Project

ENOUGH - International network for sufficiency research & policy

Goal: The ENOUGH network aims at:
- Increasing the visibility on sufficiency approaches & research;
- Facilitating networking activities and information sharing;
- Gathering references on sufficiency and acting as a resource centre;
- Undertaking collective work, such as on terminology and further development of the concept, barriers to overcome, and supporting policies.

Date: 1 January 2018

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Edouard Toulouse
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An information mailing list is available for the members of the ENOUGH network on sufficiency. In case you are interested to join and receive infos and updates by e-mail, please send a private message to https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Edouard-Toulouse
 
Edouard Toulouse
added 3 research items
Vélo, végétarisme, rejet de l’hyperconsumérisme, abandon de grands projets... Face aux urgences environnementales, des stratégies et comportements allant au-delà de la simple amélioration des technologies remettent en cause les fondements de nos (sur)consommations de ressources. Le concept de sobriété, notamment énergétique, suscite un intérêt croissant de la part des sciences sociales et politiques. Qu’ont-elles à nous dire sur la place que la sobriété pourrait prendre dans la transition énergétique ?
In terms of energy demand, technical efficiency improvements alone may not be enough to tackle climate change and meet the 1.5°C target if we continue using a growing amount of energy-based services. Actions on behavioural and societal organisation changes - encompassed in the ‘sufficiency’ concept - are also required. Energy sufficiency means efforts to rethink and redesign collective and individual practices in order to favour intrinsically low-energy activities and services, to keep us in line with the ecological limits of the planet. It requires reflecting on human needs, social equity, economic development, urban structures, social norms, consumption habits, as well as the role of policies to foster sufficiency. There is an increasing number of contributions discussing how to take sufficiency into account in energy transition scenarios. Some energy models include quantifications of sufficiency potentials, and studies provide recommendations on how best to do it. Theoretical assessments of potentials are a key step; but making a convincing case as to the credibility and plausibility of these potentials appears to be another important matter.The reason is that sufficiency potentials are provoking specific doubts and sometimes reluctance, that may be due to their nature, limitations, and other (more or less subjective) reasons. In this paper, we propose an exploratory investigation and typology of these objections, and factors that are likely to aggravate them. The analysis is notably based on the experience of the French négaWatt Association on the way its sufficiency-based energy scenario published 17 years ago has been received by various audiences since then. We then suggest and discuss ways to increase the trust in and acceptance of sufficiency potentials, through recommendations on how to improve their robustness and how best to communicate them (supporting explanations, effective arguments, importance of co-benefits, use of narratives, etc.).
The concept of sufficiency – reducing energy uses beyond technical efficiency – is far-reaching and requires a reflection on human needs, energy services, urban structures, social norms, and the role of policies to support the shift towards lower-energy societies. In recent years, a growing body of literature has been published on energy sufficiency in various disciplines. However, there has been limited exchanges and cooperation among researchers so far, hindering the visibility and impact of this research. This paper presents an assessment of where sufficiency research stands, especially in the perspective of policy-making. It is the first overview paper issued in the context of the newly-founded ENOUGH network – International network for sufficiency research & policy, established in 2017. In the first part, we provide a condensed literature review on energy sufficiency, based on dozens of recent references collected through the network. Through four main themes (the nature of sufficiency, the challenges of modelling it, the barriers to its diffusion, and the approaches to foster it), we summarise the key issues and approaches. We then present what the scholars themselves see as the priorities for future research, promising sufficiency policy options, and key barriers that research should help overcome. We collected their views through a questionnaire completed by more than 40 knowledgeable authors and experts from various disciplines. We finally build on the previous parts to draw some recommendations on how sufficiency research could increase its impact, notably in relation to policy-making.
Edouard Toulouse
added an update
After realising that the concept of sufficiency was hardly mentioned on Wikipedia, the lead group of ENOUGH has worked to fill this gap.
You can read the final result under the entry 'Eco-sufficiency' on the English Wikipedia:
Please tell us if you feel the article requires some improvements or additional input.
And don't hesitate to share it as you like.
 
Edouard Toulouse
added an update
18 papers on energy sufficiency have been presented at the eceee Summer Study conference. A record high!
List of the abstracts below, and full details on the conference available here:
2-190-19 - Energy sufficiency: how can research better help and inform policy-making?
