Project

Eastern Africa Primate Conservation and Diversity Program

Goal: The Eastern Africa Primate Diversity and Conservation Program is a long term research program based in Kenya. The program, founded in 2003, focuses mainly on primate biogeography, diversity, taxonomy and conservation in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. However, the program also looks into the biogeography of other African mammals including the desert warthog, various antilope species and the African golden cat.

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Yvonne A. de Jong
added 2 research items
Chlorocebus pygerythrus ssp. zavattarii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2022: e.T205895889A205895642. Available at: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/205895889/205895642
Chlorocebus pygerythrus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2022: e.T136271A205998680. Available at: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/136271/205998680
Yvonne A. de Jong
added a research item
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species in 2022. Available at: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/205893280/205893339
Yvonne A. de Jong
added a research item
In 2020, a new subspecies was described in the Cercopithecus mitis complex, the Manyara monkey C. m. manyaraensis, Butynski & De Jong, 2020. The internal taxonomy of this species complex is still debated, and the phylogenetic relationships among the taxa are unclear. Here we provide the first mitochondrial sequence data for C. m. manyaraensis to determine its position within the mitochondrial phylogeny of C. mitis. This subspecies clusters within the youngest (internal divergences between 1.01 and 0.42 Ma) of three main taxonomic clades of C. mitis. Its sister lineages are C. m. boutourlinii (Ethiopia), C. m. albotorquatus (Kenya and Somalia), C. m. albogularis (Kenya and Tanzania), and C. m. monoides (Tanzania and Mozambique). In general, the phylogenetic tree of C. mitis based on mitochondrial sequence data indicates several paraphyletic relationships within the C. mitis complex. As in other African cercopithecines (e.g. Papio and Chlorocebus), these data are suitable for reconstructing historic biogeographical patterns, but they are only of limited value for delimitating taxa.
Yvonne A. de Jong
added a research item
The Colobines are a group of Afroeurasian monkeys that exhibit extraordinary behavioural and ecological diversity. With long tails and diverse colourations, they are medium-sized primates, mostly arboreal, that are found in many different habitats, from rain forests and mountain forests to mangroves and savannah. Over the last two decades, our understanding of this group of primates has increased dramatically. This volume presents a comprehensive overview of the current research on colobine populations, including the range of biological, ecological, behavioural and societal traits they exhibit. It highlights areas where our knowledge is still lacking, and outlines the current conservation status of colobine populations, exploring the threats to their survival. Bringing together international experts, this volume will aid future conservation efforts and encourage further empirical studies. It will be of interest to researchers and graduate students in primatology, biological anthropology and conservation science. Additional online resources can be found at www.cambridge.org/colobines.
Yvonne A. de Jong
added a research item
The "Critically Endangered" southern patas monkey Erythrocebus baumstarki, thought to be endemic to Tanzania, has been resurrected to species level based on its geographic isolation, and on the coloration and pattern of its pelage. This study presents the first evidence for E. baumstarki in Kenya and reviews its historic and current geographic distributions based on the literature, museum specimens, online platforms, responses to requests for site records, and our own fieldwork. The distribution of E. baumstarki in the early 20th century was roughly 66,000 km2 . This has declined about 85% to around 9700 km2 at present (post-2009). The current "Extent of Occurrence" is only about 2150 km2 . This species was extirpated from Kenya in about 2015 and from the Kilimanjaro Region in Tanzania in about 2011. At present, E. baumstarki appears to be restricted to the protected areas of the western Serengeti, with the western Serengeti National Park being the stronghold. The number of individuals remaining is probably between 100 and 200, including between 50 and 100 mature individuals. The ultimate threat to E. baumstarki is the very rapidly increasing human population, while the main proximate threats are the degradation, loss, and fragmentation of natural habitats, and the related competition with people and livestock for habitat and water, particularly during droughts. Other problems are hunting by poachers and domestic dogs, and probably loss of genetic variation and climate change. This article provides recommendations for reducing the threats and promoting the recovery of E. baumstarki. We hope this article heightens awareness of the dire conservation status of E. baumstarki and encourages an increase in research and conservation action for this monkey.
Yvonne A. de Jong
added 2 research items
National Geographic Blog, New Population of Bushbabies Discovered in Northern Kenya
Yvonne A. de Jong
added a research item
Yvonne A. de Jong
added 10 research items
Butynski, T.M. & de Jong, Y.A. 2020. Colobus guereza ssp. dodingae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T136880A17983306. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T136880A17983306.en.
Butynski, T.M. & de Jong, Y.A. 2020. Colobus angolensis ssp. ruwenzorii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T5147A17983385. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T5147A17983385.en.
Rovero, F., Davenport, T., de Jong, Y.A. & Butynski, T.M. 2020. Colobus angolensis ssp. sharpei. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T92576098A92576128. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T92576098A92576128.en.
Yvonne A. de Jong
added 3 research items
Butynski, T.M. & de Jong, Y.A. 2020. Cercopithecus mitis ssp. kandti. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T4236A92571626. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T4236A92571626.en.
De Jong, Y.A. & Butynski, T.M. 2020. Cercopithecus mitis ssp. heymansi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T136877A17984444. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T136877A17984444.en.
De Jong, Y.A. & Butynski, T.M. 2020. Cercopithecus mitis ssp. boutourlinii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T136901A17984314. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T136901A17984314.en.
Yvonne A. de Jong
added 4 research items
Butynski, T.M., de Jong, Y.A., Wieczkowski, J. & King, J. 2020. Cercocebus galeritus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T4200A17956330. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T4200A17956330.en.
De Jong, Y.A., Rylands, A.B. & Butynski, T.M. 2020. Erythrocebus patas. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T174391079A17940998. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T174391079A17940998.en.
De Jong, Y.A. & Butynski, T.M. 2020. Erythrocebus patas ssp. pyrrhonotus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T92252480A92252486. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T92252480A92252486.en.
Yvonne A. de Jong
added 2 research items
The complex taxonomy and biogeography of the highly polytypic and widespread gentle monkey Cercopithecus mitis continue to be debated. Tanzania and Kenya, together, support eight of the currently recognized 17 subspecies of C. mitis. This paper reviews the taxonomy of the eight subspecies of C. mitis recognized for Kenya and Tanzania and presents an overview of their geographic distribution and pelage coloration and pattern. This paper also describes a new, endemic, subspecies of C. mitis for Tanzania, offers two hypotheses for its origin and phylogenetic affinities, and assesses its conservation status and conservation needs. Cercopithecus mitis in the Lake Manyara-Ngorongoro Region of central north Tanzania (i.e., the "Manyara Population") has often been referred to as "C. m. stuhlmanni × C. m. albogularis hybrids" and as representative of a "hybrid swarm." To better understand the taxonomic and conservation status of this population, four field surveys totaling 25 days were undertaken in southwest Kenya and central north Tanzania. The aim was to determine the geographic distribution of this population and to obtain detailed descriptions and photographs of as many individuals as possible. In addition, the literature was searched, and 88 C. mitis specimen skins were directly examined at four museums. We found no evidence to support the contention that C. mitis of the Lake Manyara-Ngorongoro Region are hybrids or represent a hybrid swarm. The Manyara C. mitis is geographically isolated from other C. mitis by >90 km of semi-arid habitat, is phenotypically distinct from other C. mitis, and presents little intra-population variation. As such, the diagnosable phenotypic characters of this population appear to be fixed, genetic, and heritable.
