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These studies showed that Celegyn® medical device could support the treatment of symptoms associated with VVA. It can decrease the inflammatory state of the in vitro vaginal epithelium, protecting it, and promoting repair mechanisms and wound healing. In addition, the clinical experience showed an improvement of the initial condition of VVA patients, obtaining an improvement of elasticity, moisturization, type of secretion and, epithelial integrity. Vulvo-vaginal atrophy (VVA) is a chronic and progressive gynecological condition, especially common in postmenopausal women (1). Symptoms of VVA, such as vaginal dryness, and vaginal irritation, dyspareunia (pain during sexual intercourse), soreness and thinning of the vaginal mucosas (2) can have a substantial negative impact on interpersonal relationships, quality of life, daily activities, and sexual function (3-4). Local non-hormonal therapy establishes the use of personal moisturizers and lubricants (5-6). Vaginal moisturizers provide comfort and offer long-term benefits for the relief of vaginal dryness.
IntroductionAlopecia areata (AA), also known as ‘area Celsi’, is the second most common form of hair loss affecting the scalp. Newly proposed treatments for AA include low-level light therapy, biologics such as Janus kinase inhibitors and autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP), which is a well-known “elixir” for hair growth. Bioactive peptides developed through biotechnological applications have been used to overcome the limitations of PRP. More recently, the involvement of microbiota in hair growth disorders, in AA in particular, has been reported, and the usefulness of microbial metabolites, i.e. postbiotics, has been suggested.Methods This study was a randomized double-blinded parallel-group study in which 160 persons of both sexes affected by AA and aged between 18 and 60 years were enrolled. The subjects were randomly assigned to a treatment group (group 1), receiving the TR-PRP plus-Celsi cosmetic product, and a placebo group (group 2). The SALT (Severity of Alopecia Tool) score was determined in both groups at baseline and after 2 and 3 months of treatment, and the results compared between groups.ResultsThe subjects in group 1 showed a significant change from baseline in SALT score at 2 months of treatment (61.04% ± 3.45%; p < 0.0001), with a further improvement at the end of treatment (3 months) (69.56% ± 4.32%; p < 0.0001). No significant changes from baseline were reported for the subjects in group 2 (T1: 26.45% ± 3.64%; T3: 27.63% ± 7.61%).Conclusions The results of this study provide further proof of the efficacy of bioactive peptides that mimick the growth factors present in PRP in subjects affected by AA. They also add to our knowledge of the link between microbiota and hair growth disorders, emphasizing the importance of studies on the microbial community and microbial metabolites as a novel therapeutic approach.
Involvement of the microbiome in many different scalp conditions has been investigated over the years. Studies on the role of the scalp microbiome in specific diseases, such as those involving hair growth alterations like non-cicatricial [androgenetic alopecia (AGA), alopecia areata (AA)] and cicatricial alopecia lichen planopilaris, are of major importance. In the present work, we highlighted the differences in microbial populations inhabiting the scalp of AA subjects and a healthy sample cohort by using an integrated approach relying on metagenomic targeted 16S sequencing analysis, urine metabolomics, and human marker gene expression. Significant differences in genera abundances (p < 0.05) were found in the hypodermis and especially the dermis layer. Based on 16S sequencing data, we explored the differences in predicted KEGG pathways and identified some significant differences in predicted pathways related to the AA pathologic condition such as flagellar, assembly, bacterial chemotaxis, mineral absorption, ABC transporters, cellular antigens, glycosaminoglycan degradation, lysosome, sphingolipid metabolism, cell division, protein digestion and absorption, and energy metabolism. All predicted pathways were significantly enhanced in AA samples compared to expression in healthy samples, with the exceptions of mineral absorption, and ABC transporters. We also determined the expression of TNF-α, FAS, KCNA3, NOD-2, and SOD-2 genes and explored the relationships between human gene expression levels and microbiome composition by Pearson's correlation analysis; here, significant correlations both positive (SOD vs. Staphylococcus, Candidatus Aquiluna) and negative (FAS and SOD2 vs. Anaerococcus, Neisseria, and Acinetobacter) were highlighted. Finally, we inspected volatile organic metabolite profiles in urinary samples and detected statistically significant differences (menthol, methanethiol, dihydrodehydro-beta-ionone, 2,5-dimethylfuran, 1,2,3,4, tetrahydro-1,5,7-trimethylnapthalene) when comparing AA and healthy subject groups. This multiple comparison approach highlighted potential traits associated with AA and their relationship with the microbiota inhabiting the scalp, opening up novel therapeutic interventions in such kind of hair growth disorders mainly by means of prebiotics, probiotics, and postbiotics.
Introduction: The impact of diet on hair growth disorder is well established as the influence of diet on the gut microbiome. Poor information is still available as regards the link between microbiome, especially scalp microbiome and hair diseases. Aim: In the present work, we reported data on patients affected by Alopecia areata with the aim to study the impact of the diet on microbiome changing related to scalp disease. Methodology: Data from the dietary survey, qRT-PCR on main bacterial strains inhabiting the scalp were matched and compared each other and with healthy population. Results: Beyond the diet’s well-known impact on general human health, our results highlighted the role of one’s diet in modifying scalp microbiome, which in turn seems to have an impact on AA evolution. Conclusions: Our results provide the first evidence of strict intercorrelation between microbial dysbiosis on the scalp of patients with AA and dietary habits.
Alopecia areata (AA) is a potentially reversible auto-immune non-scarring baldness on the scalp, which can be extended to the entire body. There are many scientific evidence as regards the impact of diet on scalp diseases related to hair growth. Diet is also able to strongly influence gut microbiome. On the contrary, few evidence reports as regards the link between microbiome, especially scalp microbiome and hair diseases. Here we reported a two case-reports study on patients affected by AA, with and without lactose intolerance, respectively, with the aim to underline how diet could emphasize microbiome changing related to scalp disease. Subjects were asked to fill out a 7-day dietary survey and scalp and oral swabs were collected. Data from the dietary survey, qRT-PCR on main bacterial strains inhabiting the scalp and 16S sequencing of the scalp and oral microbiome were matched and compared each other and with healthy and general AA population. Beyond diet well-known impact on general human health, our results highlighted the role of diet in modifying oral and scalp microbiome, which in turn seems to have an impact on AA evolution. The findings of the present works suggested a kind of intercorrelation between microbial dysbiosis on the scalp of patients with AA and dietary habits.
The role of microbial dysbiosis in scalp disease has been recently hypothesized. However, little information is available with regards to the association between microbial population on the scalp and hair diseases related to hair growth. Here we investigated bacterial communities in healthy and Alopecia areata (AA) subjects. The analysis of bacterial distribution at the genus level highlighted an increase of Propionibacterium in AA subjects alongside a general decrease of Staphylococcus. Analysis of log Relative abundance of main bacterial species inhabiting the scalp showed a significant increase of Propionibacterium acnes in AA subjects compared to control ones. AA scalp condition is also associated with a significant decrease of Staphylococcus epidermidis relative abundance. No significant changes were found for Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, data from sequencing profiling of the bacterial population strongly support a different microbial composition of the different area surrounded hair follicle from the epidermis to hypodermis, highlighting differences between normal and AA affected the scalp. Our results highlight, for the first time, the presence of a microbial shift on the scalp of patients suffering from AA and gives the basis for a larger and more complete study of microbial population involvement in hair disorders.
In this study we evaluated the imaging of hair follicle pigmnentary unit using a Reflectance Confocal Microscopy (RCM) in pigmented and white hair in early canities. We used this imaging technique to test the effects of five active principles on anagen prolongation and melanocyte function.