Edouard Toulouse , Marlyne Sahakian, Sylvia Lorek, Katharina Bohnenberger, Anja Bierwirth, Leon Leuser (ENOUGH) Abstract The concept of sufficiency – reducing energy uses beyond technical efficiency – is far-reaching and requires a reflection on human needs, energy services, urban structures, social norms, and the role of policies to support the shift towards lower-energy societies. In recent years, a growing body of literature has been published on energy sufficiency in various disciplines. However, there has been limited exchanges and cooperation among researchers so far, hindering the visibility and impact of this research. This paper presents an assessment of where sufficiency research stands, especially in the perspective of policy-making. It is the first overview paper issued in the context of the newly-founded ENOUGH network – International network for sufficiency research & policy, established in 2017.In the first part, we provide a condensed literature review on energy sufficiency, based on dozens of recent references collected through the network. Through four main themes (the nature of sufficiency, the challenges of modelling it, the barriers to its diffusion, and the approaches to foster it), we summarise the key issues and approaches. We then present what the scholars themselves see as the priorities for future research, promising sufficiency policy options, and key barriers that research should help overcome. We collected their views through a questionnaire completed by more than 40 knowledgeable authors and experts from various disciplines. We finally build on the previous parts to draw some recommendations on how sufficiency research could increase its impact, notably in relation to policy-making.
2-226-19 - Energy sufficiency in policy and practice: the question of needs and wants
Tina Fawcett , Sarah Darby (University of Oxford) Abstract Transformation of energy demand is one of three pillars for action identified in the IPCC’s 1.5°C report. To deliver emissions reductions of the scale required, this transformation will need to be radical. While policy approaches of ‘energy efficiency first’ and ‘multiple benefits of energy efficiency’ have the potential to increase action and reduce carbon, a more ambitious framing is needed. Sufficiency, or energy service sufficiency, could be a strong framework to deliver energy services equitably, while respecting planetary boundaries. But the concept of sufficiency cannot be separated from judgements on what is ‘enough’ or from principles of distributional justice: it steps outside conventional energy policy boundaries. This paper explores the possibility of distinguishing between needs and wants – a debate with a long history – and considers whether and how such distinctions may be embodied in policies such as rising block and demand-based tariffs, energy labels based on consumption, product bans and building standards to reduce and prevent energy / fuel poverty. Ideas from the literature on distributive and procedural justice will be presented and interrogated in the light of European experience and debates on energy sufficiency and fuel poverty, and a model for reaching a national consensus on basic needs will be offered. Energy policy based around access to sufficient services will involve questioning expectations and norms about what ‘enough’ means and who gets to decide. Moving to a sufficiency framing will involve challenging social and political debates, and technological advances will not allow us to side-step these. The energy policy community is a good place to start these discussions, because we already have some socio-technical options to offer, along with experience in defining services and standards, which can be developed on the path to much-reduced use of fossil fuel.
2-213-19 - Energy efficiency or energy demand?
Noam Bergman (University of Sussex) Abstract Energy efficiency has long been hailed as a central pillar in climate change mitigation through its role in reducing energy demand – not least by eceee. However, some now question whether the energy efficiency narrative is sufficient for emission reduction goals. This is a welcome development, as this narrative has often been synonymous with improving technical efficiency, while obscuring the question of reducing demand for energy services – as opposed to delivering those same services more efficiently. Further, it carries an implicit techno-centric bias, overlooking non-technological solutions. A classic example is the EU’s estimates of potentially large energy savings that could be achieved by more efficient tumble dryers – a study measure which could encourage dryer purchase, significantly increasing energy use over hanging clothes to dry. This paper draws on conclusions from three research projects at the Centre on Innovation and Energy Demand (CIED), including one finding that a shift to electric cars risks maintaining high travel demand, preventing a deeper transition to a more sustainable transport system, and another forecasting significantly lower household energy savings from the UK smart meter rollout than previously estimated. I conclude that the energy efficiency narrative might lock us in to high energy lifestyles through seeking ways to maintain, rather than disrupt, business as usual behaviours. I suggest that a complementary energy demand reduction narrative could highlight the limits to (technical) efficiency savings, and open a way for policy to engage with the deeper changes needed to our demand for energy services.
6-019-19 - Excess? Exploring social, structural and behavioural drivers of energy demand in areas of high combined energy consumption or “how much energy is more than enough?”
