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Decreasing violence is an important objective for the society. Although the topic has been addressed in different studies, most of them are cross-sectional, focus on one context or include few variables. This research aims to investigate to what extent moral disengagement and victimization are risk factors, and empathy and social and emotional competencies are protective factors for the development of violent behavior one year later in different contexts, such as school or home. Children and adolescents were the target population since violent behavior usually starts early in life. A sample of 871 students from different schools in Andalusia (Spain) was selected for this longitudinal research with a year of follow-up. Moral disengagement was more important in the prediction of violent behaviors and peer violence than in direct violence towards adults. Bullying victimization was a risk factor for violence one year later at home and at school. Differences in empathy and social and emotional competencies between perpetrators and non-perpetrators were found. Male gender and a young age were predictors of violence. Reducing victimization at school could be important in decreasing violence in different contexts in the future. Training parents in social and emotional competencies could be useful for the young people who learn the strategies for problem solving from parents. Teaching more prosocial strategies for problem solving to young people with violent behavior could help them to re-evaluate the benefits and costs of violence and to decrease the use of moral disengagement.
Antisocial behaviors in adolescents are present and prevalent around the world and have harmful consequences for individuals and societies. The research focused on antisocial behaviors in young people has been very fruitful, but studies are usually fragmented and focused on specific problem behaviors either in school or outside of school. Although victim-offender overlap was described in many studies, most projects focused either on victims or on offenders. This prospective longitudinal study was conducted to discover patterns of antisocial behavior from a comprehensive perspective, including different problem behaviors in and out of schools, focusing on both victimization and offending. A sample of 450 early adolescents was followed-up during one school year. Latent class and latent transition analyses were performed and identified four groups of students. These groups were: low antisocial, highly antisocial and victimized, high bullying victimization, and high offending outside of school. Transition analyses showed that the low antisocial and offenders outside of school groups were relatively stable over time. Students in the high bullying victimization group transitioned to different groups, and students in the highly antisocial and victimized group either remained in the highly antisocial group or transitioned to high offending outside of school. Findings suggest that single antisocial behaviors are not common and students who display one problem behavior usually display other problem behaviors. Early adolescents who are involved in antisocial behaviors in one time period frequently remain involved one year later. It is therefore possible that the antisocial potential of some adolescents is expressed in different contexts. This has important implications for research and practice that need to adopt a more holistic and comprehensive approach.
Social and emotional competencies have gained importance given their relation with high prosocial behavior and low violence. Social Networking Sites have become a key context for adolescents’ interpersonal relationships. Thus, it could be useful to discover if social and emotional competencies are expressed differently when using electronic devices and if their expression, together with the use of emotional content online, are related to cyberbullying. The aim of this study was to explore the relations among social and emotional competencies, emotional content online, cybervictimization, and cyberperpetration. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with a representative sample of 2,114 Andalusian adolescents (50.9% girls; Mage= 13.79 years old, SD= 1.40). Results showed that a high level of social and emotional competencies were negatively related to cybervictimization and cyberperpetration, and to more use of emotional content online. Using more emotional content online was related to more cybervictimization and cyberperpetration. Also having a high level of social and emotional competencies protected against cyberbullying, but an excessive use of emotions online was a risk factor. Insights for the development of future interventions including emotional management online and promotion of positive online interaction are highlighted.
Many intervention programs are conducted in different countries in order to promote social and emotional learning. Nevertheless, the number of instruments to evaluate these competencies is still low, and core social and emotional competencies are rarely included in a single questionnaire and measured as a single construct. Thus, this study was conducted to design and validate the Social and Emotional Competencies Questionnaire. This instrumen-tal study was conducted with 643 university students and a representative sample of 2,139 adolescents. The results show that the questionnaire has good psychometric properties and includes four components: self-awareness, self-management and motivation, social-awareness and prosocial behavior, and decision-making. These competencies are positively related to perceived emotional intelligence and negatively related to alexithymia. This questionnaire can be useful in evaluating social and emotional competencies in different settings. It can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of social and emotional learning programs.