Yvonne A. de Jong
added an update
The degree of threat status for each of Africa’s primate species and subspecies was assessed/reassessed in April 2016 in Rome during the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group’s ‘African Primate Red List Assessment Workshop’. In December 2019, the first 122 of these assessments were published (www.iucnredlist.org). Please the full news item on: http://www.wildsolutions.nl/new-red-list-degree-threat-assessments-africas-primates/
 
Yvonne A. de Jong
added 13 research items
Butynski, T.M. & de Jong, Y.A. 2019. Perodicticus ibeanus ssp. stockleyi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T136932A17991738. Website: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/136932/17991738
de Jong, Y.A. & Butynski, T.M. 2019. Perodicticus ibeanus ssp. ibeanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T95706286A95706330. Website: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/95706286/95706330
Yvonne A. de Jong
added 21 research items
Butynski, T.M. & de Jong, Y.A. 2019. Chlorocebus pygerythrus ssp. rufoviridis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T92252798A92252804. Website: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/92252798/92252804
Butynski, T.M. & de Jong, Y.A. 2019. Chlorocebus pygerythrus ssp. pygerythrus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T92252770A92252777. Website: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/92252770/92252777
De Jong, Y.A. & Butynski, T.M. 2019. Chlorocebus pygerythrus ssp. nesiotes. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T92252747A92252754. Website: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/92252747/92252754
Yvonne A. de Jong
added 7 research items
de Jong, Y.A., Butynski, T.M., Svensson, M. & Perkin, A. 2019. Galago senegalensis . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T8789A17963505. Website: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/8789/17963505
Butynski, T.M. & de Jong, Y.A. 2019. Galago matschiei . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T8787A17963414 Website: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/8787/17963414
De Jong, Y.A. & Butynski, T.M. 2019. Galago gallarum . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T8786A17963185. Website: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/8786/17963185
Yvonne A. de Jong
added 3 research items
The Somali lesser galago Galago gallarum is a little-known nocturnal, arboreal, primate of Ethiopia, Somalia and Kenya that lives in dryer habitats than any other primate in Africa. This paper presents an overview, based upon a detailed review of the literature and on our own preliminary observations, of what is known about the taxonomy, distribution, abundance, ecology, behaviour and conservation status of G. gallarum. We found G. gallarum to be relatively easy to identify and observe in the field, and to be sympatric with the northern lesser galago Galago senegalensis in Meru National Park. The phenotypic characters, habitats and loud (advertisement) call of G. gallarum are distinct, as are some of its behaviours.
Kenya has a rich mammalian fauna. We reviewed recently published books and papers including the six volumes of Mammals of Africa to develop an up-to-date annotated checklist of all mammals recorded from Kenya. A total of 390 species have been identified in the country, including 106 species of rodents, 104 species of bats, 63 species of even-toed ungulates (including whales and dolphins), 36 species of insectivores and carnivores, 19 species of primates, five species of elephant shrews, four species of hyraxes and odd-toed ungulates, three species of afrosoricids, pangolins, and hares, and one species of aardvark, elephant, sirenian and hedgehog. The number of species in this checklist is expected to increase with additional surveys and as the taxonomic status of small mammals (e.g., bats, shrews and rodents) becomes better understood.
Like other nocturnal primates, many species of galago (Galagidae) are phenotypi-cally cryptic, making their taxonomic status difficult to resolve. Recent taxonomic work has disentangled some of the confusion. This has resulted in an increase in the number of recognised galago species. The most widespread galago species, and indeed the most widespread nocturnal primate, is the northern lesser galago (Galago senegalensis) whose geographic range stretches > 7,000 km across Africa. Based on morphology, 4 subspecies are currently recognised: G. s. senegalensis, G. s. braccatus, G. s. sotikae and G. s. dunni. We explore geographic and subspecific acoustic variation in G. senegalensis, testing three hypotheses: isolation by distance, genetic basis, and isolation by barrier. There is statistical support for isolation by distance for 2 of 4 call parameters (fundamen-tal frequency and unit length). Geographic distance explains a moderate amount of the acoustic variation. Discriminant function analysis provides some degree of separation of geographic regions and subspecies, but the percentage of misdesignation is high. Despite having (putative) parapatric geographic ranges, the most pronounced acoustic differences are between G. s. senegalensis and G. s. dunni. The findings suggest that the Eastern Rift Valley and Niger River are significant barriers for G. senegalensis. The acoustic structures of the loud calls of 121 individuals from 28 widespread sites are not significantly different. Although this makes it unlikely that additional unrecognised species
Yvonne A. de Jong
added 2 research items
This paper reviews the complicated nomenclatural history for the Kenya coast galago, Galagoides cf. cocos, and exam-ines whether 'cocos' is the valid species name for this recently resurrected taxon. This paper also reviews the phenotypic and vocal differences among G. cocos; the Zanzibar galago (Galagoides zanzibaricus zanzibaricus); the Udzungwa galago (Galagoides zanzibaricus udzungwensis); and the Mozambique galago (Galagoides granti), as well as their geographic ranges and conserva-tion status. The following are among the findings: (1) 'Galagoides cocos' is the name that should be applied to the Kenya coast galago; (2) in the field, the loud calls of these three species are diagnostic and remain the best means for identification; (3) there is a suite of phenotypic characters that, when taken together, can be used to distinguish among these three species when in the hand or viewed in the field in good light at close range; (4) G. z. zanzibaricus is phenotypically distinct from G. z. udzungwensis; (5) the three species are parapatric or, perhaps, narrowly sympatric; (6) the three species are endemic to the coastal forests of eastern Africa with G. cocos in the north (Kenya and northeastern Tanzania), G. zanzibaricus in Tanzania, and G. granti from southern Tanzania to southern Mozambique; and (7) none of the three species is threatened at this time, although G. z. zanzibaricus meets the IUCN Red List criteria for an Endangered subspecies.