Tim Chatterton , Jillian Anable, Milena Buchs, Robin Lovelace, Karen Lucas, Caroline Mullen, Malcolm Morgan, Muhammed Adeel (University of Leeds) Abstract Previous work within the MOT (Motoring and vehicle Ownership and Trends) project identified correlations at a spatial level between energy consumption through the use of private vehicles and through domestic gas and electricity. High vehicle energy areas also tend to be high domestic consumption areas, with the top 5% highest consumption areas using around 2.5 times as much direct energy per capita as the lowest. Due to growing electrification, energy demand from private vehicles is becoming increasingly linked to domestic consumption. There are approximately 200,000 electric vehicles in the UK fleet (including plug-in hybrids) – this is around 0.5% of the light duty fleet. Around 75% of these are in private ownership. Both for assessing energy footprints and to deal with strategic issues such as local grid capacity, there is a need to look at energy consumption in a holistic manner, investigating relations between energy use in the home and from transport. With the rapid rise of options for virtual mobility, personal transport has become less necessary for participating in a range of activities, yet this does not necessarily reduce overall energy use. Linked analyses are essential to assess where and how consumption in one domain may become displaced to another e.g. technologies that permit home working may reduce transport use but increase energy consumption in homes. The ‘Excess?’ project, is being undertaken within the Centre for Research into Energy Demand Solutions (CREDS). It is using a mixed-methods approach to better understand the causes of disproportionately high consumption, i.e. can it be explained by structural and systemic factors (e.g. poor public transport, inefficient or precarious housing), social factors (e.g. demographic characteristics) or behavioural factors (e.g. social expectations and norms, or lifestyle choices). The aim is both to highlight risks to distribution networks from clustering of new electric technologies, and to examine justice issues around unequal patterns of energy demand. Whilst much work on energy demand has focussed on meeting basic needs (e.g. fuel poverty and transport vulnerability), Excess? has its sights on examining high consumption in order help identify where energy consumption can be reduced ‘furthest and fastest’. The presentation will cover the initial identification and characterisation of high consumption areas, and a review of high consumption households from national surveys. Aggregated data based on readings from over 70m domestic energy meters and vehicle odometers will be used to map patterns of energy consumption across England. These will be analysed in terms of socio-demographic and geographic data at the LSOA level (av. size 672 households), exploring relationships with housing type, household composition, levels of accessibility and public transport provision. The data will also be used to model down to an Output Area (OA size = 129 households) level using Geographically Weighted Regression. National Survey Data from a range of national surveys (incl. National Transport Survey, Living Costs and Food Survey, Understanding Society) will be used to explore the relationships at a household level between transport and domestic consumption that lie behind aggregated spatial data, and the structural, socio-demographic and behavioural factors driving high consumption. Then, using a framework derived from the above analyses, alongside an exploration of theoretical framings of excess, a number of areas will be identified for face-to-face methods to provide a qualitative exploration of reasons for high energy consumption.
1-116-19 - Experimenting with resource-intensive practices and related energy consumption levels
Charlotte Louise Jensen, Freja Friis (Aalborg University Copenhagen & Danish Building Research Institute) Abstract It is widely accepted that the well-being of humans and other species now and in future generations is vulnerable to the effects of climate change and that urgent mitigation measures are required (IPCC, 2014, 2018). Ecological and environmental crisis and severe resource depletion mandate a need for fundamental social change in systems of production and consumption (e.g. COP 21, Paris Agreement).
Despite significant efforts by the EU as well as national and municipal governments to reduce domestic energy consumption over the last 20 years, traditional problem framing (which has typically relied on a mix of rational consumer choice models, efficiency measures and information-based behavioral change theory) has failed to deliver anticipated reductions (e.g. EEA, 2013). New problem-framings are needed to understand and engage with the challenge of high levels of energy consumption. In the EU-funded research initiative ENERGISE, practice-theoretically inspired ways of understanding and challenging current resource intensive, domestic practices are developed and tested.
This paper presents 1) the role of social scientific enquiry in developing such new ways of understanding and challenging resource intensive practices as well as 2) the role of related methods in rolling out experiments, which seek to reduce energy consumption accordingly. This paper discusses and exemplifies these dynamics by presenting the process of conducting ENERGISE ‘Living Labs’ involving Danish households to challenge their resource intensive practices related to home-heating and laundry routines.
1-203-19 - Better off with less (energy)? Household activities during interventions
Marina Diakonova , Philipp Grünewald (University of Oxford) Abstract The dominant supply side perspective in energy research tends to focus on the downsides of (energy) consumption, its costs and the environmental impact. We seek to inform this debate with a reversal of perspective. What are the benefits of energy for the users and how does demand reduction affect them? We have collected over 18,000 simultaneous records of UK household activities, enjoyment and electricity consumption. These data give us novel and nuanced insights into the relationship between what we do, how much (electricity) we consume at the time and how this affects our sense of enjoyment. Three broad and interrelated trends emerge: 1.Periods of high activity coincide with high demand 2.Periods of high demand coincide with greater enjoyment (!) 3.Interventions to reduce demand can lead to reductions in demand, but also affect activities and enjoyment Our ongoing research on demand interventions found that requests to reduce demand during peak periods (5-7pm) led to 15% reduction in load. Food related activities have been identified as particularly relevant during peak demand. They tend to get shifted or suppressed and substituted with other activities to compensate. For some, this can lead to increases in enjoyment, while others have their enjoyment reduced, especially where ‘quality time’ activities are scarified during such interventions. While the overall trend is for periods of high consumption to be more enjoyable, there are important nuances to consider. We will present high-energy low-enjoyment patterns as well as low-energy high-enjoyment activities. Interventions to reduce the former or increase the latter may hold the key to more acceptable public policies and may even increase well-being. Three activities that stand out as the most enjoyable are reading, socialising and sleeping. These are also among the least energy consuming. Instead of denying or penalising energy use, encouraging activities like reading, socialising and sleeping could bring about a wide range of benefits, aside from displacing less enjoyable, costly and environmentally harmful demands.