Little is known about the relation between parental morality induction, moral functioning in children and children’s involvement in bullying and cyberbullying. This study aimed at advancing knowledge on parenting practices regarding morality induction. The Perceived Parental Moral Disengagement Induction Questionnaire was designed and validated. The relation between the perceived parental moral disengagement induction, bullying and cyberbullying mediated by children’s moral disengagement and moral emotions was explored in this study. The survey was answered by 1483 Primary and Secondary Education students enrolled in eight different schools. High perceived parental moral disengagement induction, children’s high moral disengagement and low moral emotions were related to high involvement in bullying and cyberbullying. Parenting practices regarding morality predicted moral functioning in children which in turn predicted bullying and cyberbullying. Thus, bullying and cyberbullying could possibly be decreased by enhancing morality in children and promoting desirable morality-related parenting practice.
La amplia literatura científica sugiere que en la adolescencia aumentan las conductas antisociales dentro y fuera de la escuela, incluso entre los estudiantes que hasta el momento habían tenido un comportamiento socialmente deseable. No obstante, el número de estudios que proporcionan una visión global sobre las conductas antisociales en estudiantes de diferentes grupos de edad es todavía escaso. Por ello, el objetivo de este estudio fue describir las conductas antisociales en niños y adolescentes andaluces. Los datos se recogieron mediante autoinformes de 1483 participantes de escuela primaria y secundaria. Los resultados mostraron que los chicos presentaron mayor implicación en comportamientos vandálicos, violencia y consumo de sustancias que las chicas. El alumnado de educación secundaria mostró más algunas conductas antisociales (robos, engaños a las figuras de autoridad, consumo de sustancias) frente al alumnado de primaria, destacando los 14 años como el comienzo de la mayor implicación en este tipo de conductas. Se discute la necesidad de afrontar este tipo de problemas mediante procesos educativos preventivos e intervenciones con especial atención a los años críticos.
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Bullying has damaging short-term and long-term consequences. Research suggests that perpetrators have low empathy and high moral disengagement, but relations between these variables are unclear and are rarely integrated in a single study. Thus, the objective of this study was to discover if empathy and moral disengagement mechanisms were related to bullying perpetration. This study was conducted with 904 Polish adolescents enrolled in 6 rural and urban upper secondary schools. High affective empathy predicted lower bullying perpetration. Moral-disengagement mechanisms such as moral justification, euphemistic language, advanced comparison, and distorting consequences were uniquely related to increased bullying perpetration. Low affective empathy was also uniquely related to increased perpetration. These findings have important implication for school policy and practice.
Bullying and cyberbullying are extremely damaging violent behaviors present in schools. A promising research line focuses on social and emotional competencies in relation to bullying and cyberbullying. The aim of this study was to describe social and emotional competencies in Spanish adolescents in relation to age and gender and to find out if the level of social and emotional competencies was related to different bullying and cyberbullying roles. This study was conducted with a representative sample of 2139 adolescents enrolled in 22 schools. Social and emotional competencies differed by gender and age. Bullying and cyberbullying perpetrators and bully-victims scored low in social and emotional competencies. There was no significant difference between victims and uninvolved students. Controlling for age and gender, low social awareness and prosocial behavior were independently related to bullying perpetration and being a bully-victim. Low responsible decision making was related to being a bully-victim and being a cyberbully-cybervictim. These findings suggest that social and emotional competencies can protect adolescents against bullying and cyberbullying but future studies are needed to establish possible causal relationships between these competencies, bullying and cyberbullying.
Information and communication technologies can be used for prosocial and educational purposes but they can also be misused or abused. Although technology abuse is a serious problem among youth, the number of studies on risk and protective factors against this problem behavior is still low. Thus, our aim was to describe and analyze the relations between abuse of technology and social and emotional competencies, emotional content in online communication, and bullying. This was a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 2139 adolescents enrolled in 22 secondary schools in Andalusia (Spain). Correlation and regression analyses were performed, together with structural equation modeling, to discover relations among these variables. High level of social and emotional competencies was related to less technology abuse. Using emotional content in online communication and bullying victimization, and perpetration were related to more technology abuse. These findings provide new insights on risk and protective factors against technology abuse and might be useful for prevention and intervention in this problem behavior.