Yvonne A. de Jong
added a research item
The potto Perodicticus potto is a small, arboreal, nocturnal primate with an extensive, but poorly-known, distribution through tropical Africa, and a debated taxonomy. This paper (1) examines the Eastern Rift Valley as a major barrier to primate distribution in eastern Africa, (2) reviews the taxonomy of P. potto, (3) describes the distribution of the eastern potto P.p. ibeanus, (4) summarizes what is known about the body size, abundance, elevation and rainfall limits of P.p. ibeanus, (5) provides evidence for the presence of P. potto east of the Eastern Rift Valley, and (6) describes, names, and discusses a new subspecies of Perodicticus for Mount Kenya (the 'Mount Kenya potto' Perodicticus potto stockleyi). The geographic range for P.p. ibeanus is ca. 850 000 km² and extends from western Democratic Republic of Congo to western Kenya. P.p. ibeanus occurs where the mean annual rainfall is between 1300–2000 mm, and is not known to be present below 600 m or above 2300 m. Densities range from <2–28 individuals/km². P.p. stockleyi is described from one specimen that is phenotypically distinct from P.p. ibeanus and that derives from a population that is probably isolated from the nearest population of P.p. ibeanus by >175 km.
Thomas M. Butynski
added a research item
Objectives: Synthesize information on sleep patterns, sleep site use, and daytime predation at sleep sites in lorisiforms of Asia and Africa (10 genera, 36 species), and infer patterns of evolution of sleep site selection. Materials and methods: We conducted fieldwork in 12 African and six Asian countries, collecting data on sleep sites, timing of sleep and predation during daytime. We obtained additional information from literature and through correspondence. Using a phylogenetic approach, we established ancestral states of sleep site selection in lorisiforms and traced their evolution. Results: The ancestral lorisiform was a fur-clinger and used dense tangles and branches/forks as sleep sites. Use of tree holes and nests as sleep sites emerged 22 Mya (range 17-26 Mya) in Africa, and use of bamboo emerged 11 (7-14) Mya in Asia and later in Africa. Fur clinging and some sleep sites (e.g., tree holes, nests, but not bamboo or dense tangles) show strong phyloge-netic signal. Nests are used by Galagoides, Paragalago, Galago and Otolemur; tree holes by Galago, Am
Yvonne A. de Jong
added a research item
Yvonne A. de Jong
added 2 research items
Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, has a rich (eight genera, 11 species), unique (seven endemic subspecies), and threat-ened (five species) primate fauna, but the taxonomic status of most forms is not clear. This uncertainty is a serious problem for the setting of priorities for the conservation of Bioko's (and the region's) primates. Some of the questions related to the taxonomic status of Bioko's primates can be resolved through the statistical comparison of data on their body measurements with those of their counterparts on the African mainland. Data for such comparisons are, however, lacking. This note presents the first large set of body measurement data for each of the seven species of monkeys endemic to Bioko; means, ranges, standard deviations and sample sizes for seven body measurements. These 49 data sets derive from 544 fresh adult specimens (235 adult males and 309 adult females) collected by shotgun hunters for sale in the bushmeat market in Malabo.
Yvonne A. de Jong
added 4 research items
The African golden cat Caracal aurata is Africa's least known felid. This paper describes how C. aurata can be most readily identified in the field and reviews what is known about this species' distribution and conservation status in Kenya. Forty-six records for C. aurata from 38 sites were compiled. The Mau Forest is the only site in Kenya from which specimens of C. aurata have been obtained and remain available. Most of the records are for the four largest highland forests (Mount Elgon, Mau Forest, Aberdares Range, Mount Kenya). Other sites include Olorgesailie, Shompole Swamp, Pelewa Hills, Kaja, Tsavo West National Park, Tsavo East National Park, Maunga Hills, and Arabuko-Sokoke Forest. The distribution of C. aurata in Kenya remains poorly known. There can be little doubt that C. aurata is one of Kenya's rarest mammals and that its population is now highly fragmented. An open-access database (‘GoldenCatBase’) has been established to help bring more attention to C. aurata in Kenya and to aid in the compilation of information on its distribution and conservation status.
Yvonne A. de Jong
added a research item
The eastern patas monkey Erythrocebus patas pyrrhonotus is a subspecies whose abundance and geographic range are in decline. Laikipia County, central Kenya, supports a small, isolated, population which forms the stronghold and eastern limit of Kenya’s patas population. This report presents the results of the third survey of the abundance and distribution of patas in eastern Laikipia. Additional aims of this survey were to: (1) answer, or contribute towards answering, several questions important to primate conservation, both in eastern Laikipia and globally; (2) stimulate further interest in primate research and conservation in eastern Laikipia; (3) improve on the information available for the IUCN Red List assessments of the primate species and subspecies of eastern Laikipia; and (4) obtain information on the biogeography and taxonomic status of the region’s warthogs, dik-diks, and waterbucks. The finding presented here are based on field surveys, questionnaires and communications with long-term residents and property managers/owners. Eastern Laikipia appears to hold 145–155 patas. These occur in about 13 groups (mean group size = c. 12 individuals). Twenty of the 60 properties (33%) surveyed in eastern Laikipia County supported patas during 2010–2017. No property has more than two groups and most groups use at least two properties. Groups range in size from two to 25 individuals. There are at least four solitary individuals (all probably adult males) in this region. The extent of occurrence of patas in eastern Laikipia is c. 1,750 km². The north and northwest limit of the geographic range of patas in Laikipia is Loisaba Conservancy were solitary individuals (but no groups) are occasionally observed. Borana Conservancy represents the east and southeast limit. Central Solio Ranch is the south and southeast limit. The west and southwest limit may be ADC Mutara Ranch, but a survey of patas in western Laikipia County is required to confirm this. Comparisons with earlier studies show that the number of patas in eastern Laikipia has declined. This decline has occurred mainly through reduction in group size rather than through a reduction in the number of groups. Patas have been extirpated, or groups sizes reduced, in areas affect by habitat degradation, loss, and fragmentation, loss of perennial water sources, and severe competition with livestock over access to water. Habitat degradation, loss, and fragmentation are predominantly caused by over-grazing and over-browsing by livestock, conversion of large areas to agriculture, uncontrolled logging, charcoal production, high concentrations of savanna elephant Loxodonta africana, and spread of invasive plants, particularly prickly pears Opuntia spp. Damage is most severe in and around rural and communal areas---where the human population is most dense and where the extraction of natural resources is most intense and unsustainable. With the fast-growing human and livestock populations it is increasingly difficult for patas and other wildlife to find suitable habitat and to access water outside well-managed ranches. During the time of this study, eastern Laikipia experienced a drought and many, if not most, dams and rivers were dry for several months. In addition, pastoralist illegally brought very large numbers of livestock onto well-managed ranches for most of 2017. As a result, water on these ranches became difficult or impossible for patas and other wildlife to access. In order to assess the abundance and distribution of patas for all of Laikipia County, a survey in western Laikipia is needed. Additional recommendations for patas research and conservation action in Laikipia are provided in this report. Fifty-nine groups of diurnal primates, belonging to four genera and four species, were encountered during this survey (olive baboon Papio anubis, Hilgert’s vervet monkey Chlorocebus pygerythrus hilgerti, Kolb’s monkey Cercopithecus mitis kolbi, Mount Kenya guereza colobus Colobus guereza kikuyuensis). Only one species of nocturnal primate was observed--- Kenya lesser galago Galago senegalensis braccatus. Somali lesser galago Galago gallarum was encountered in Samburu County during this survey. Both species of warthog Phacochoerus (common warthog Phacochoerus africanus and desert warthog Phacochoerus aethiopicus) and two species of dik-dik (Smith’s dik-dik Madoqua smithi and Kirk’s dik-dik Madoqua kirkii) were found in northeast Laikipia (Lekurruki Conservancy and Il ‘Ngwesi Conservancy). These are the first records of desert warthog and Kirk’s dik-dik for Laikipia County. During this survey, the geographic ranges of defassa waterbuck Kobis ellipsiprymnus defassa and of common waterbuck K. e. ellipsiprymnus in Laikipia, Isiolo, and Samburu Counties were better defined, as was their ‘hybrid zone’.
