Project

Decolonising the curriculum: challenges and opportunities in teaching and learning

Goal: This project re-emphasises the meaning of decolonising the curriculum at both institutional and subject-specific level. It provides evidenced-based examples.

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Marlon Lee Moncrieffe
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This chapter states that the aims and contents of the Key Stage 2 primary school history curriculum for teaching and learning pupils aged 7-11 years old are exclusively Eurocentric for the cultural reproduction of White supremacy (Whiteness) in schools, classrooms, and society in general. Decolonising the curriculum is introduced as a concept that seeks to dismantle the dominance of 'Whiteness' in all phases of education. Typologies for decolonising the curriculum are presented as: the 'revolu-tionary approach'; the 'radical approach'; and, the 'gestural-superficial approach'. It is argued that decolonising the history curriculum is necessary for helping with repressing the increasing divisiveness of ethnic nationalism's political and social influence on society. This has been seen recently through 'Brexit'; the institutional ignorance understood by the 'Windrush Scandal'; and the egregious disparities of patient treatment according to racial group evidenced by Covid-19 research. Finally, a critical framework for decolonising the Key Stage 2 primary school history curriculum is shared as the focal point of this book.
Marlon Lee Moncrieffe
added 2 research items
In its broadest sense, the objective of decolonization work in education is to expose and to disrupt the ongoing processes of colonialism, identified by the uncritical cultural reproduction of Eurocentric curriculum knowledge and discourses (Bhambra et al., 2018; Moncrieffe, 2020a; Moncrieffe et al., 2020a). With a focus on the intellectual, emotional, economic and political reversal of colonial injustices, decolonization work in education means critically assessing, contextualising and challenging the dominant viewpoint and assumptions of curriculum knowledge (Gandolfi and Rushton, 2022). Decolonisation work does this by amplifying and disseminating the knowledge and perspectives of peoples that curriculum knowledge has historically silenced and marginalised (Moncrieffe, 2020a; Moncrieffe, et al. 2020a).
The research, theoretical, philosophical and reflective writing in this book explores, cites and positions with a multitude of decolonial theorists from across the world. This particularly with seminal indigenous and Global South writers including Fanon (1967), Freire, (1970), N’gugi Wa Thiong’o (1986), Spivak (1999), Gatsheni (2013), Mignolo (2018) [this list is not exhaustive]. It is a fusion of these international perspectives that this book applies as a conceptual framework in examination of decolonial work in education and curriculum knowledge, giving international insight and understanding from a unique range of historical, social, political and cultural contexts including: The UK, Nepal, South Africa, Namibia, Australia, Colombia, Canada, Thailand, Mauritius, Poland, Russia, Norway, and The Netherlands. This book provides unique possibilities for comparative education.
Marlon Lee Moncrieffe
added a research item
This second decade of the 21st century continues to bring extraordinary uncertainty and challenge. In education, researchers, teachers and students were forced to adapt to digital methods as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic. In the midst of this, the huge waves of Black Lives Matter anti-racism protests across the world demanded the reframing of education and curriculum content, challenging educational institutions in their thinking and (in)action over the years in advancing inclusive practice for race equity in teaching and learning. The articles in the special section of RI 151 respond to the inter-relatedness of the Covid-19 crisis and the 2020 Black Lives Matter protests, and by doing so, provide an important return to themes of inquiry shared in RI 142 on ‘Decolonising the Curriculum: Transnational Perspectives’ with new questions. • What opportunities in repositioning research to advance approaches in teaching and learning have emerged from this exceptional period of time? • How has educational research taken a lead in generating new knowledge for shaping our adaptations in the recovery of teaching and learning?
Marlon Lee Moncrieffe
added a research item
What and who should be included in the narrative of primary school curriculum teaching and learning of British history was raised to greater public attention during and in the aftermath of the 'Black Lives Matter' anti-racism protests of 2020 (Leach et al., 2020; Moncrieffe, 2020a, 2020b, 2021). A challenge to the government's national history curriculum agenda emerged most fervently when over a quarter of a million members of the British public signed one of many petitions calling for the teaching and learning of Britain's colonial past to be made more explicit, particularly Black-led accounts of history (House of Commons Library, 2021). However, despite ministers being held to account in Parliament (UK Parliament, 2020a), the public call for curriculum change was rebuffed (Weale, 2021).