Background: Bullying and cyberbullying are global public health problems. However, very few studies described prevalence, similarities and differences among face-to-face victims, cybervictims and students who are victimised through both bullying and cyberbullying. This study was conducted to describe these different patterns of victimisation and severity of victimisation, emotional intelligence and technology use in different types of victims. Method: A total number of 2,139 secondary school students from 22 schools, randomly selected from all provinces of Andalusia, Spain, participated in this study. Information about bullying, cyberbullying, social networking sites use and perceived emotional intelligence was collected. Results: Face-to-face victimisation only is the most common type of victimisation followed by mixed victimisation. Cybervictimisation only is rare. Mixed victims score higher in severity of bullying and present higher emotional attention than face-to-face victims. Conclusions: Most victims of cyberbullying are also face-to-face victims. Holistic approach that focuses on different problems at the same time seems to be needed to tackle these behaviours.
Cyberbullying is a relatively new aggressive behavior in which young people repeatedly and intentionally inflict harm on peers, using electronic devices. Cyberbullying has very damaging consequences and studies on the topic are increasing. Nevertheless, there are still gaps in sound knowledge regarding factors that could protect children from being cyberbullies or cybervictims. The current systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to overcome limitations of previous studies on risk factors to establish if and how empathy is related to the different cyberbullying roles. After exhaustive searches with rigorous inclusion and exclusion criteria, 25 studies were included. Cyberbullying perpetration was found to be related to low empathy (OR = 1.5) and this relationship held also after controlling for covariates (OR = 1.3) but cyber-victimization was not significantly related to empathy (OR = 0.94). There were some indicators that cybervictims could have high empathy, but more research is needed to clarify this relationship. Results are presented also separately for the relationship between affective and cognitive empathy and different cyberbullying roles. There were not enough studies to draw conclusions about the relationship between empathy and being a cyberbully/victim or defender, but some tendencies were found and described. These results have important implications for policy and practice and might be very useful in designing specific tailored programs to prevent cyberbullying.
Resumen El bullying y el cyberbullying son comportamientos violentos extremadamente dañinos, presentes en las escuelas. Una línea de investigación prometedora se centra en las competencias sociales y emocionales en relación con el bullying y el cyberbullying. El objetivo de este estudio es describir las competencias sociales y emocionales de adolescentes españoles en relación con la edad y el sexo, y comprobar si el nivel de competencias sociales y emocionales se relaciona con diferentes roles de bullying y de cyberbullying. Este estudio se lleva a cabo con una muestra representativa de 2139 adolescentes matriculados en 22 escuelas. Se encuentran diferencias en competencias sociales y emocionales por sexo y edad. Los agresores y agresores victimizados de bullying y cyberbullying puntúan bajo en competencias sociales y emocionales. No hay diferencias significativas entre las víctimas y los adolescentes no involucrados. Controlando el sexo y la edad, baja conciencia social y comportamiento prosocial están independientemente relacionados con ser agresor de bullying y con el rol de agresor victimizado. Puntuaciones bajas en la toma de decisiones responsables están relacionadas con ser agresor victimizado y ciberagresor victimizado. Estos resultados sugieren que las competencias sociales y emocionales pueden proteger a los adolescentes del bullying y del cyberbullying, pero estudios futuros son necesarios para establecer posibles relaciones causales entre estas competencias, el bullying y el cyberbullying.
The number of studies on school violence and bullying is increasing but research on the topic in Poland and other Central and Eastern European countries is in its early stages. This survey was answered by 904 Polish adolescents from six upper secondary schools in three cities. The results showed that victimization of any type was suffered by 18.7% of the participants, perpetration was reported by 13.1% of the students and a high percentage of students reported being perpetrators and victims at the same time (44.1% with mild and severe frequencies). Involvement in any bullying role was more common in boys and in technical and vocational schools. Victimization was related to lower academic performance. Occasional victims and students involved in both victimization and perpetration (victim/perpetrator) reported ignoring, telling friends or not doing anything when attacked. Fighting back was the most common reaction in severe victim/perpetrators. Only a small percentage of bystanders told the adults about bullying (5%) and only 38.6% never witnessed aggression towards peers. Given the small number of studies on the topic in this geographic area, it is necessary to conduct more research and compare findings among different studies. Violence is common in Polish schools and it is important to design and conduct interventions to eradicate it.