Yvonne A. de Jong
added a research item
This paper summarises what is known about the distributions, in Uganda, Kenya, and north Tanzania, of members of the Günther's dik-dik Madoqua (guentheri) and Kirk's dik-dik Madoqua (kirkii) species groups. This includes regions of sympatry that extend from near the Indian Ocean in south Somalia and Kenya westward through central Kenya to central east Uganda. Three traits for distinguishing Günther's dik-dik M. (g.) guentheri and Smith's dik-dik M. (g.) smithii from Kirk's dik-dik M. (k.) kirkii and Cavendish's dik-dik M. (k.) cavendishi in the field are provided. More than a dozen records (some supported by photographs) of aberrant-coloured (i.e., greyish and all-white) M. (guentheri) are presented. The question of whether Hodson's dik-dik M. (g.) hodsoni is a valid species/subspecies is reviewed as this taxon appears to be based on several aberrant greyish individuals. Introduction The dik-diks (tribe Madoquini Pocock, 1910) have a much debated taxonomy. Resolution of the taxonomy of the Madoquini is not helped by the fact that the distributions of the various forms remain poorly understood, as do the limits of the regions of sympatry. The situation is further confused by the occurrence of taxa that are not particularly phenotypically distinct, by frequent misidentification in the field, and by the presence of aberrant-coloured individuals, some of which have probably been described and named as subspecies.
Yvonne A. de Jong
added 2 research items
The Mount Kilimanjaro guereza Colobus guereza caudatus is considered to be endemic to northeast Tanzania. This paper presents the first records for C. g. caudatus in Kenya, describes the distribution of this subspecies, and assesses its conservation status. In September 2014, we found C. g. caudatus in southeast Kenya in Kitobo Forest Reserve (1.6 km²) and Loito-kitok Forest Reserve (4.2 km²). This subspecies has an altitudinal range of c. 660–3,050 m asl and an 'Extent of Occurrence' of c. 4,040 km². These findings are important as they: (1) add one subspecies of primate to Kenya's primate list; (2) remove one endemic subspecies of primate from Tanzania's primate list; (3) establish C. g. caudatus as the most threatened primate subspe-cies in Kenya; (4) change the priorities for actions necessary to maintain Kenya's primate diversity; and (5) indicate that detailed biodiversity surveys within Kitobo Forest and Loitokitok Forest are likely to yield new data crucial to the conservation of biodiversity in southeast Kenya.
Recent genetic studies, using maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA, indicate a complex evolutionary history for baboons Papio spp. in general, and for eastern African baboons in particular. To further address this topic and to improve our understanding of phylogeographic patterns of baboons in eastern Africa, mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data were analysed from 148 baboon samples from 103 locations in eastern Africa. The resultant phylogenetic reconstructions suggest an initial split of baboons into four main clades: southern chacma baboons, baboons from Mahale Mountains in Tanzania, main southern, and main northern. We confirm that the boundary between southern and northern clades lies along the Ugalla-Malagarasi River and Ruaha-Rufiji River of central Tanzania. We detected new mitochondrial haplogroups, most notably the Mahale Mountains clade, and refined haplogroup distributions. The evolutionary divergence of baboons in eastern Africa was most likely triggered and maintained by numer...
Yvonne A. de Jong
added 3 research items
The Patas Monkey, Erythrocebus patas, sometimes called nisnas, hussar monkey, military, or red monkey, ranges from West Africa (western Senegal) to East Africa, north of the equatorial forests and south of the Sahara. Patas are easily recognised by their brick red upper parts and heads. Their long limbs are completely and distinctively white, especially in males. The East African Patas Monkey (of western Ethiopia to northern Uganda and southern Kenya) has a blackish face with a white nose and a white moustache, unlike the Patas Monkeys found in West Africa and northern Tanzania, which have an all black face. Patas are of slender build. Females are the size of a male Vervet Monkey (7–8 kg), the species' closest relative. Males are twice as big, and have a bright blue scrotum, while both the anus and the penis are red. Cheek pouches allow Patas Monkeys to collect food very quickly for consumption at a later time. Relative to their size, Patas males have the longest canines of any African monkey. Patas Monkeys are rarely seen in East Africa. K Hall, in studies conducted at Murchison Falls in Uganda, collected the first systematic field data on the species in the 1960s. He notes that Patas occur in low densities throughout their range. Their home ranges are big (20–80 km²), and their group sizes highly variable (7–56 individuals according to Tom Struhsaker, Steve Gartlan, Janice Chism, and Thelma Rowell). Hall's research was followed by that of Struhsaker and Gartlan in 1970 in Cameroon's Waza Reserve. Although brief, Struhsaker and Gartlan's study was in West Africa. They found that Patas distribution in the dry season is influenced largely by the distribution of water sources. For 10 years, Lynne Isbell carried out a Patas monkey study in Laikipia, Kenya. She found that patas there are highly dependent on Whistling Thorn (Acacia drepanolobium) for both food and sleeping sites. Isbell also found that Patas drink daily, preferring to drink water from holes, ponds, and tanks in open areas, rather than from streams with their dense riparian vegetation. Distribution and abundance Patas Monkeys are shy and silent – traits that, combining with their speed and cryptic pelage, make them difficult to find, let alone observe and study. The map (facing page) shows what is known of their historical and current range in Kenya and Tanzania. Historically, Patas occurred in the centre, south, west, and NW of Kenya. They were present on the Athi Plains south of Nairobi, and – until about 20 years ago – in and around the Amboseli National
