz toolkit. It is complemented by the KaziHealth workplace health intervention program for teachers. Objectives: The aim of the KaziBantu project is to assess the effect of a school-based health intervention package on risk factors for NCDs, health behaviors, and psychosocial health in primary school children in disadvantaged communities in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. In addition, we aim to test a workplace health intervention for teachers. Methods: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted in 8 schools. Approximately 1000 grade 4 to grade 6 school children, aged 9 to 13 years, and approximately 60 teachers will be recruited during a baseline survey in early 2019. For school children, the study is designed as a 36-week, cluster RCT (KaziKidz intervention), whereas for teachers, a 24-week intervention phase (KaziHealth intervention) is planned. The intervention program consists of 3 main components; namely, (1) KaziKidz and KaziHealth teaching material, (2) workshops, and (3) teacher coaches. After randomization, 4 of the 8 schools will receive the education program, whereas the other schools will serve as the control group. Intervention schools will be further randomized to the different combinations of 2 additional intervention components: teacher workshops and teacher coaching. Results: This study builds on previous experience and will generate new evidence on health intervention responses to NCD risk factors in school settings as a decision tool for future controlled studies that will enable comparisons among marginalized communities between South African and other African settings. Conclusions: The KaziKidz teaching material is a holistic educational and instructional tool designed for primary school teachers in low-resource settings, which is in line with South Africa's Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement. The ready-to-use lessons and assessments within KaziKidz should facilitate the use and implementation of the teaching material. Furthermore, the KaziHealth interventions should empower teachers to take care of their health through knowledge gains regarding disease risk factors, physical activity, fitness, psychosocial health, and nutrition indicators. Teachers as role models will be able to promote better health behaviors and encourage a healthy and active lifestyle for children at school. We conjecture that improved health and well-being increase teachers' productivity with trickle-down effects on the children they teach and train. Trial registration: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 18485542; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN18485542. International registered report identifier (irrid): DERR1-10.2196/14097.
Ivan Müller
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BACKGROUND The burden of poverty-related infectious diseases remains high in low- and middle-income countries, while non-communicable diseases are rapidly gaining importance. To countermeasure this dual disease burden, the KaziBantu project aims at improving and promoting health literacy as a means for a healthy and active lifestyle. The project implements a school-based health intervention package, consisting of physical education, moving-to-music and health- and nutrition education lessons from the KaziKidz toolkit. It is complemented by the KaziHealth workplace health intervention program for teachers. OBJECTIVE The goal of the KaziBantu project is to assess the impact of a school-based health intervention package on risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), health behaviors and psychosocial health in primary schoolchildren in disadvantaged communities in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Additionally, we aim to test a workplace health intervention for teachers. METHODS A randomized controlled trial will be conducted in eight schools. Approximately 1,000 grade 4-6 schoolchildren, aged 9-13 years, and approximately 60 teachers will be recruited during a baseline survey in early 2019. For schoolchildren, the study is designed as a 9-month cluster-randomized controlled trial (KaziKidz intervention), while for teachers, a 6-month intervention phase (KaziHealth intervention) is planned. After randomization, four of the eight schools will receive the education program, while the other schools will serve as the control group. Intervention schools are further randomized to the different combinations of two additional intervention components, teacher workshops and teacher coaching. RESULTS This study builds on local evidence and offers the possibility of providing new evidence on health intervention responses to non-communicable disease risk factors in school settings as a basis for future controlled studies that will enable comparisons amongst marginalized communities between South Africa and other African countries. CONCLUSIONS The KaziKidz teaching material is a holistic educational and instructional tool designed for primary school teachers in low-resource settings and it is in line with South Africa’s Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS). The ready-to-use lessons and assessments within KaziKidz should facilitate the use and implementation of the teaching material. Furthermore, the KaziHealth interventions should empower teachers to take care of their health through knowledge gains regarding disease risk factors, physical activity, fitness, psychosocial health and nutrition indicators. Teachers as role models will be able to promote better health behaviors and encourage a healthy, active and inspiring environment for children at school. We conjecture that improved health and wellbeing increase teachers’ productivity with trickle down effects on the children they teach and train. CLINICALTRIAL www.isrctn.com; identifier: ISRCTN18485542 (date assigned: 11 July 2018).
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Pilot Testing of the KaziKidz Teaching Material
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The KaziKidz Teaching Material at the Schools
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OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the effect of a 20-week school-based physical activity intervention program on academic performance and selective attention among disadvantaged South African primary school children. DESIGN:Cluster randomized control trial. METHODS:The study cohort included 663 children from eight primary schools, aged 8-13 years. Data assessment took place between February 2015 and May 2016 following the implementation of a 20-week school-based physical activity program. The d2 test was employed to assess selective attention, while the averaged end-of-year school results (math, life skills, home language, and additional language) were used as an indicator of academic performance. Physical fitness was assessed using the 20-m shuttle run test (VO2 max) and grip strength tests. We controlled for cluster effects, baseline scores in selective attention or academic performance, and potential confounders, such as children's age, gender, socioeconomic status, self-reported physical activity (as determined by a pre-tested questionnaire), body mass index, hemoglobin (as a proxy for anemia, as measured by blood sampling), and soil-transmitted helminth infections (as assessed by the Kato-Katz technique). RESULTS:Our multivariate analysis suggested that the physical activity intervention had a positive effect on academic performance (p = 0.032), while no effect was found on selective attention (concentration performance; p = 0.469; error percentage; p = 0.237). After controlling for potential confounders, the physical activity condition contributed to the maintenance of academic performance, whereas a decrease was observed in learners in the control condition. Furthermore, physically active and fit children tend to have better concentration performance (CP) than their less fit peers (self-reported activity; p
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Nowadays, many South African teachers suffer from cardiovascular risk factors. In collaboration with the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, and Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, a program called KaziHealth has been set up to promote the health of South African teachers in their workplaces, and thereby promoting people's health behavior. The program starts with an individual health risk assessment, followed by personal coaching sessions and self-observation and motivation through KaziHealth. These tools aim to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and contribute to physical activity, fitness and nutritional status, and psychosocial health.
The KaziHealth mobile app integrates three lifestyle interventions, namely physical activity, nutrition and stress management, to help the teachers achieve their personal health goals. Education, motivation and self-control are provided in the KaziHealth app to keep interested teachers motivated and informed, contributing to healthier lifestyles and reducing health risks.
For more information, visit www.kazibantu.org or download the KaziHealth app at Google Play.
 