1-312-19 - Energy sufficiency: are we ready for it? An analysis of sustainable energy initiatives and citizen visions
Edina Vadovics , Lidija Živčič (GreenDependent Institute & Focus Association for Sustainable Development) Abstract The aim of this paper is to bring together knowledge and experience about energy sufficiency from two European projects. On the one hand, relying on a database of sustainable energy initiatives we investigate whether the concept of energy sufficiency is present in projects designed to make energy consumption more sustainable. On the other hand, based on an analysis of visions created by citizens, we explore whether energy sufficiency, or sufficiency in general, appears in citizen visions of a sustainable future. The paper starts by defining energy sufficiency, or more accurately, ‘energy sufficiency within limits’ that the authors describe as consumption that ensures that everyone has access to a sufficient amount of energy to satisfy their basic needs in a way that respects the ecological limits of the planet. Thus, energy sufficiency is understood as connecting the need to limit energy consumption with the need to make consumption and distribution more just, hence also introducing the concept of energy justice into the analysis. Then, an analysis of the ENERGISE database of 1000+ sustainable energy consumption initiatives (SECIs) from 30 European countries is introduced, using an energy sufficiency framework. This is followed by a study of citizen visions from the CIMULACT project. CIMULACT developed a participatory methodology that involved more than 1000 citizens from 30 European countries in a consultation process during which visions of a desirable future were created. These citizen visions are analyzed from the point of view of sufficiency: namely, does the latter term (or similar terms) appear? If yes, in which contexts, and in relation to which objectives? What, if any, are the aspects that are currently missing? The paper closes with reflections on what the findings from the analysis mean for putting energy sufficiency more firmly on the research, action and policy agenda.
1-248-19 - Energy sufficiency: how to win the argument on potentials?
Charline Dufournet , Edouard Toulouse, Yves Marignac, Hannah Förster (Association négaWatt & Öko-Institut) Abstract In terms of energy demand, technical efficiency improvements alone may not be enough to tackle climate change and meet the 1.5°C target if we continue using a growing amount of energy-based services. Actions on behavioural and societal organisation changes - encompassed in the ‘sufficiency’ concept - are also required. Energy sufficiency means efforts to rethink and redesign collective and individual practices in order to favour intrinsically low-energy activities and services, to keep us in line with the ecological limits of the planet. It requires reflecting on human needs, social equity, economic development, urban structures, social norms, consumption habits, as well as the role of policies to foster sufficiency. There is an increasing number of contributions discussing how to take sufficiency into account in energy transition scenarios. Some energy models include quantifications of sufficiency potentials, and studies provide recommendations on how best to do it. Theoretical assessments of potentials are a key step; but making a convincing case as to the credibility and plausibility of these potentials appears to be another important matter. The reason is that sufficiency potentials are provoking specific doubts and sometimes reluctance, that may be due to their nature, limitations, and other (more or less subjective) reasons. In this paper, we propose an exploratory investigation and typology of these objections, and factors that are likely to aggravate them. The analysis is notably based on the experience of the French négaWatt Association on the way its sufficiency-based energy scenario published 17 years ago has been received by various audiences since then. We then suggest and discuss ways to increase the trust in and acceptance of sufficiency potentials, through recommendations on how to improve their robustness and how best to communicate them (supporting explanations, effective arguments, importance of co-benefits, use of narratives, etc.).
3-055-19 - Energy efficiency first; sufficiency next?
Hannah Förster , Carina Zell-Ziegler, Daniel Eichhorn (Öko-Institut e.V. & Umweltbundesamt) Abstract The European Union has committed to binding 2030 targets: to cutting greenhouse gases by 40 % compared to 1990, to decrease energy consumption by 32.5 % compared to a baseline scenario, and to increase the share of renewable energy to at least 32 % of gross final energy consumption. Energy efficiency first is the key principle of this climate and energy strategy. For 2050, the EU’s non-binding the ambitious long-term goal is to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 80-95% compared to 1990. There are many ways to approach climate protection. Increasing energy efficiency and the expansion of renewable energies are two relatively familiar ways and are regularly part of climate mitigation modelling exercises. Sufficiency can also contribute to climate protection. Specifically if mitigation goals are very ambitious it could take some burden off technological mitigation options. However, sufficiency is seldom addressed explicitly in stringent climate protection scenarios due to several reasons. Our study derives a first draft guidance that aims at motivating to systematically integrate sufficiency when modelling stringent climate protection scenarios. In order to do this we characterize German longer-term scenarios with stringent climate protection goals in place. We investigate whether, and if yes how, sufficiency is included in these scenarios. An exemplary look is also taken beyond Germany. We address how sufficiency can be addressed systematically across all sectors included in modelling exercises. Further the derived draft guidance feeds from the results of an expert meeting that took place in 2018 at the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) in Dessau. 12 German organizations all familiar with modelling climate protection scenarios discussed theses about integrating sufficiency in modelling stringent climate protection.
