added 2 research items
Für den Erfolg der digitalen Transformation in Unternehmen, sind neben den technischen Lösungen und Organisation, die Kompetenzen und Motivation der Beschäftigten entscheidend. Industrie 4.0 und Digitalisierung können nur gemeinsam, unter Beteiligung verschiedener Belegschaftsgruppen im Interesse der Unternehmen und der Menschen gestaltet werden. Allerdings werden zurzeit die Entscheidungen über die Gestaltung der Digitalisierung überwiegend von Männern getroffen, die im Top-Management der Industrie 4.0-Branchen einen Anteil von über 90 Prozent ausmachen. Die Potenziale und spezifischen Kompetenzen von qualifizierten Frauen werden kaum erschlossen. In dem Forschungsprojekt „Women Ressource 4.0 – Potenziale von qualifizierten Frauen, darunter auch mit Zuwanderungsgeschichte, für die Industrie 4.0“, das von der Denkfabrik Digitalisierte Arbeitswelt der FH Bielefeld im Rahmen der BMBF-Förderung zum Thema ''Erfolg mit MINT –Neue Chancen für Frauen'' im Förderbereich ''Strategien zur Durchsetzung von Chancengleichheit für Frauen in Bildung und Forschung'' in den Jahren 2016 bis 2020 durchgeführt wurde, wurden die quantitativen und qualitativen Potenziale von Frauen für die Gestaltung der Digitalisierung untersucht sowie Kompetenzen und Erfolgsfaktoren für erfolgreiche Frauenkarrieren in Tech-Unternehmen identifiziert. Darüber hinaus wurden Weiterbildungsformate für eine gezielte Sensibilisierung und Vorbereitung von Hochschulabsolventinnen für die Gestaltung der digitalen Transformation entwickelt, pilothaft durchgeführt und evaluiert. Die Ergebnisse aus dem Forschungsprojekt, untermauert durch aktuelle Statistiken, Studien und Best Practices, werden in diesem Buch dargestellt. Das Fachbuch richtet sich an Führungskräfte und Personalverantwortliche in Unternehmen und Organisationen, die sich mit der Gestaltung der digitalen Transformation und Arbeitswelt 4.0 beschäftigen, an Diversity und Gleichstellungsbeauftragte, karriereorientierte Frauen, Studierende sowie an die Politik und breite Öffentlichkeit.
Im ersten Beitrag des Sammelbandes, verfasst von Malte Wattenberg, geht es um den Status quo zu den Frauen in Führungspositionen in der Industrie 4.0. Hier wird ein Überblick über die Veränderungen in Unternehmen aufgrund der Digitalisierung gegeben und einige Kerndaten zu der Beteiligung von Frauen an der Gestaltung der digitalen Transformation dargestellt. Anschließend werden die Herausforderungen für Frauen herausgearbeitet und allgemeine Handlungsempfehlungen für ihre intensivere Teilhabe aufgezeigt, die in weiteren Beiträgen konkretisiert und erweitert werden.
Projektbericht des BMBF geförderten Projekts: "Women Ressource 4.0 – Potenziale von qualifizierten Frauen, darunter auch mit Zuwanderungsgeschichte, für die Industrie 4.0" an der Fachhochschule Bielefeld
As a central obstacle to the introduction of digitisation, many companies cite primarily the lack of suitable specialists with specific skills. One solution could be to increase the labour market participation of qualified women and persons with a migrant background. In order to harness the potential of skilled women and migrant women to shape the digital transition, companies and organisations need to reduce their reservations about women and people with a migrant background. Special measures must be used to raise awareness of diversity and highlight its benefits. Qualified women with and without a migration background in particular can play a major role in the context of digitisation due to their specific competences. According to experts, social, intercultural and risk management skills attributed to women and female immigrants are particularly necessary in the digitised world of work. But what specific skills do executives need in times of Industry 4.0? And are there gender-and culture-specific differences? This paper describes the results of an online survey of 515 students and company representatives that was conducted in Germany in the period from November to December 2018. Participants were asked to assess different competences, behaviours and knowledge resources in terms of their relevance to leadership in the world of work of the future. It turns out that "openness to change", "IT and media literacy", "learning aptitude" and "the ability to think in context" are specific competences that industry managers need, according to the respondents. In addition, "problem-solving competence" is important for students and "communicative competence" for company representatives. While the origin of the participants does not seem to have any influence, gender-and age-dependent differences can be observed in the results. For example, the women surveyed consider the four competences "innovation competence", "decision-making ability", "ability to think in context" and "willingness to make decisions" to be less relevant than men do. A comparison between generations also reveals some noticeable differences. Older respondents rated "openness to change", "self-organisation" and "problem-solving competence" as particularly relevant.