The tiny (200-gram) Somali Bushbaby, or Somali Galago (Galago gallarum), lives in drier habitats than any other African primate… in Commiphora and Acacia thornbush where annual rainfall is low (< 600 mm), where drinking water is seldom available, and where there are often fewer than five bush and tree species. While the Vervet Monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus), Patas Monkey (Erythrocebus patas), and Yellow Baboon (Papio cyno-cephalus) often forage in dry habitats, they all depend on the year-around availability of surface water… which they drink every day or two. The Somali Bushbaby has no such requirement, as it has adopted a 'moisture-saving' nocturnal lifestyle… meeting its water needs from the food that it eats. As mentioned in a recent article in Swara ('Leapers in the Dark', Vol 27:1, pp. 50-51, 2004), Bushbaby taxonomy has recently undergone some major changes… and more big changes are expected. As Bushbabies are nocturnal, natural selection for interspecific recognition has worked mainly on vocalisations and scent… rather than on visual external characters (for example, the colour pattern of the pelage). As such, species of Bushbabies often resemble one another in their external physical appearance. To the 'visually orientated' human, this means that distinguishing species of Bushbabies based on appearance has often been difficult. Now, after more detailed studies of Bushbaby vocalisations, morphology and genetics, new 'cryptic' species have come to light. For example, detailed studies of the 'Senegal Bushbaby' (Galago senegalensis) have revealed that what was long thought to be one species with many subspecies is in fact at least seven species… one of which is the Somali Bushbaby. Our own recent, preliminary research has revealed that the Somali Bushbaby is a distinctive species with a vocal repertoire, aspects of behaviour , and habitat requirements that are different from any other Bushbaby species. The Somali Bushbaby occurs in the species-poor thornbush habitats of northeastern Kenya, southern Ethiopia, and Somalia, but the limits of its distribution remain poorly understood. In Kenya, the Somali Bushbaby is known from east and north of the Tana River. Within its range, the Somali Bushbaby is often the only primate present. We have found this species to be especially common at some sites in Meru National Park and near Moyale on the Kenya/Ethiopia border. In the field, the Somali Bushbaby is one of the easiest Bushbabies to distinguish. It has the following combination of characters, which make it unlike any other Bushbaby in Kenya: a whitish face, blackish-brown eye rings and tail, and black ears. The fur of the back is light buff. At night, in the light of a spot lamp, the dark eye rings, ears and tail contrast sharply with the pale face and body. The Senegal Bushbaby sometimes occurs in the same places as the Somali Bushbaby, but can be distinguished by its greyish back and ears. In our experience, the single best character for distinguishing these two species is the colour of the ears… grey and pinkish in the case of the Senegal Bushbaby, jet black in the case of the Somali Bushbaby. Somali Bushbabies move at speed through the thorniest vegetation, making leaps of up to 2.5 metres between branches. They also come to the ground, where they hop on their hind legs between bushes and trees. Little is known about the diet of the Somali Bushbaby. We have seen them feed on gum and insects, and strongly suspect that they seasonally eat fruits as well. All our observations to date of the Somali Bushbaby have been of solitary animals, or of two or three animals within about five metres of one another. Like other Bushbabies, the Somali Bushbaby has its own distinctive advertisement call… which we have named the 'quack'. This call is most frequently given within an hour after dusk and during the hour prior to dawn. The 'quack' – probably an aid in long-distance spacing and territoriality – is audible to the human ear at distances as far away as 300 metres. To date we have detected several behavioural differences between the Somali Bushbaby and Senegal Bushbaby. We mention three of these behavioural differences here. First, the Somali Bushbaby is much more confiding and altogether less shy than the Senegal Bushbaby. On being located with a spot lamp, the Somali Bushbaby frequently moves towards the observer… often to within five metres and sometimes to one metre. We often saw the Somali Bushbaby 'using' the bright light from our spot lamp to forage on the insects the light attracted. The Senegal Bushbaby is generally shier, usually moving away from the observer once detected.
Corridor Ecology: The Science and Practice of Linking Landscapes for Biodiversity Conservation by Jodi A. Hilty, William Z. Lidicker, Jr & Adina M. Merenlender (2006), xix + 324 pp., Island Press, Washington, DC, USA. ISBN 1559630477 (hbk), USD 60.00; ISBN 1559630965 (pbk), USD 30.00. - - Volume 41 Issue 1 - Anton Nurcahyo
Yvonne A. de Jong
added a research item
The Mount Kenya potto is currently considered a subspecies of the western potto (i.e., Perodicticus potto stockleyi). We argue that the Mount Kenya potto is a subspecies of the eastern potto (i.e., Perodicticus ibeanus stockleyi). This subspecies has not been observed alive for 79 years, and is assessed on the 2017 Red List as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct). We indicate priority field sites in which to search for P. i. stockleyi. Résumé: Le potto du Mont Kenya est actuellement considéré comme une sous-espèce du potto occidental (c-à-d. Perodicticus potto stockleyi). La présente étude suggère que le potto du Mont Kenya est une sous-espèce du potto oriental (c-à-d. Perodicticus ibeanus stockleyi). Cette sous-espèce n'a plus été observée vivante depuis 79 ans. En tant que telle, elle a été évaluée comme En danger critique (peut être Éteinte) sur la Liste Rouge 2017. Cet article présente des sites de terrain prioritaires pour la recherche de P. i. stockleyi.
Yvonne A. de Jong
added 2 research items
The southern patas monkey Erythrocebus patas baumstarki is a subspecies thought to be endemic to central north Tanzania but its distribution and abundance is not well documented. We therefore review what is known about the historical and current distribution of the southern patas. It appears that, at present, the southern patas occurs in three populations, in the Serengeti, Mt Kilimanjaro and Arusha. Since 1995 the gaps among these three populations have become larger, thereby increasing their isolation. The available data suggest that, at present, southern patas occur over c. 20,700 km2 (c. 2.3% of Tanzania's land surface area). In 1995 this was c. 30,800 km2 (c. 3.5% of the land surface area). As such, the geographical range of the southern patas has declined by c. 33% since 1995. There are unlikely to be > 900 southern patas today, and there could be < 150. Our recommendations are to (1) maintain an internet accessed database (PatasBase) into which sightings of the southern patas can be entered, (2) interview members of local communities to assess past and current distribution and abundance of the southern patas, (3) conduct field studies to obtain more detailed information on the distribution, abundance, and conservation status of patas in Tanzania, (4) undertake ecological and behavioural research on selected groups of southern patas, and (5) prepare and implement a conservation action plan for the southern patas.