3-370-19 - Near-term actions for transforming energy-service efficiency to limit global warming to 1.5°C
Charlie Wilson , Nuno Bento, Benigna Boza-Kiss, Arnulf Grubler (Tyndall Centre,  University of Lisbon & International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis) Abstract A global 'Low Energy Demand' (LED) scenario published in 2018 shows how global warming can be limited to 1.5°C by transforming the way energy services are provided and consumed (Grubler et al. 2018). We follow up this long-range scenario study by setting out a wide range of near-term actions for improving energy-service efficiency through a combination of technological, organisational and behavioural innovation. We focus on three energy services: heating and cooling in buildings, ownership and use of consumer goods, and passenger mobility. We identify a set of 28 actions across these three energy services ranging from multi-functional end-use devices and area-based procurement of whole-home retrofits to shared urban mobility services and open digital platforms. For each action we identify the lead implementation actor, scale of action, and the extent of policy and financing requirements. For selected actions, we also provide examples of best practice from around the world, drawing on both peer-reviewed and grey literature. Finally we identify six basic strategies which are the means by which our diverse set of actions achieve their goal of transforming energy services: electrification, functional convergence, usership, utilisation rates, efficiency frontier, and user-oriented innovation.
8-360-19 - Energy sufficiency in (strongly intertwined) building and city design – examples for temperate and Mediterranean climates Lorenzo Pagliano, Silvia Erba (Politecnico di Milano) Abstract Within the future climate, which will bring longer and longer periods of high temperature in summer, exacerbating the heat island effect in cities, efficiency and sufficiency actions in buildings are strongly connected with enabling/hindering conditions in cities e.g. the use of night ventilation in summer to achieve comfort without using air-conditioning is possible if:– noise is reduced by car-limitation and/or speed limitation policies– night air temperature is kept low via increased presence of vegetation and “cool” finishing of urban surfaces– the installation and correct use of external solar protections on buildings (and streets) is explicitly and correctly included in local building codes and its effective application actively supported and controlled at city level. The reduction of the per capita building surface might be encouraged by the availability of attractive shared spaces within buildings and outdoor e.g. children having safe, autonomous access to common indoor/outdoor spaces for playing, the creation of cool open spaces for pedestrians at district level by shading streets and squares with tenso-structures (as traditional in parts of Spain and Portugal) and trees. The use of climate and health friendly bicycle transport requires well designed spaces for bikes not only in the streets but also in each new and existing building. We discuss how new «smart districts» and city re-design should and might include those and other efficiency and sufficiency-enabling physical features. We present a comprehensive matrix of interactions between building and district design for use by building designers and city planners with a focus on the emerging issue of summer comfort under a warming climate. A preliminary relevant question is if current policies are able to promote opportunities as the ones outlined above or there is a need to adapt those policies and how.
Estimating the sufficiency potential in buildings: the space between under-dimensioned and oversized Anja Bierwirth, Stefan Thomas (Wuppertal Institut) Abstract The emission reduction potential of energy efficiency and energy supply in buildings is estimated in various energy and climate action plans, scenarios, and potential analyses. But the third pillar of sustainability – sufficiency – is neglected in most studies. The increasing demand of space per person in the residential sector is a trend in most European countries. Its implication on energy use, demand for resources like land, building material, equipment, and waste production is enormous. Next to the ecological impact, the distribution of space has social and societal effects. Thus, sufficiency policies in the building sector complementing efficiency and energy policy are needed for a sustainable development of the European building stock. But how can a sufficiency potential in the building sector be estimated? How much space and equipment is needed for a decent living and how much is too much? The paper proposes four areas of sufficiency in buildings: space, design and construction, equipment, and use. It presents a set of indicators, a quantitative estimate of energy savings from reduced per capita floor area, and visualises the sufficiency potential in European countries in an experimental approach. The final discussion focuses on the question: What does this mean for policy making?
7-147-19 - Reduction of living space consumption as necessity for reaching energy targets – potentials, barriers, policies Tanja Kenkmann , Johanna Cludius, Schumacher Katja (Öko-Institut e.V.) Abstract Despite a more or less stagnating population, the living space in Germany significantly increases every year and leads to growing living space consumption per capita. A further increase is expected in long-term scenarios and will let sustainability, energy, and climate targets in the building sector much more difficult to reach. It also causes a growing use of space and resources, as well as enormous infrastructure costs. In Germany there is a growing awareness of this problem, especially on a regional level. In an in-depth research project for the Federal Environment Agency of Germany we estimate the vast potential of a reduced living space per capita in general. We identify most promising target groups that use a living-space far above average and might be interested to reduce it. Retirees and households that face a break in their routine of lives such as reaching retirement age or families whose children are moving out are among those target groups. For these target groups we analyse specific barriers against the reduction of living space. We have a closer look at actors such as policy makers, associations, and the housing sector, and their specific obstacles and motivations to address the problem. To support households to reduce their living space a mix of policy instruments is necessary, consisting of both informational and financial instruments. In the project we describe existing approaches and create a set of novel instruments to support households of the target groups to reduce their living space. The impact of these instruments for energy consumption and emissions of the target groups is calculated. Furthermore we analyse whether or not these measures are attractive from the point of view of a household taking into account costs and benefits and show likely distributional effects.