Relevance & Research Question: Many companies see the lack of skilled workers as a central obstacle to the digital transformation. It is well-known that diverse workforces lead to more balanced decisions and more innovation. Nevertheless, women, for example, are still underrepresented in STEM-professions. The following research question arises: Are there any differences in the perception of relevant competencies for the digitalized working world according to gender, age, employment status and migration background? Methods & Data: Following preliminary literature research and qualitative expert interviews [n=6], a quantitative study was conducted from Nov. – Dec. 2018. Participants [n=515] were recruited among students and companies using faculty email lists, paper form and social media. Participants were asked to assess a total of 14 competencies, knowledge resources and behaviours in their relevance for the digitalized working world on a 6-tier scale. Correlations were determined by calculating Chi-square according to Person and Cramer’s V. Means were compared using T-Test and Levene. Results: Respondents consider openness to change (5.50), IT and media skills (5.40) and learning ability (5.36) to be the most relevant. Analytical skills (4.79) and empirical knowledge (4.56) are less in demand. Men rate innovation competence (χ²=10.895, p=.028, V=0.146), decision-making ability (χ²=13.801, p=.017, V=0.164) and ability to think in context (χ²=14.228, p=.014, V=0.167) slightly higher than women. No correlation can be found regarding respondents’ migration background. Among company representatives, eight competencies are rated significantly higher than by students, especially communicative competence (+0.91) and interdisciplinary thinking and acting (+0.74). Moreover, it is noticeable that older participants (generation X, born 1964-1979) consider all competencies to be more important than younger ones (generation Z, 1996-2009), apart from IT and media competence. The items openness to change (T-Test p=.004, Levene p=.004), self-organisation (T-Test p<.001, Levene p=.020) and problem-solving competence (T-Test p=.011, Levene p=.019) show significant correlation between age and assessment. Added Value: First, results reveal a ranking of needed competencies for the digital transition, which companies and educational institutions should address. Second, differences between the employee groups could be discovered which have to be considered in the further approach, be it education or research.
Relevance & Research Question: Technical progress through digitalisation is constantly increasing. Currently, the most relevant and technically sophisticated technology is artificial intelligence (AI). Women are less frequently involved in research and development on AI, clearly in the minority in STEM-professions and study programmes, and less frequently in management positions. Previous AI applications have often been based on data that under-represents women and thus map our society with existing disadvantages and injustices. So do men and women have different ideas about the role and significance of AI in the future? Do women have different requirements or wishes for AI? Methods & Data: Following the previously conducted in-depth literature research, a combination of qualitative interview study [n=6] and quantitative online survey [n=200] is planned. The target group will consist of company representatives and students whereby the evaluation of differences and correlations will be based in particular on gender. Results: A literature review of existing studies reveals that while more people are in favour of AI development than against it, it is mainly men with a high level of education and income. According to their self-awareness, women have a lower understanding of AI than men. Moreover, AI research and development is predominantly in the hands of men. Just under 25% of those employed in the AI sector are women, in Germany even only 16%. Old stereotypes are thus not only the basis for decisions regarding the development of AI but also incorporated into the data basis for AI: Voice and speech recognition systems are less reliable for female voices, as is face recognition for female faces. Search engines more often present male-connoted image and text results for gender-neutral search terms. The expected results of the questionnaire will be gender-relevant aspects in the perception, evaluation, development and use of AI. Added Value: The identification of gender-relevant differences in the perception and attitude towards AI will enable developers and researchers to be sensitised to the possible risks of AI applications in terms of prejudice and discrimination. In addition, opportunities for using AI to strengthen gender equality will be recognized.
Relevance & Research Question: Virtual and Augmented Reality have become more and more popular both in entertainment and workplace applications. Companies must learn which scenarios will be most assisted by either VR or AR in the future. However, user perceptions and willingness to utilize VR and AR in a work environment are important factors in the technology’s future development.The following research questions have been proposed: which work scenarios, when assisted by either VR or AR technology, are most probable from the user’s perspective? In what situations are users likely to adopt this new technology? Methods & Data: A quantitative web survey was conducted in Dec.-Jan. 17/18 [n=260]. The survey considered 15 different working situations where VR or AR could be deployed to assist the workforce. Participants were asked to respond to questions with a 5-point Likert scale [1=least likely; 5=most likely]. Responses were then descriptively analysed.Results: Users thought that VR will be most used in training and training simu-lators (3.66 points on average), followed by the editing of media files (3.63) and visiting exhibitions (3.60). When asked about their willingness to use VR users again ranked further training (3.66) on first place. Holding presentations (3.32) was ranked second, followed by editing media files (3.29).The lowest scores were reported for email assistance (2.35/2.08).When asked about possible AR use cases, users ranked visiting exhibitions (3.93), further training (3.89) and support with general office work (3.79) as areas where AR will most likely be applied in practice. Concerning their willingness to personally use AR technology, training (3.68) again ranked highest, followed by exhibitions (3.67) and assis-tance with research in libraries and archives (3.58).Job applications (2.80/2.59) received a considerably lower score. Added Value: First, higher average survey scores reveal that users view AR assist-ed scenarios as more likely to be used in a corporate context than VR. Second, the survey demonstrates relevant use cases and applications companies should focus on when developing technologies according to user preferences.