Although primates represent one of the best-known taxonomic groups found in the “Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal Forests of Tanzania and Kenya Biodiversity Hotspot” (EACF Hotspot), numerous important questions remain concerning taxonomy, distribution, abundance, conservation status, and priorities for conservation actions. The objectives of this study were to 1) determine the distribution, diversity, and taxonomy of the primate fauna in the coastal forests of Kenya, to 2) determine the conservation (Red List Degree of Threat) status of all taxa of primates in the coastal forests of Kenya, and to 3) determine the primary threats to all taxa of primates in the coastal forests of Kenya. Four survey areas were visited [1) Lamu Archipelago, 2) Kipini Conservancy and Witu Forest Reserve, 3) North Coast (Mombasa to Malindi), and 4) South Coast (Mombasa to Lunga Lunga)] in seven trips totalling 38 survey days. Additionally, regions to and from the survey areas, including sites outside the Hotspot, were surveyed. In total, 5439 km of diurnal and nocturnal surveys were conducted within and to/from the coastal forest of Kenya. Primates were encountered 239 times. Of these encounters, 178 were with groups and 61 were with solitary individuals. Of the 178 encounters with groups, 99 where in the coastal forests of Kenya, 79 were while travelling to or from these forests. Nine genera, nine species, and 11 subspecies of primate occur in the coastal forest of Kenya; Otolemur garnettii lasiotis, Galago senegalensis braccatus, Galagoides cocos, Cercopithecus mitis albogularis, Cercopithecus mitis albotorquatus, Chlorocebus pygerythrus hilgerti, Chlorocebus pygerythrus excubitor, Papio cynocephalus ibeanus, Colobus angolensis palliatus, Procolobus rufomitratus rufomitratus, Cercocebus galeritus. Three out of the eleven subspecies are nocturnal. Of the 11 subspecies, 55% (n=6) in are categorized by the 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species as “Least Concern”, 9% (n=1) as “Vulnerable”, 18% (n=2) as “Endangered”, while 18% (n=2) were not assessed (Table x). The coastal forest of Kenya have been much reduced, fragmented and degraded, and what little forest remains is under increasing threat. The expansion of agriculture is the most critical threat, while the production of charcoal, taking of firewood and timber, and mining are additional serious causes of habitat loss and degradation (Obura, 2007). Papio cynocephalus ibeanus was the most often encountered primate in the coastal forests of Kenya (32 groups), followed by Cercopithecus mitis albogularis (24 groups), and Cercopithecus mitis albotorquatus (16 groups). Otolemur garnettii lasiotis and Galagoides cocos are common while Galago senegalensis braccatus is present but rare in this part of Kenya. This study found significant geographic range extensions for O. g. lasiotis, G. cocos and C. m. albotorquatus, and is the first to report a wild Cercopithecus mitis albogularis x Chlorocebus pygerythrus hilgerti hybrid. With data collected during this study,we reviewed (Butynski et al., 2006) the complicated nomenclatural history for the Kenya coast galago, Galagoides cf. cocos, and examined whether ‘cocos’ is the valid species name for this recently resurrected taxon. We concluded that Galagoides cocos is the name that should be applied to the Kenya coast galago---not Galagoides zanzibaricus. In Malindi, a phenotypically different looking captive O. g. lasiotis was observed. We observed considerable phenotypic differences among Cercopithecus mitis in the type locality for C. m. albogularis (Unguja Island, Tanzania), the western-most locality for ‘C. m. albogularis’ that we visited (Usa River, close to the type locality of kibonotensis), the northeastern-most locality that we visited (Gedi Ruins), and those in between these localities (e.g., Mrima Hill, Vanga, Diani, Lunga Lunga). These phenotypic differences appear to be in a cline. C. m. albotorquatus is a poorly known subspecies. During this survey, C. m. albotorquatus were found to be common in the Witu Forest Reserve, Kipini Conservancy, and Tana River Primate National Reserve, but rare on Manda Island and on Lamu Island. The question of whether Cercopithecus mitis phylax is a valid subspecies remains unresolved. Surprisingly little phenotypic variation was observed for C. p. hilgerti populations in the coastal forest of Kenya. We did, however, find variation in the intensity of coloration of the pelage. The question of whether C. p. excubitor is a valid subspecies remains unresolved. C. pygerythrus is present in the Lamu Archipelago but was not encountered during this study. If C. p. excubitor is a valid subspecies, than its geographical range is highly fragmented and it population size is critically low. P. c. ibeanus is a widespread, common and opportunistic primate in the coastal forests of Kenya. Outside the Hotspot it is even more abundant, occurring in and outside protected areas. Phenotypic variation was observed throughout its range, both inside and outside the coastal zone. During this study, an extensive hybrid zone between P. anubis and P. c. ibeanus across Kenya was observed: 1) from the northeast and east Mt. Kenya to the Lower Tana River, and 2) along the Nairobi – Mombasa Highway, starting at least at Makindu (north of the Chyulu Hills National Park), through Tsavo, to the coast. P. c. ibeanus is present along the coast, but differs phenotypically from the north coast to the south coast. Primate biodiversity is relatively high in the Tana River Primate National Reserve (seven species), Diani (six species), and Kipini Conservancy and Witu Forest Reserve (five species). Additional primate surveys in Boni and Dodori Forest Reserves, Patta Island, Kaya Gonja, Shimba Hills National Reserve, Buda Forest, and Mrima Hill (nocturnal surveys) are essential for compiling a list of ‘Primate Priority Conservation Sites in the coastal forest of Kenya. There can be no doubt, however, that the top priority site for primate conservation in the coastal forests of Kenya, indeed for all of Kenya, are the forests along the Lower Tana River. These forests not only hold the highest diversity of primate species in all of Kenya, they hold Kenya’s only two endemic species of primate. In addition, they are among the most threatened forests in all of Kenya and are of great importance for the conservation of many other taxa. During surveys driving to/from the coastal forests of Kenya, the desert warthog Phacochoerus aethiopicus was found west of Garissa. This is the first record west of the Tana River and extends the known geographic range to the northwest ca. 265 km. We also obtained the first record for P. aethiopicus in Tsavo East and Tsavo West National Parks (range extension of ca. 390 km to the southwest). In addition, common warthog Phacochoerus africanus and P. aethiopicus were found to be sympatric in Tsavo West National Park. This is the first site at which P. aethiopicus and P. africanus are known to be sympatric. To visually present the phenotypic diversity of the primates that occur in the coastal forests of Kenya, six photographic maps were developed (wildsolutions.nl; De Jong & Butynski, 2009). These comprise 288 of our photos taken of primates in Kenya and Tanzania, of which 72 are of Kenya coastal forest primates. Priority research questions for the primates of the coastal forests of Kenya include: 1) To what extent does phenotypic variation in O. g. lasiotis occur over its geographic range? 2) What is the southern boundary for O. g. lasiotis? 3) What is the geographical range of G. s. braccatus within and outside the coastal forests of Kenya? , 4) How far up the Tana River does the range of G. cocos extent? 5) Which subspecies of C. mitis occurs between the Tana River/Delta and the Galana River? 6) What subspecies of C. mitis occurs between the Galana River and Kilifi Creek? 7) Is C. m. phylax a valid subspecies and, if so, what is its geographic range? 8) What is the geographic range of C. p. hilgerti? 9) Is C. p. excubitor a valid subspecies and, if so, what is its geographic range? 10) What is the southern limit of the geographic range of C. m. albotorquatus? 11) Are there other reports of wild C. p. hilgerti x C. m. albogularis, and do they phenotypically resemble the ‘Diani hybrid’? 12) Does Galagoides zanzibaricus occur in Kenya? 13) What primate taxa occur in the forests along the extreme northern coast of Kenya (especially Boni-Dodori Forest)? 14) What primate taxa occur on Patta Island? 15) What is the taxonomic status of Papio in the forests along the Lower Tana River?