3-052-19 - The building battlefield: (In)consistencies in German policies for sustainable living Oliver Wagner , Anja Bierwirth, Johannes Thema (Wuppertal Institut) Abstract “400,000 new homes per year are needed in German cities.” This figure has been cited repeatedly in political discussions, media, and statements of different groups for a couple of years now. Living space is needed to mitigate the (further) inordinate increase of rents in some cities and regions and to ease finding appropriate flats at affordable prices for low- and medium-income households. But how to activate investors and the real estate market? Having the triangle of sustainability in mind with its ecologic, social and economic cornerstones the discussion – metaphorically spoken – currently pulls the three corners: Which should have the highest priority? The economically driven most favourable solution is lowering the requirements for new buildings such as the energy performance to make building cheaper. The social perspective prefers an increase of public social housing investments regardless of efficiency standards. And the ecological side argues that a high performance is needed to reach energy and climate targets in the buildings sector. Starting at this point of discussion, firstly, the paper reflects the assumptions behind the numbers of new homes needed against a sufficiency background. Secondly, it presents current changes in German building policies: a new legislation for energy supply and efficiency is currently in preparation. It discusses the potential to integrate sufficiency aspects in building policies, focussing specifically on the new regulation, financial incentives, and energy advice. The paper analyses if and to what extent it is likely to balance the three cornerstones of sustainability by integrating sufficiency aspects into efficiency policies. Household experiences with prepayment meters are used as an example to illustrate the potential for tapping efficiency and sufficiency potentials in low-income households considering social, economic, and ecological aspects. Based on the identified (in)consistencies, thirdly, it suggests further development in German policies to make better use of synergies between the ecologic, social and economic demands on buildings.
7-355-19 - Living spaces: saving energy by encouraging alternative housing options for senior homeowners Corinna Fischer, Immanuel Stieß (Öko-Institut & Institut für sozial-ökologische Forschung) Abstract An important share of Middle European countries’ energy consumption is used for space heating. The latter is determined by building energy efficiency, user practices, and floor space. Research and policy tend to focus on the first two factors and neglect the latter. In the German residential sector, per capita floor space has been increasing for decades, causing important rebound effects. Reducing per capita floor space by only 2 m2 could bring 6% savings in heat energy.Senior homeowners are a relevant target group. When grown-up children move out, they typically remain in the homes constructed for a family. 13% of all households in Germany belong to this group. Their average floor space is 70.6 m2 per capita, compared to the national average of 43.8 m2. These homes are often in need of modernization, and not very energy efficient or barrier-free.
The paper presents first results of the transdisciplinary research project “LivingSpaces”, carried out in the district of Steinfurt in Western Germany. Its objective is to develop and assess policy instruments which support senior citizens in choosing housing alternatives that are both space-saving and suitable for their future needs – for example in terms of accessibility, energy efficiency, convenience, or community. Examples are moving to a smaller place, letting out parts of the home, or rebuilding the home so it can be shared with others. The paper will present results of a representative survey that systematically explores senior citizens’ attitudes towards various housing options. Furthermore, it will explain the communication approach that is at the heart of LivingSpaces and consists of several modules such as an awareness campaign, an innovative personal advice service “new housing in old age”, workshops, and setting up a support structure that helps with practical issues such as legal, financial or organizational questions.
1-078-19 - Challenging conventions towards energy sufficiency: ruptures in laundry and heating routines in Europe Marlyne Sahakian , Patrick Naef, Laure Dobigny, Charlotte Jensen, Goggins Gary, Frances Fahy (University of Geneva, Aalborg University, NUI Galway) Abstract This contribution proposes to address a central question in social science approaches to household energy studies: “how do conventions around energy services evolve, how do they alter over time, and how can they be changed once they are cemented?” (Sovacool 2014: 19). Drawing from a social practice theoretical framework, we posit that energy usage at the household level is tied up with forms of routinized and habitual activities in and across consumption domains, embedded in socio-cultural, and technical and material arrangements. We begin by proposing a definition of energy sufficiency which accounts not only for absolute reductions in resource usage, but also changes in everyday and habitual practices – which implies challenging collective conventions around energy usage in the home, as well as setting upper limits to consumption. Drawing from the ongoing ENERGISE research project (H2020), with its focus on laundry and heating, we then provide an overview of the literature on collective conventions related to these two consumption domains, noting the lack of a systematic review and easily accessible data. We follow with a review of over 1,000 initiatives aimed at reducing energy usage in the home or promoting renewables, relating these initiatives based on a typology that reflects our conceptual framework around the notion of ‘sufficiency’. We discuss how and why energy consumption continues to be framed in terms of individual action and technological change, often blind-sighted to social norms and collective conventions – necessary towards achieving the normative goal of sufficiency. In a fourth section, we outline the ENERGISE Living Lab approach, designed towards setting upper limits to consumption and engaging households in a participative process towards creating ruptures in everyday routines – with an explicit focus on collective conventions. On this basis, we conclude with a discussion around the need for further developments around conspicuous and symbolic consumption, towards amplifying social change. We consider the opportunities that this represents, and how such an approach to uncovering, contesting and amplifying challenges to collective conventions can be relevant to practitioners and policy-makers alike.
