Project

Development of National and City Level Waste Management Strategies in Sri Lanka

Goal: Development of National and City level waste management strategies with action plans and demonstration project in Sri Lanka

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Project log

Rajeev Kumar Singh
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Negombo City is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in Sri Lanka. It is the major commercial and transport centre, and main health service provider for the region. However, municipal solid waste management is a pressing concern for Negombo due to expanding urbanization, increasing income, lack of public awareness, changes in consumption patterns, and inadequate waste management such as insufficient proper waste collection and coverage, shortage of transporting vehicles and laborers, insufficient land for waste treatment facilities and landfill, lack of proper training given to technical staff with regard to maintaining information, records and statistics for planning and monitoring of the waste management activities, illegal burning or disposal of waste, as well as improper maintenance of existing waste management system or facilities. In response to a request for support from the Ministry of Mahaweli Development and Environment (MoMDE) as well as strong interest from Negombo City, IGES Centre Collaborating with UN Environment on Environmental Technologies (CCET) has been providing technical assistance towards the development of a waste management strategy for Negombo since March 2018. Concurrently, a quick study was conducted on Negombo’s existing waste management systems and current practices including the waste flow, policies and regulations framework, in order to identify the gaps on waste management in the city. Negombo City still manages waste in the conventional way by collecting waste from the source and dumping it in a final disposal site with very little recovery or treatment. The only recycling facility in the city is located in Muhandirampitiya where recyclables such as cardboard,paper, polythene, plastic, glass, coconut shells and metal are separated from the non-degradable waste brought to the centre. It is observed that non-degradable waste collected at the centre consist of low-grade recyclables amounting to minimal recovery of recyclables of about 2.37±3.9 MT/month. The city also has a compost facility in Kurana with a capacity of 10 MT/day; however, the intake is limited to 6-8 MT/day as there have been public complaints and objections about the potential nuisance caused by flies and odor whenever Negombo Municipal Council (NMC) tries to increase the intake. Negombo experiences a bottleneck with regard to managing industrial waste due to the fact that small and medium-sized industries dispose of their industrial waste using the general MSW collection service carried out by Local Authorities. This is despite of the legal arrangement which states that industrial waste must not be disposed of into the general waste stream. Industrial waste generated in Negombo City is estimated to come to 6.33 MT/day. It is mandatory for all healthcare facilities to secure storage, transportation and disposal of all high-risk healthcare waste whereby generally all government and private sector healthcare facilities receive a service from the private sector to dispose of all high-risk healthcare waste. The total amount of waste generated from healthcare facilities is estimated to be 3.84 T/day out of which nearly half a tonne of waste is considered high risk waste that needs to be disposed of through private sector service providers. Hazardous waste generated from major industries is properly managed by those industries, but those from small waste generators such as households, commercial establishments and other services and institutes are not well regulated, and waste generally gets discharged into the MSW collection system in the form of non-degradable waste. It is estimated that NMC collects about 200 kg of hazardous waste per day, largely as mix components in general MSW. Construction and Demolition (C&D) waste is managed by those that generate it. Usually, the metals, wood, plastic and stone that can be found in the C&D waste are recycled, but non-recyclables are generally used as land reclamation material as an alternative to soil. Toilets in households, public places and all other establishments are built with sufficiently large soakage pits and when the soakage pits gets filled, NMC provides sewage collection service ― this is a paid service. The collected sewage is treated in a sewage treatment plant adjunct to the compost facility. Wastewater from other sources is generally managed by generators. This study confirms that there are many challenges in current waste management in Negombo at all stages of the lifecycle due to a range of technical, social, economic and institutional constraints. In this regard, the issues/concerns and recommendations of this report should be considered during the development of waste management strategy and action plans for the city. The strategy and action plan would assist NMC in implementing activities based on short-term, mid-term and long-term plans as stated in the city strategy to overcome the current waste management problems. Moreover, the proper implementation of activities under a waste management strategy and action plans can help the city to achieve sustainable waste management. As Negombo is part of Western Province, the relevant organizations such as JICA, Waste Management Authority (Western Province) and others involved in the development of a master plan for waste management in Western Province will be consulted during the strategy development process to make sure that the developed strategy is in line with their future master plan for western province.