Yvonne A. de Jong
added 3 research items
At the country-level, the biogeography, taxonomy, abundance, and conservation status of most of East Africa's non-human primates remains poorly-known. During this survey, 'rapid surveys' were used to gather data on the biogeography, taxonomy, abundance, and conservation status of the primates of northeast Uganda. A total of 402 h of survey were conducted (261 h diurnal and 141 h nocturnal, including 125 h listening) during two field trips in west Kenya and northeast Uganda. The two principal researchers each spent 30 days in the field. A total of 5,787 km were surveyed (5,690 km diurnal, 97 km nocturnal). Natural history and conservation data were obtained for seven genera, eight species, and 11 subspecies of primate. In addition, indirect evidence for eastern robust chimpanzee Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii was collected in the Otzi Mts., north Uganda. Diurnal primates were encountered at 0.01 groups/km and 0.27 groups/h (n=62 groups) during vehicle surveys and 0.21 groups/km and 0.42 groups/h (n=12) during foot surveys. These groups represented five genera, six species, and nine subspecies; western guereza Colobus guereza occidentalis (n=2 groups), Mau Forest guereza Colobus guereza matschiei (n=17), Mt. Kenya guereza Colobus guereza kikuyuensis (n=3), Dodinga Hills guereza Colobus guereza dodingae (n=3), olive baboon Papio anubis (n=30), eastern patas monkey Erythrocebus patas pyrrhonotus (n=6), Budgett's tantalus monkey Chlorocebus tantalus budgetti (n=5), Hilgert's vervet monkey Chlorocebus pygerythrus hilgerti (n=7), savanna monkey Chlorocebus sp. (n=3), Stuhlmann's blue monkey Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni (n=23), and Kolb's monkey Cercopithecus mitis kolbi (n=2). Nocturnal primates were encountered at 0.14 individuals/km and 1.20 individuals/h (n=12 individuals) during vehicle surveys and 0.38 individuals/km and 0.50 individuals/h (n=3) during foot surveys. Two genera, two species, and two subspecies were encountered; eastern potto Perodicticus potto ibeanus (n=2) and Senegal lesser galago Galago senegalensis senegalensis (n=24). Colobus g. dodingae, was found in Agoro-Agu Forest Reserve (FR), central north Uganda. This finding is important as it (1) reduces the list of endemic primate subspecies in South Sudan by one; (2) is an additional primate subspecies for Uganda and East Africa; and (3) establishes C. g. dodingae as one of the most threatened primate subspecies in Uganda and East Africa. Two groups of C. g. occidentalis were encountered in Otzi East Central Forest Reserve (CFR). This is the first record of this species for this forest. The Otzi Mts. represent the northeast limit for C. g. occidentalis. The White Nile River is the geographic barrier that separates C. g. occidentalis in the west from C. g. dodingae in the east. Pan t. schweinfurthii, discovered in Otzi East CFR in 1993, was not encountered, and only indirect evidence of its (past) presence found. Residents claimed that P. troglodytes sometimes occupy Mt. Nyeri (Otzi East CFR) but seasonally move up Mt. Nyeri and into South Sudan's Nimule National Park (NP). None of the residents interviewed had seen or heard chimpanzees within the last 3 years. A group of P. anubis was observed at 2,738 m above sea level (asl) on Mount Elgon NP, west Kenya. The previous altitude record for P. anubis in East Africa is 2,550 m asl. Six groups of E. p. pyrrhonotus were encountered during this survey, all in Kidepo Valley NP. Reports were obtained of presence in seven other areas. Four groups and one individual C. t. budgetti were encountered. Four groups and three solitary individuals C. p. hilgerti were encountered. All individuals encountered (solitary or within a group) were shy. Cercopithecus m. stuhlmanni was encountered in and near Agoro-Agu FR. Residents said this monkey is present within and near Kidepo Valley NP. These localities are near the north limit for C. m. stuhlmanni. Cercopithecus mitis on Mt. Elgon is considered by some authorities to be C. m. elgonis. Based on preliminary phenotypic analysis we suspect that elgonis is not a valid subspecies, and that C. m. elgonis is best placed as a synonym of C. m. stuhlmanni. Perodicticus i. ibeanus was encountered twice in Teressa Forest Reserve (FR), southwest Kenya. This is a new locality record for this species but well within the known geographic range. Galago s. senegalensis was found at three sites in north Uganda (Kidepo Valley NP, Agoro-Agu FR, and Otzi East CFR), and at one site in southwest Kenya (Teressa FR). All four localities are new for this subspecies but well within the known geographic range. Fifteen genera, 24 species, and 18 subspecies of primate occur in Uganda. Six species (25%) and seven subspecies (39%) were assessed as ‘Threatened’ during the IUCN/SSC African Primate Red List Assessment Workshop in Rome (April 2016). Of these, two species are ‘Critically Endangered’; robust chimpanzee Pan troglodytes and eastern gorilla Gorilla beringei. The future for most primate taxa in northeast Uganda appears bleak. Overall, primate densities are low, populations are small and fragmented, and the individuals of all taxa are shy and wary of humans. Primates are hunted over all of northeast Uganda and people are generally intolerant of primates outside protected areas. The pressure on the few remaining forests of northeast Uganda is very high due to a growing scarcity of natural resources in the face of a human population that is doubling every 20–25 years. Frequent bush fires, logging, collection of poles and firewood, charcoal production, and agricultural encroachment into protected areas, are all contributing to the degradation, loss, and fragmentation of the natural habitats of this region, particularly the woodlands and forests. In addition, primates are hunted for meat and in response to crop raiding. These threats are of particular concern for forest-dependent species.
Thomas M. Butynski
added 2 research items
Butynski, T. M. & Hamerlynck, O. 2016. Tana River red colobus Piliocolobus rufomitratus (Peters, 1879). In: Primates in Peril: The World’s 25 Most Endangered Primates 2014–2016. C. Schwitzer, R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, F. Chiozza, E. A. Williamson, J. Wallis & A. Cotton, eds. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, Arlington, VA. Pp. 20–22.