7-027-19 - Built environment as mediator of good (or bad) household practices: moving towards sufficiency in middle-class houses in Pakistan Rihab Khalid , Minna Sunikka-Blank (University of Cambridge) Abstract Recent work in socio-technical theories has focused on conceptualising agency of the built environment in shaping social change. For energy policy, connections between building energy consumption and household practices have been well established by practice theorists. However, the role of the built environment in prefiguring household practices remains under-examined. This paper explores how the built environment mediates energy consumption in household practices and how this can inform practice-based interventions for sufficiency in space use. The study is based on a comparative analysis of three critical case-study houses in Lahore, Pakistan; a typical modernist contemporary house popular among the middle-class today, a technologically advanced low-energy eco house and a passively designed traditional vernacular haveli. Data collection included in-depth interviews with homeowners, observation and walk-through tours and indoor environmental monitoring as well as spatiotemporal mapping of practices using time-use diaries. Analysis reveals that the spatiotemporal arrangement of practices and resulting electricity consumption is greatly dependent on the house layout and urban design. The built environment acts as a mediator through which variations in spatial arrangements have direct and indirect implications on sufficiency in space use and daily practices; for example, ‘recrafting’ the meaning of comfort, ‘substituting’ sedentary indoor space-use with more outdoor activities promoted through flexibility and prefiguring more collective instead of individualised practices by ‘changing how they interlock’ through shared spaces. In addition, household practices are part of a wider system of building regulations and urban planning that need to be considered in housing policies and integrated with energy policies. The study suggests that understanding the links between the spatial configurations of the built environment and household practices can have policy implications for housing to move towards sufficiency.
7-138-19 - Indian luxury homes: revising the energy conservation building code to address energy sufficiency and re-bound effect Vivek Gilani , Philippe DeRougemont, Dhrumit Parikh, Prachi Bhujbal, Hasan Banna Khan, Matouleibi Chingsubam (cBalance Solutions & NOE21) Abstract In India, the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC), and other similar Green Building Ratings currently legitimize higher energy consumption in large sized (semi-luxury and luxury) ‘green-homes’. Heuristic surveys amongst this category of Indian homeowners indicates a pronounced absence of knowledge of, and commensurate responses to, their ‘total energy consumption’, indoor cooling included. This efficiency-gap, caused by very high per-capita built space is inversely proportional to their acute awareness of embedded, show-prone efficiency features in the building envelope design, renewable energy harvesting on site, and highly energy efficient appliances installed. 1. This study first explores responses to the following question asked to high-emitting homeowners in India: whether the absence of this awareness stems from indifference or deep apathy towards the energy use issue, aversion towards the idea of limits (energy, carbon etc.) despite caring for energy issues, or from the general absence of per-capita (or sufficiency) criteria in the normative environment that they subscribe to 2. The responses are then interpreted and absorbed into a proposed civil society initiative, a ‘sufficient homes’ discourse for India amongst government bodies, think-tanks, energy and climate policy advocacy groups, and green-building ratings organizations. 3. The study encompasses a scenario analysis for National Energy Conservation and GHG Mitigation by mathematical modelling of the relative efficacy of two policy alternatives: a) telescopic (i.e. more stringent with increased per-bed-room size) ECBC requirements, and b) replacing the conventional EPI metric (kWh/m2/year) with a per-capita metric (kWh/person/year). Finally, with the Geneva-based NGO Noé21, the study will explore hypotheses to further a similar sufficiency program centered on the implications of per-bedroom household size on total building energy consumption of residents in the Canton of Geneva.
 
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Arranged by eceee and ADEME in cooperation with AFD (Agence Française de Développement) with financial support from the KR Foundation.
When: 16 May 2019. 9.00­–18.00 (registration from 8.30) Where: Agence Française de Développement (AFD) Le Mistral 3 Place Louis Armand, 75598 Paris, France (Note): This is just next to Gare de Lyon
Participation is free of charge. Limited number of seats, please register here.
This workshop is part of eceee’s work on energy sufficiency.  
The energy sufficiency project has produced a number of concept papers and workshop reports, available on the project website: www.energysufficiency.org.  The concept papers discuss different aspects of energy sufficiency and are intended to stimulate debate.  The workshops are part of the conversation about the issues that the papers raise.