Marlon Lee Moncrieffe
added a research item
Welcome to Issue 4 of Decolonising the Curriculum – Teaching and Learning about Race Equality. High interest in our previous issues have called for the opportunity to share wider views, interpretations and experiences of the concept. This interest demonstrates the broad impact of our work in research and knowledge exchange. Issue 4 offers a multidisciplinary voice for decolonising the curriculum given by academics and students from across five UK Higher Education institutions. Lambros Fatsis (School of Applied Social Sciences, University of Brighton) raises concerns with the implementation of black scholarship into the curriculum without black people included in the power structure of universities taking a lead on this intellectually, culturally and materially. Olga Lidia Saavedra Montes de Oca (School of Media, Arts and Humanities, University of Sussex) voices her scepticism with the decolonisation process taking place within UK institutions, due its disconnection from people’s real struggles. This is a tension against what she sees as the need to maintain ownership of this academic platform for strengthening and broadening networks between scholars, activists and artists all committed to dismantling structural racism in academia and society. Next, Shreya Savadia, Chelsea Priscila Gomes Da Costa and Holly Jackson (Nottingham Trent University BA Hons. Education students) reflect on their experiences of teaching and learning through the school national curriculum. They call for action and commitment with decolonising the curriculum by improving design and delivery of course and module content to make this more ethnically and culturally representative of all pupils in the classroom. In her article, Lisa Opoku (Masters of Education student, University of East London and primary school teacher) argues that change and positive action with decolonising the curriculum can only be effective when school leaders face up to the negative existence of racism. Melanie Norman (formerly a Geography tutor, School of Education, University of Brighton) offers an overview of how she sees geography teachers are working towards eliminating the dominance of whiteness in teaching and learning, allowing for more broader and inclusive educational opportunities. Finally, Katherine Rostron (Salford Business School, University of Salford) shares her account of decolonising the curriculum through course review and changes implemented to a level five cross cultural communication module of teaching and learning. All in all, another fabulous collection of unique responses to the concept which can support with advancing thinking and action for transforming policy and practice.
Marlon Lee Moncrieffe
added 2 research items
This chapter reflects on possibilities for teaching and learning about Britain’s migrant past through the story of cross-cultural encounters in Brixton, London, in 1981 involving African-Caribbean minority-ethnic group people of the ‘Windrush Generation’, and their Black-British children in ‘struggles’ with White-Britain. This is discussed with existing professional studies and resources that provide opportunities for teaching and learning in the primary school about mass-migration and settlement to Britain over the ages through the lives and experiences of non-White peoples. ‘Critical curriculum thinking’ is advocated for advancing practice, and for seeing the value in connecting British history, ‘race’ and ‘cultural diversity’ for teaching and learning.
This chapter presents memories from the author and his mother on their interpretations of the cross-cultural encounters between their migrant African-Caribbean minority-ethnic group people and White-Britain in Brixton, London in 1981. This recent historical experience is juxtaposed with similarities from the distant past, and analysed to consider the potential it may hold for advancing teaching and learning about British history in the Key Stage 2 primary school classroom.
Marlon Lee Moncrieffe
added 2 research items
This chapter applies the theory of ‘Whiteness’ to examine the aims and contents the Key Stage 2 primary school history curriculum (Department for Education, ‘History programmes of study: key stages 1 and 2’. National curriculum in England, In: The national curriculum in Britain framework document. DfE, London, 2013). A discussion is presented on how ‘Whiteness’ as a cultural belief of supremacy seen in the story of Britain’s past has been given political endorsement in the present. ‘Whiteness’ as the central perspective of the national history curriculum ‘Purpose of Study’, aims and contents can be reproduced socially as cultural hegemony. White-British trainee-teachers of Key Stage 2 primary school history were asked: What does British history mean to you? Their background histories, experiences of socialisation and their responses to the question indicate that the biggest challenge to decolonising the primary school history curriculum through teaching and learning may be in attempting to reframe Eurocentric mindsets; the default position from which trainee-teachers of White-British mono-ethnic background and socialisation begin to think about teaching the story of Britain’s past.
This chapter opens with a brief discussion on the inquiry into the murder of the Black-British teenager Stephen Lawrence in 1993, and the 7/7 terrorist attacks in London in 2005. This is to give a sense of how the British government have responded to cross-cultural racial encounters through curriculum design for teaching and learning in schools about British history and nationhood. Following this, the focus is set on understanding why a shift to Neo-Conservative ideologies seen though a White-British 'master narrative' has been reasserted today as a dominant educational discourse of the history curriculum. The impact of this ideological approach to teaching and learning on non-White pupils is argued as 'epistemic violence'.