Yvonne A. de Jong
added 2 research items
The Laikipia Plateau supports a small population of the eastern patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas pyrrhonotus). This represents the largest population of patas in Kenya. Patas are large, shy, semi-terrestrial, have large home ranges (ca. 30 km²) and live in groups of 2 to 74 individuals. The low density at which patas occur in East Africa makes them particularly prone to local extinction. The ca. 48,200 km² range of patas in Kenya has declined by roughly 54% since 1996 and is highly fragmented. In Laikipia, however, patas numbers remained stable during 1979-2000 at 300-500 individuals. Patas are readily recognised by the brick red upper parts and long, white limbs. The blackish face, with a white nose and moustache, is unlike that of the western patas (E. p. patas) or southern patas (E. p. baumstarki), which have an all black face. The adult male, which is approximately the size of an adult goat, is about twice the size of the adult female. The geographical range of the eastern patas extends from western Ethiopia, southern Sudan, and northern Democratic Republic of Congo, through northern Uganda to western, central and southern Kenya. Why is the patas population in Laikipia not declining as appears to be the case elsewhere in Kenya? The answer seems to be tied to livestock ranching, which is an important economic activity in Laikipia. Unlike almost all other agro-ecosystems where primates occur, well-managed rangelands maintain (sometimes even create) favorable habitats for patas. The survival of patas in Laikipia can be explained, not surprisingly, by the perennial availability of food and water. Patas in Laikipia depend largely on (1) extensive areas dominated by whistling thorn (Acacia d r e p a n o l o b i u m) woodlands, and on (2) year around sources of drinking water. Large ranches provide well maintained sources of water and continue to provide good habitat for patas. However, in some parts of Laikipia, elephants, giraffes and rhinos over-browse the whistling thorn to such an extent that adequate food and sleeping sites for patas are not available. In addition, as for much of Kenya, large areas of Laikipia are being unsustainably used by livestock keepers and charcoal makers, or transformed to cropland. The resultant loss of natural habitat increasingly threatens patas and, of course, many other species. To conserve Laikipia's patas population, it is important to monitor changes in its distribution and size. Now, 12 years after the last survey of patas in Laikipia, it is time for another survey. All land owners/ managers are being invited to take a few minutes to complete the questionnaire. If you are not a landowner/manager, but have encountered patas in Laikipia (or Samburu, or elsewhere in Kenya) we would appreciate learning more about your observation(s).
Yvonne A. de Jong
added 2 research items
The design and implementation of effective conservation measures for primates requires an efficient and accessible resource for the identification of species and subspecies. A total of 487 photographs (June 2010) on five on-line maps, called ‘Photographic Maps’ (or ‘PhotoMaps’), present the phenotypic characters for 15 species and 26 subspecies of primates at 82 sites in Kenya and Tanzania. The PhotoMaps, at , provide a ‘living’ collection of photographs. More photographs will be uploaded as they become available. PhotoMaps are a practical tool for documenting and discussing primate diversity, taxonomy, biogeography, distribution and conservation status and, therefore, for developing and implementing actions for primate conservation. The use of photographs to document phenotypic characters will become increasingly important as the collection of specimens for hands-on assessments becomes ever more difficult.
Hybridization in the wild between broadly sympatric species has been reported for 13 species of African primates. Three guenons, believed to be Sykes's monkey Cercopithecus mitis × vervet monkey Chlorocebus pygerythrus hybrids, are reported here; two at Diani on the south coast of Kenya and one at Ngong Forest Sanctuary, Nairobi. These are the first records of hybridization between these broadly sympatric species, as well as between these genera. Most of the phenotypic characters of these hybrids are intermediate between the parent species. This paper (1) describes these hybrids and the environments in which they live; (2) briefly reviews hybridization among Africa's primates; (3) describes scent-marking behavior by one of the hybrids; (4) briefly reviews scent-marking among Africa's monkeys; (5) discusses the environmental circumstances that may weaken genetic barriers and facilitate hybridization; and (6) suggests topics for research on the ecology, behavior, and evolutionary significance of these three hybrids.
Yvonne A. de Jong
added 2 research items
Seventeen genera, 38 species and 47 subspecies of primate occur in East Africa. Tanzania holds the largest number of primate species (27), followed by Uganda (23), Kenya (19), Rwanda (15) and Burundi (13). Six percent of the genera, 24% of the species, and 47% of the subspecies are endemic to the region. East Africa supports 68% of Africa's primate genera and 41% of Africa's primate species. In East Africa, Tanzania has the highest number and percentage of endemic genera (one, 7%) and endemic species (at least six, 22%). According to the IUCN Red List, 26% of the 38 species, and 17% of the 47 subspecies, are 'threatened' with extinction. No recent taxon of East African primate has become extinct and no recent taxon is known to have been extirpated from the region. Of the 18 threatened primate taxa (ten species, eight subspecies) in East Africa, all but four are present in at least one of the seven most 'primate species-rich' protected areas. The most threatened primates in East Africa are Tana River red colobus Procolobus rufomitratus rufomitratus, Tana River mangabey Cercocebus galeritus, and kipunji Rungwecebus kipunji. The most threatened, small, yet critical, sites for primate conservation in East Africa are the Tana River Primate National Reserve in Kenya, and the Mount Rungwe Nature Reserve-Kitulo National Park block in Tanzania. In order to further refine the present country-by-country primate lists for East Africa, as well as the priority actions for the conservation of primates in the region, research should focus on the prosimians of Burundi and Rwanda. Résumé: L'Afrique de l'Est accueille 17 genres, 38 espèces et 47 sous-espèces de primates. La Tanzanie est la plus richement dotée avec 27 espèces, ensuite viennent l'Uganda (23), le Kenya (19), le Rwanda (15) et le Burundi (13). Six pourcent des genres, 24% des espèces et 47% des sous-espèces sont endémiques dans la sous-région. L'Afrique de l'Est accueille ainsi 68% des genres de primates et 41% des espèces. De la sous-région la Tanzanie accueille le plus grand nombre et le plus grand pourcentage de genres (une, 7%) et d' espèces endémiques (au moins six, 22%). Selon la Liste Rouge de l'UICN, 26% des 38 espèces et 17% des 47 sous-espèces sont «menacées» de disparition. Aucun taxon actuel de primate est-africain ne s' est éteint, ni a été éliminé dans la sous-région. Des 18 taxons de primates menacés (dix espèces, huit sous-espèces) en Afrique de l'Est que quatre ne sont pas représentées dans au moins une des sept aires protégées les plus riches en espèces de primates. Les primates les plus en danger d' extinction en Afrique de l'Est sont le Colobe Bai du Tana Procolobus rufomitratus rufomitratus, le Mangabey du Tana Cercocebus galeritus et le Kipunji Rungwecebus kipunji. Les sites de conservation des primates les plus menacés, les plus petits néanmoins essentiels sont la Réserve Nationale des Primates du Fleuve Tana au Kenya et l' ensemble de la Réserve Naturelle du Mont-Rungwe avec le Park National de Kitulo en Tanzanie. Afin d' améliorer les listes actuels des primates par pays en Afrique de l'Est, ainsi que pour l' élaboration des actions prioritaires pour la conservation des primates dans la sous-région, la recherche devrait se focaliser sur les prosimiens du Burundi et du Rwanda.