School bullying is a specific kind of aggression in which students display frequent and long-term aggressive behavior toward their peers. This aggressive behavior is intentionally perpetrated on a student who cannot easily defend himself or herself and, therefore, there is an imbalance of power between the two (Smith and Brain 2000). It has been pointed out that, with time, this complex psychosocial phenomenon includes also a dominance–submission scheme in which students assume certain behaviors as perpetrators or victims and that this occurs under the “law of silence” (Ortega 2010).
This chapter has two aims: first to review evidence on the later life consequences of school bullying and second, to review what is known about protective factors that interrupt the continuity from school bullying to later life outcomes. This chapter first presents evidence on the detrimental impact of school bullying on the healthy psychosocial development of children. Given the more limited literature on the development of children involved in specific bullying roles (such as bystanders and defenders), we focus on pure bullies, pure victims, and bully-victims. Relevant scientific evidence is presented based on individual studies and, notably, from systematic and meta-analytic reviews of the literature. This chapter documents a significant continuity between school bullying and internalizing and externalizing problems in adult life.
Personal protective factors classified into social, emotional, and moral competencies have been described in Chap. 3. Children with better competencies are less likely to be involved in bullying. Nevertheless, bullying is a very complex phenomenon that is influenced by the individual, social, and contextual factors. There is always an interaction between the individual and the environment. While, some children are more vulnerable than others to get involved in bullying, specific circumstances are also needed.
As described in Chap. 2, systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been conducted on different topics related to bullying and anti-bullying interventions. Among them, the most comprehensive searches and analyses were carried out by Farrington and Ttofi (2009), who reviewed 53 evaluations published in 89 reports.
Although there is no specific profile of a child involved in bullying, there are some personal characteristics that increase a child’s likelihood of being involved. At the same time, there are certain competencies that can be acquired to protect children against becoming perpetrators or victims. These characteristics can be described in terms of risk and protective factors.
This compact resource synthesizes current research on bullying in the schools while presenting strengths-based approaches to curbing this growing epidemic. Its international review of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies unravels the complex dynamics of bullying and provides depth on the range of negative outcomes for bullies, victims, enablers, and victims who bully. Chapters on protective factors against bullying identify personal competencies, such as empathy development, and keys to a positive school environment, featuring findings on successful school-based prevention programs in different countries. Throughout, the authors clearly define bullying as a public health/mental health issue, and prevention as a deterrent for future antisocial and criminal behavior.
Design: descriptive, cross-sectional study to determine prevalence. Population: 157 professionals. Evaluation tools: questionnaire to obtain information on sociodemographic characteristics and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Statistical tests: Pearson's bivariate correlation, the Student's t-test, Levene's test, single factor ANOVA, and the post hoc multiple comparison test (Bonferroni). The findings of this study confirm the variety of variables that influence burnout and its dimensions. The study shows the incidence of burnout according to the sex, age, marital status, and level of education of the professionals who participated in this research. Based on an exhaustive scientific literature review on the topic and considering the findings of this study, there is an irrefutable need for further research into burnout among professionals who work with people with disabilities. It is hoped that the findings obtained by this study will help in the elaboration of future initiatives directed at the detection, early care, and reduction of this syndrome among this group.
Inclusion in education of all the children is necessary for the success, equality and peace among individuals and societies. In this context, special attention needs to be paid to the minorities. These groups might encounter additional difficulties which make them more vulnerable to be involved in bullying and cyberbullying. The current study was conducted with the objective of describing the involvement in bullying and cyberbullying of students from the majority group and also from sexual and ethnic-cultural minorities. The second objective was to explore if the implication is predicted by the interaction with gender, grade and the size of the population where the schools are located. It is an ex post facto transversal descriptive study with a survey on a representative sample of adolescents enrolled in the Compulsory Secondary Education in the south of Spain (Andalusia). The survey was answered by 2139 adolescents (50.9% girls) in 22 schools. These participants were selected through the random multistage cluster sampling with the confidence level of 95% and a sampling error of 2.1%. The results show that the minority groups, especially sexual minorities, are more involved in bullying and cyberbullying. Regression analyses show that being in the majority or a minority group predicts a small but significant percentage of variance of being involved in bullying and cyberbullying. Results are discussed taking into account the social vulnerability of being a part of a minority group and the need of designing educational programs which would prevent this vulnerability thorough the inclusion in education. There is a need for an educational policy that focuses on convivencia and ciberconvivencia which would promote the social and educational development of all the students.