Marlon Lee Moncrieffe
added a research item
Historical consciousness can offer a theoretical understanding of how the history curriculum 'Purpose of Study' and the Key Stage 2 primary school aims and contents are positioned with telling the story of Britain's past. This chapter introduces four typologies of historical consciousness: Traditional, Exemplary; Critical; Genetic. In exploring possibilities for decolonising the Key Stage 2 primary school history curriculum, the 'critical' and 'genetic' orientations with 'historical consciousness' are applied to the concept of 'transformative critical multicultural education'. Finally, these typologies of 'historical consciousness' are used to understand how White-British trainee-teachers are orientated with seeing British history, and what they view as most important to them for teaching and learning the story of Britain's past in the Key Stage 2 classroom.
Marlon Lee Moncrieffe
added a research item
“This is an important book at a time when colleagues across education are scrutinising their work, seeking to increase diversity and to build a balanced equitable learning experience for all... I recommend this book to all those training to teach and to those keen to revisit their predisposed assumptions about what should be taught in the primary history curriculum.” —Dame Alison Peacock, Chief Executive, The Chartered College of Teaching, UK “This book is a timely, and above all, practical guide to the transformation of Britain’s primary school history curriculum. It will be an invaluable tool for teachers and trainers as well as a map for future debates over the importance of history in the making of national identity.” —Professor Paul Gilroy, Institute of Advanced Studies, University College London, UK This book calls for a reconceptualisation and decolonisation of the Key Stage 2 national history curriculum. The author applies a range of theories in his research with White-British primary school teachers to show how decolonising the history curriculum can generate new knowledge for all, in the face of imposed Eurocentric starting points for teaching and learning in history and dominant white-cultural attitudes in primary school education. Through both narrative and biographical methodologies, the author presents how teaching and learning Black-British history in schools can be achieved, and centres his Black-British identity and minority-ethnic group experience alongside the immigrant Black-Jamaican perspective of his mother to support a framework of critical thinking of curriculum decolonisation. This book illustrates the potential of transformative thinking and action that can be employed as social justice for minority-ethnic group children who are marginalized in their educational development and learning by the dominant discourses of British history, national building and national identity. Marlon Lee Moncrieffe is Doctor of Education at the School of Education, University of Brighton, UK. He has worked in Primary School Education and Higher Education for over twenty years. His academic research focuses on 20th century Black-British lives, experiences, and histories for advancing teaching, learning and education for all.
Marlon Lee Moncrieffe
added a research item
Concerns over a historical narrative that portrays black history largely in terms of slavery and colonisation have seen black and white protesters tearing down statues of those seen to have benefitted from the exploitation and oppression of black people. Such symbols are a visible and painful reminder of past trauma. Statues of Edward Colston and Robert Milligan, both slave traders have been removed, while Oriel College in Oxford has agreed to remove the statue of the imperialist Cecil Rhodes. Protesters have also called for a decolonisation of the dominant Eurocentric curriculum in education, to give space for the teaching and learning of black history (Weale, Bakare & Mir, 2020) as part of a fuller, more representative teaching of the past (Moncrieffe, forthcoming; Moncrieffe, 2020). We need to consider all of these events and concerns about history and education more carefully.
Marlon Lee Moncrieffe
added a research item
Educators need to recognise that the curriculum largely reflects the dominate social group, and therefore can establish a narrow, monocultural view of the world in which ‘others’ exist only on the margins. The research presented by this articles explains how Decolonising the curriculum is therefore about seeing and appreciating the world – past, present and future – by ensuring that the views and voices of marginalised groups are heard, acknowledged and appreciated.
Marlon Lee Moncrieffe
added 2 research items
The epistemic violence of Eurocentrism via the school curriculum has been exposed. Calls have become louder for space to be given to the teaching and learning of black history as part of a fuller, more representative teaching of the past. Decolonising the Eurocentric curriculum of teaching and learning is about seeing ‘white privilege’ and knowing how mindsets have been created and sustained by this. This is a challenge, as 'white privilege' has become the default setting of many in society, and as such has become invisible. It is therefore difficult to recognise, so needs to be deliberately deconstructed. Why? Decolonising the curiculum will equip all of our students and colleagues with greater opportunities to broaden their ways of seeing for more in-depth and considered ways of knowing. Decolonising the curriculum is a process that will advance professional practice for all in the 21st century.