Relevance & Research Question: Digitization and IoT have become the drivers of a far-reaching trans-formation process in companies worldwide. Companies are now faced with the challenge of shaping this change while considering the people and the organisation, in addition to technology. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the effects of the digitization of company employment and competence requirements, differentiated according to employee groups.Methods & Data: Following preliminary literature research and qualitative expert inter-views [n=6], a research framework was developed that consists of two interconnected levels:  requirements of internal and external digitization as well as  qualifications and competencies of different occupation groups.Based on this, a quantitative online-study was conducted from Oct. 2017 to Jan. 2018. Participants [n=150] were recruited using a perso-nal approach and consisted of company representatives from Germa-ny with expertise in the field of digitization and HR.Results:Concerning internal focus, 73% of companies surveyed have an ERP system and 69% have an intranet, but only 36% use a cloud-system, 29% data analytics and 8% AR/VR.Regarding external factors, 50% do not have an online shop or a plat-form for customer communication. 77%, however, confirm the exami-nation of new digital business models. Additionally, most respondents do not expect any employment effects from digitization but do expect a change in tasks and a greater need for training, especially for skilled workers (85%, academics 84%, unskilled 66%).Openness to change is regarded as the most important competency across the employee groups, followed by the ability to learn for unskil-led (90%) and skilled (88%) workers, the ability to think in context for academics (97%) and communication skills for managers (96%). While the most important task for managers is the design of framework con-ditions, for other employee groups it will be working with new techno-logies and data analysis.Added Value:The results show the status quo and untapped potential of these compa-nies. It is clear that, among IT and media skills, companies are faced with other qualification needs and new areas of responsibility within the sco-pe of digital transformation, which differ according to occupation grou
Relevance & Research Question:Digitalization and new technologies have entirely changed job design and workforce tasks. Several studies reveal that the competency requirements have risen in general and especially within digital and media skills. Yet, our overall understanding of competencies and spe-cific changes in certain sub-areas of digital skills, both today and in the future, remains unclear. Based on this gap in research, the following questions were proposed:What is the general understanding of the term “competency”? How relevant is digital and media competency in departments outside of IT? Which technologies and drivers of digitalization are most relevant employee tasks today and in the future (i.e. 10 years)? Methods & Data: A 12-question web survey of employed persons with various jobs [n=261] was conducted in Nov.-Dec. 2017. Participants were addres-sed by social media, personal approach and faculty email lists. They were asked to answer technology related questions on a 4-point rating scale [1=unimportant, 4=very important].Results:Most respondents (23.4%) understood competencies as “The situa-tion-related adapted acting through acquired qualifications.” Other understands followed: “One’s self-organised ability to act in an existing (19.9%) and “Application and implementation of the acquired knowledge into a certain action” (19.2%). The “Skill to deal with difficult tasks” (6.1%), however, ranked among the lowest of responses.Concerning the relevance of digital competencies in certain depart-ments, respondents believed that marketing & sales (3.45 points on average) and research & development (3.40) are most important. Least critical are the legal department (2.50) and production (2.78).Respondents considered e-learning (2.99 today/3.39 in future), cloud computing (2.93/3.36), new business models (2.91/3.22) and big data (2.81/3.33) to be the most important technologies and drivers of digitalization. Although 3D printing (2.11/2.67) and VR/AR (2.30/2.93) ranked last, they had the widest distance regarding the future and thus untapped potential.Added Value:This study reveals which specific media literacy related skills will be relevant in the future. Additionally, the study not only contributes to our understanding of the perception of the term competencies, but also shows which company departments are most affected by digital and media skills.
Die Digitalisierung verursacht gravierende Veränderungen in der Lebens- und Arbeitswelt. Die Prozesse wirken sich dabei unterschiedlich auf die beiden Geschlechter aus und werden in der Wahrnehmung von Männern und Frauen unterschiedlich bewertet. Allerdings liegen praktisch keine fundierten Ergebnisse der Genderforschung in Bezug auf die Digitalisierung vor. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt die Erkenntnisse einer Untersuchung zu den grundlegenden Einstellungen der Young Professionals hinsichtlich der Digitalisierung aus der Genderperspektive dar, um mögliche Unterschiede der Wahrnehmungen und Bewertungen zwischen Frauen und Männern zu identifizieren. Darüber hinaus sollen Schlussfolgerungen zu den möglichen frauenspezifischen Eigenschaften und Kompetenzen für die Gestaltung der Digitalisierung abgeleitet werden.