The final stages of the project will bring together the ideas debated into briefings for local, national and EU policy makers.  This workshop is designed to contribute the views of stakeholders in France as well as from other countries, and to allow those who are interested in energy sufficiency to listen to one another’s ideas.
Energy sufficiency
Energy sufficiency can be described as a state in which people’s basic needs for energy services are met equitably and ecological limits are respected.  It can also be described as the actions that move us towards this state; policy or practice changes that change the nature or the quantity of the energy services that we demand.
This workshop
The workshop will offer French and international views on the concept of sufficiency and how it can be translated to action in sectors including buildings, appliances, urban planning and transport, and agriculture.
Attendees will hear and discuss the views of a wide range of stakeholders including government, NGOs, civil society representatives, academics and international organisations.
A report on the workshop will be produced, circulated to all attendees and made available on the project website.
 
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Addressing climate change will require radical changes in lifestyles: a new report by international consortium of research institute.
If the world is to keep climate change at manageable levels before the middle of the century, changes in lifestyles are not only inevitable, but would need to be radical, and start immediately. Considering current consumption levels, citizens in many developed countries would have to cut their lifestyle carbon footprints by about 80-90% or more, and some in developing countries by about 30-80% within the next 30 years. This is one of the key messages coming from the report “1.5-Degree Lifestyles: Targets and options for reducing lifestyle carbon footprints,” just launched by a group of experts from an international consortium of research and policy institutes.
The Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), Aalto University, D-mat, the Finnish Innovation Fund Sitra, and the KR Foundation, at the World Resources Forum (WRF), today announced the launch of a report which analyses the carbon footprints of household lifestyles and how changes can contribute to meeting the ambitious 1.5-degree aspirational target envisaged by the Paris Agreement on climate change. Findings in the publication make it clear that changes in consumption patterns and dominant lifestyles are a critical and integral part of the solutions package for addressing climate change. It analyses scientific emission scenarios and case studies from Finland, Japan, China, Brazil, and India, and proposes long-term targets for individuals’ lifestyle carbon footprints by 2030-2050, as well as low-carbon options that citizens and society can adopt. 
The report provides a unique analysis of potential implications of the Paris Agreement from a lifestyle perspective, whereas most existing studies predominantly focus on production- and technology-based solutions. The publication establishes the first global per-capita lifestyle carbon footprint targets for 2030 to 2050 with explicit linkages to the 1.5-degree target. It also proposes an indicator of “lifestyle carbon footprint,” a consumption-based greenhouse gas accounting used for establishing targets, examining current status, and identifying solutions. Its comprehensive series of analyses focus on the climate impacts of household lifestyles and can be further expanded to countries beyond the selected case studies. 
 
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Updated list of past and on-going projects on sufficiency
 
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The Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change (MCC - Berlin) is looking for a post-doc candidate to serve as a chapter scientists to the Chapter 5 of the IPCC’s AR6, Working Group 3, “Demand, services, and social aspects of climate mitigation”.
The position is to start in April 2019, and applications should be sent right now.
 
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The eceee (European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy) has just launched a new website on energy sufficiency.
News, events, seminar reports, publications, and other useful links can be accessed on this site.
A must for everyone interested in the topic!
 
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There is mounting evidence that humanity cannot rely solely on greener technologies to revert the current overshoot of planetary boundaries. Profound changes in societal organisation and everyday practices are necessary to build societies that are truly sustainable, healthier, and inclusive. There is however insufficient understanding on how best to achieve these objectives.
Sufficiency is the term that encompasses such efforts to rethink and redesign collective and individual practices in line with the Earth limits and people aspirations for better lives. It requires reflecting on human needs, social equity, economic development, urban structures, social norms, consumption habits, as well as the role of policies to support the necessary transition.
In recent years a growing body of academic and non-academic literature has been published on sufficiency. However, there has been limited exchanges and cooperation among experts from different countries. The term ‘sufficiency’ is not universally used yet, hindering the systematisation of knowledge and the ability to make the case for it.
The ENOUGH network (International Network for Sufficiency Research & Policy), established in 2018, contributes to tackle these issues and bring together scientists and experts from around the world and from various fields. It aims at:
  • Increasing the visibility on sufficiency approaches;
  • Facilitating networking activities and information sharing;
  • Gathering references on sufficiency and acting as a resource centre;
  • Undertaking collective work, such as on terminology and further development of the concept, barriers to overcome, and supporting policies.
ENOUGH is an informal and independent network relying on its members. It is supported by the European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (eceee) and the H2020 project EUFORIE.
 
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The ENOUGH network aims at:
- Increasing the visibility on sufficiency approaches & research;
- Facilitating networking activities and information sharing;
- Gathering references on sufficiency and acting as a resource centre;
- Undertaking collective work, such as on terminology and further development of the concept, barriers to overcome, and supporting policies.