added 5 research items
Trust in electoral processes is fundamental for democracies. Further, the identity management of citizen data is crucial, because final tallies cannot be guaranteed without the assurance that every final vote was cast by an eligible voter. In order to establish a basis for a hybrid public verifiability of voting, this work (1) introduces Proverum, an approach combining a private environment based on private permissioned Distributed Ledgers with a public environment based on public Blockchains, (2) describes the application of the Proverum architecture to the Swiss Remote Postal Voting system, mitigating threats present in the current system, and (3) addresses successfully the decentralized identity management in a federalistic state.
Remote Electronic Voting (REV) systems allow voters to cast their votes in an uncontrolled, distributed environment. At the same time, the REV system must provide ballot privacy and verifiability of the final tally. Research has proposed REV schemes offering ballot privacy based on computational intractability assumptions, but only a few provide Unconditional Privacy (UP). Therefore, this work proposes Æternum, a REV system with a voting scheme providing UP. Æternum does not require trust in a central authority, nor does it assume computational intractability of an underlying mathematical problem to provide UP. To satisfy UP's minimal trust assumptions, AEternum uses a permissioned Distributed Ledger (DL), that forms a decentralized network of permissioned nodes, which serve as a transparent, tamper-proof Decentralized Public Bulletin Board (DPBB).
The Swiss postal voting system builds on trust in governmental authorities and external suppliers. The federal structure of Switzerland of cantons and municipalities leads to a distributed architecture. Detailed information on the current postal voting procedure are manifested as implicit knowledge within fragmented institutions and are not easily accessible. This work serves (i) as an overview of the Swiss remote postal voting system, (ii) a detailed insight into the process flow, and (iii) a respective risk assessment.