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Presentation of the final product KaziKidz Teaching Materials for grades 1 - 7 in Physical Education, Moving-to-Music, and Health, Hygiene and Nutrition. The KaziKidz has been designed by South African and international specialists, in line with the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) requirements of South Africa, and implementable in resource scarce schools. Ready-to-use assessments can be found at the end of each section which may be integrated into formal assessments of learner performance and can supplement the school academic curricula.
 
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KaziHealth is a teacher’s health promotion programme consisting of a behaviour change model that targets health behaviours, as well as perceived levels of stress and mental health outcomes. This includes a health risk assessment and lifestyle coaching. These tools are aimed at lessening cardiovascular and communicable disease risk, and improving physical activity and physical fitness.
 
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KaziKidz is a holistic educational and instructional tool for primary school teachers. It aims to enhance children’s overall health in South African primary schools through the implementation of Physical Education (PE); Moving-to-music; Health and Hygiene; and Nutrition education lessons.
The lessons are aligned with South Africa’s Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS). The aim is to lead children through content, games and activities, partly supported by music, and conducted in a joyful manner that encourages and promotes a healthy lifestyle throughout childhood and into adolescence.
 
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Dear visitor,
For further information, please visit the project website www.kazibantu.org
Kind regards, ivan
 
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The KaziBantu project is a specially tailored school-based intervention programme aimed at consolidating the practice of physical education and ensuring the physical literacy and healthy active living of school children and teachers.
The KaziBantu Project (Kazi – active, Bantu – people: KaziBantu – Active People) is dedicated to creating long-lasting positive changes in health, and to provide opportunities for physical activity, by implementing a multi-faceted approach to address the health problems faced within disadvantaged settings in low- and middle-income countries. This will be achieved through two programmes: KaziKidz and KaziHealth.
Trial registration: The study was registered on 11 July 2018 with ISRCTN https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN18485542