Rajeev Kumar Singh
added 2 research items
Similar to other cities in developing countries, the waste management has always been a major societal issue for Phnom Penh. The monthly amount of disposed waste at the landfill more than doubled in the past decade owing to factors such as population growth, economic growth, changes in industrial structure and of people’s lifestyle. While Phnom Penh Capital Administration has been exerting much effort to organised waste management system, coping with such a dramatic increase has been a challenging task. The collection, transportation, and disposal need to be strengthened, but 3R (reduce, reuse, and recycle of waste) and appropriate disposal also need to be promoted through the cooperation of those who produce the waste. The Phnom Penh Waste Management Strategy and Action Plan 2018-2035 is a guide to Phnom Penh Capital Administration for its effort to improve the current state of waste management, and has been designed to respond to these demands through the programs and actions that are developed under the common vision, mission and goal. The document is a result of more than two years of collective effort and intensive/inclusive discussion by the stakeholders engaged in waste management on a daily basis, from waste management division, relevant departments, Khan and Sangkat administrations, private sector, NGOs, and academia. Also, it is intended to clarify the roles and responsibilities among stakeholders so that each can take tangible actions.
The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) - Environmental Management Bureau (EMB) through its Climate Change Division (CCD) and Solid Waste Management Division (SWMD), and the multi-agency National Solid Waste Management Commission (NSWMC), in coordination with the Climate Change Commission (CCC), has been involved in developing the National Strategy to reduce Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (SLCP) from the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Sector with technical assistance from the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) under the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC). This national SLCP strategy could be the first of its kind in Asia; existing ones are the SLCP strategies of Canada, Mexico, and California, which cover all sectors to address SLCPs. Since the Philippines intends to develop a national SLCP strategy that is specific for the MSW sector, this document could be the first in the world for specific focus on the waste sector. The development of the national strategy is a multi-stakeholder participatory process executed by DENR/NSWMC. A core group of experts (CGE) provides inputs into the strategy composed of experts from NSWMC Committee on Climate Change/SLCP, CCC, DENR/EMB, select local government units (LGUs), IGES/CCAC, and others including academia and research institutions. To date, a series of consultation workshops and trainings has been organized, including the first national awareness workshop on SLCP on November 23, 2017 in Quezon City, and the (international) regional training workshop on measuring and mitigating SLCP from Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) on April 2-4, 2018 in Bacolod City. The Philippine government is currently preparing a roadmap for its INDC/NDC and has so far institutionalized its Philippine Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventory, Management, and Reporting System. For the waste sector, the SLCP strategy development process quantifies climate pollutants through a life cycle analysis (LCA) perspective. It encompasses other sources such as waste collection and recycling of non-biodegradables. Another value-added is the analysis of the black carbon (BC) emissions from MSWM. The first focus group discussion (FGD) was conducted in September 2018, where results were then consolidated for the development of the first draft of the national strategy. As a follow through, the second FGD on the development of the national strategy to reduce SLCPs from the MSW sector was conducted on November 6-8, 2018. It aimed at achieving the following:  Bring together the CGE to provide technical expertise and revisit the results of the 1st FGD – SLCP reduction gains, remaining challenges, opportunities, potential measures and the initially identified SLCP reduction measures;  Analyze the proposed measures and finalize the baselines and targets for the overall outcome and key strategies to reduce SLCPs from the MSW sector;  Identify actions per strategic measure to initially translate strategies into activities;  Subject the strategies to the analysis of factors and prioritization based on agreed criteria;  Identify measurement, evaluation, reporting, and verification (MERV) requirements; and  Gather main contents to revise the document and prepare the second draft of the National Strategy to Reduce SLCPs from MSW.