Brighton's #BlackLivesMatters (BLM) protests in June and July witnessed thousands and thousands of people from diverse ethnic backgrounds speaking together in one voice of unity and strength against racism. The public broadcasting of physical violence inflicted on George Floyd, and his subsequent death, was clear for all to see and to be appalled by. There are many other actions of violence towards black people that the heightened wave of BLM protests in the UK have sought to expose and dismantle. In Bristol, the tearing down of the symbolically violent statue of Robert Colston was to erase oppression caused by a daily reminder imposed on black people of Colston's and the city's past connections with the ugly transatlantic slave trade. Psychological violence is inflicted daily upon black people through the overt use of racist language in the workplace; by media; in football stadiums; in the language accepted by popular music; and through covert microaggressions that snipe at black people aiming to undermine their existence in dominant white spaces. The recent Windrush deportation scandal is clear example of this psychological violence. Black pupils' greater percentage of school exclusions; and black university students' lower rate of completion and achievement both point directly to conspiracies of institutional violence. The epistemic violence of Eurocentrism via the school curriculum has been exposed. Calls have become louder for space to be given to the teaching and learning of black history as part of a fuller, more representative teaching of the past. We acknowledge that the black experience of racist violence in the UK that we describe does not present the total reality of all non-white people in their life experiences. However, we see this as a black experience that is portable to situations where some identity dynamics are different, but the effects of racism look familiar. Decolonising the Eurocentric curriculum of teaching and learning is about seeing ‘white privilege’ and knowing how mindsets have been created and sustained by this. This is a challenge, as 'white privilege' has become the default setting of many in society, and as such has become invisible. It is therefore difficult to recognise, so needs to be deliberately deconstructed. Why? Decolonising the curiculum will equip all of our students and colleagues with greater opportunities to broaden their ways of seeing for more in-depth and considered ways of knowing. Decolonising the curriculum is a process that will advance professional practice for all in the 21st century. Processes of decolonisation are exemplified by the excellent interdisciplinary articles collated for Issue 3. We have sought to ensure that the contributions to Issue 3 reflect the diversity of experience and expertise from across the university including: current and former staff colleagues; current students and Alumni. Thank you for sharing your excellent articles and poems: Jessica Harper, Fezile Sibanda, Shahnaz Biggs, Emily Brooks & Professor Bhavik Patel, Dr Ushchi Klein, Emeritus Professor Gina Wisker, and Annie Whilby.
Marlon Lee Moncrieffe
added a research item
This article responds to the #BlackLivesMatter protests in the UK and across the world. This article gives examples of theories and evidenced-based research focused on transforming initial teacher education and children's learning via the history curriculum supporting the #BlackLivesMatters demand for equality.
Marlon Lee Moncrieffe
added 2 research items
From the Rhodes Must Fall campaign at the University of Cape Town (and, subsequently, the University of Oxford) to the Why is My Curriculum White? debate at University College London, decolonising the curriculum is a hot topic in education. The decolonising the curriculum movement is engaged in an epistemological struggle: it has fostered support and action for change in schools, colleges and universities, but has also met with resistance to the challenges it poses. As Dorie Chetty discusses, the demand for the decolonisation of the curriculum is not new, but today it has greater momentum thanks to a greater sense of awareness among students from minority- ethnic groups who want to see their experiences reflected in the curriculum. This view is reinforced by Nighet Riaz, who explains why a decolonised curriculum can support opportunities for black and minority-ethnic educators and students to understand who they are. Pere Ayling, in her article, writes about how this can be achieved by adopting and utilising the colonial habitus to explore how dominant discourses, operating at the subconscious level, shape and influence our thoughts, actions and perceptions. Decolonising the curriculum takes deliberate effort. Educators need to recognise that the curriculum largely reflects the dominate social group, and therefore can establish a narrow, monocultural view of the world in which ‘others’ exist only on the margins. Decolonising the curriculum is therefore about seeing and appreciating the world – past, present and future – by ensuring that the views and voices of marginalised groups are heard, acknowledged and appreciated. Such an approach benefits all members of society. Today’s educators and academics are detecting and exposing the competing ideological and political motives behind national history curriculum design. Rebecca Harris’s article is an example of this work: in it, Anglocentrism, ‘whiteness’ and ‘white privilege’ are challenged by a call for the diversity of human experience to be at the forefront of history curricula, and for teachers to be trained as ‘critical curriculum thinkers’. These ideas are picked up by Marlon Moncrieffe in his article, which provides an example of decolonising the narrative of mass- migration in the key stage 2 history curriculum. The piece by Richard Race also exposes and reflects upon the integrationist and monocultural design of the national curriculum over the years, arguing that the original national curriculum in England, introduced in 1988, ‘was a Brexit policy 30 years before Brexit’. An exposure of inequitable forms of monocultural nationalism and national identity in Thailand is articulated by Thithimadee Arphattananon. She shares a picture of curriculum inertia and an unchallenged agenda of cultural assimilation in education, fuelled by a teaching of ‘Thai-ness’ that imposes and reproduces a national identity. This type of monocultural dominance of curriculum content and supporting textbooks is also a concern for Kamil Nasibullov and Nataliia Kopylova, who use examples from their research on school music textbooks in Russia to discuss how cultural representations of ethnic Russians have become increasingly dominant, at the expense of minority- ethnic groups. The final article in this collection, by Shirley Steinburg from Canada, champions the notion of decolonising the curriculum while posing a multitude of critical and challenging questions about precisely where and how this process should begin.