Rajeev Kumar Singh
added a research item
The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) - Environmental Management Bureau (EMB) through its Climate Change Division (CCD) and Solid Waste Management Division (SWMD), and the multi-agency National Solid Waste Management Commission (NSWMC), in coordination with the Climate Change Commission (CCC), has been involved in developing the National Strategy to reduce Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (SLCP) from the Municipal Solid Waste (MSWM) Sector with technical assistance from the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) under the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC). This national SLCP strategy could be the first of its kind in Asia; existing ones are the SLCP strategies of Canada, Mexico, and California, which cover all sectors to address SLCPs. Since the Philippines intends to develop a national SLCP strategy that is specific for the MSW sector, this document could be the first in the world for a specific focus on the waste sector. The development of the national strategy is a multi-stakeholder participatory process executed by DENR/NSWMC. A core group of experts (CGE) provides inputs into the strategy composed of experts from NSWMC Committee on Climate Change/SLCP, CCC, DENR/EMB, select local government units (LGUs), IGES/CCAC, and others including the academe and research institutions. To date, a series of consultation workshops and training had been organized, including the first national awareness workshop on SLCP on November 23, 2017 in Quezon City, and the (international) regional training workshop on measuring and mitigating SLCP from MSWM on April 2-4, 2018 in Bacolod City. The Philippine government is currently preparing a roadmap for its INDC/NDC and has so far institutionalized its Philippine Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventory, Management, and Reporting System. For the waste sector, the SLCP strategy development process quantifies climate pollutants through a life cycle analysis (LCA) perspective. It encompasses other sources such as waste collection and recycling of non-biodegradables. Another value-added is the analysis of the black carbon (BC) emissions from MSWM. Thus, the first focus group discussion (FGD) on the development of the national strategy to reduce SLCPs from the MSW sector was conducted on September 5-7, 2018. The first FGD aimed at the following: CGE provide technical expertise in identifying the root cause of SLCPs from MSW in the Philippines; Review existing national SLCP strategies and propose a working outline for the Philippine MSW sector; Propose nationwide strategic measures to prevent/reduce emissions from the life cycle of MSW management based on the: results of the national baseline and alternative scenarios generated using the IGES Emission Quantification Tool (EQT), harmonized targets, policies, plans, and programs of the government and private sector, including but not limited to, development, climate, and sectoral targets. Consolidate main contents to come up with the first draft of the National Strategy to Reduce SLCPs from the MSW sector.
Rajeev Kumar Singh
added a research item
Phnom Penh is facing huge challenges in waste management due to population growth, increasing income and consumption levels, expanding urbanisation and inadequate waste management due to lack of proper waste collection and treatment facilities, technical staff as well as unclear responsibilities among staff members. In this regard, with the request for support from Cambodia’s Waste Management Division of Phnom Penh Capital Hall (PPCH), IGES Centre Collaborating with UNEP on Environmental Technologies (CCET) has been providing technical assistance towards the development of a waste management strategy for Phnom Penh 2018-2035. The strategy is based on a holistic waste management approach. It addresses all waste streams (solid waste, liquid waste/ wastewater, and gaseous emissions), primarily focusing on solid waste and but also covering other forms within the mandate of Phnom Penh Capital Authority. In parallel with above, a quick study was done on Phnom Penh’s existing waste management systems and current practices including the waste flow, policies and regulations framework, waste management practices challenges, which provides practical recommendations for PPCH and other stakeholders for sound waste management in Phenom Penh. The rapid population growth due to industrialisation, and urbanisation in line with the expansion of the city area has led into a rapid increase in waste production in Phnom Penh. Beside an increase in municipal solid waste, other waste streams such as hazardous waste, industrial waste, medical waste, construction and demolition waste and agriculture waste are also increasing causing enormous challenges to the city about proper collection, treatment and disposal of these kinds of wastes. Moreover, there has been decentralisation of power in the waste sector from the provincial and district level to local levels, and so local authorities are still unaware of their responsibility and struggle in fulfilling their role. This report confirms that there are many challenges in current waste management in Phnom Penh due to social, technical, economical and institutional restrains. Therefore, the recommendations set out in this report are very important for policymakers and stakeholders in waste management in Phnom Penh for improvement of current waste management.
Rajeev Kumar Singh
added a project goal
Development of National and City level waste management strategies with action plans and demonstration project in Sri Lanka