From the Rhodes Must Fall campaign at the University of Cape Town (and, subsequently, the University of Oxford) to the Why is My Curriculum White? debate at University College London, decolonising the curriculum is a hot topic in education. The decolonising the curriculum movement is engaged in an epistemological struggle: it has fostered support and action for change in schools, colleges and universities, but has also met with resistance to the challenges it poses. As Dorie Chetty discusses, the demand for the decolonisation of the curriculum is not new, but today it has greater momentum thanks to a greater sense of awareness among students from minority- ethnic groups who want to see their experiences reflected in the curriculum. This view is reinforced by Nighet Riaz, who explains why a decolonised curriculum can support opportunities for black and minority-ethnic educators and students to understand who they are. Pere Ayling, in her article, writes about how this can be achieved by adopting and utilising the colonial habitus to explore how dominant discourses, operating at the subconscious level, shape and influence our thoughts, actions and perceptions. Decolonising the curriculum takes deliberate effort. Educators need to recognise that the curriculum largely reflects the dominate social group, and therefore can establish a narrow, monocultural view of the world in which ‘others’ exist only on the margins. Decolonising the curriculum is therefore about seeing and appreciating the world – past, present and future – by ensuring that the views and voices of marginalised groups are heard, acknowledged and appreciated. Such an approach benefits all members of society. Today’s educators and academics are detecting and exposing the competing ideological and political motives behind national history curriculum design. Rebecca Harris’s article is an example of this work: in it, Anglocentrism, ‘whiteness’ and ‘white privilege’ are challenged by a call for the diversity of human experience to be at the forefront of history curricula, and for teachers to be trained as ‘critical curriculum thinkers’. These ideas are picked up by Marlon Moncrieffe in his article, which provides an example of decolonising the narrative of mass- migration in the key stage 2 history curriculum. The piece by Richard Race also exposes and reflects upon the integrationist and monocultural design of the national curriculum over the years, arguing that the original national curriculum in England, introduced in 1988, ‘was a Brexit policy 30 years before Brexit’. An exposure of inequitable forms of monocultural nationalism and national identity in Thailand is articulated by Thithimadee Arphattananon. She shares a picture of curriculum inertia and an unchallenged agenda of cultural assimilation in education, fuelled by a teaching of ‘Thai-ness’ that imposes and reproduces a national identity. This type of monocultural dominance of curriculum content and supporting textbooks is also a concern for Kamil Nasibullov and Nataliia Kopylova, who use examples from their research on school music textbooks in Russia to discuss how cultural representations of ethnic Russians have become increasingly dominant, at the expense of minority- ethnic groups. The final article in this collection, by Shirley Steinburg from Canada, champions the notion of decolonising the curriculum while posing a multitude of critical and challenging questions about precisely where and how this process should begin.
Marlon Lee Moncrieffe
added a research item
Welcome to Issue 2 of the University of Brighton’s journal offering a wide variety of articles with teaching and learning approaches and critical theoretical provocations for decolonising the curriculum. We begin by celebrating the university achieving a Bronze Award from Advance HE’s highly regarded Race Equality Charter. Momtaz Rahman explains how the award will strengthen a commitment by the university to actively raise the professional profiles of BAME staff and improve the BAME student experiences in our community. Naomi Salaman and Jo Hall each discuss their implementation of innovative decolonising practices through concepts and processes led by their students, increasing their engagement with studies, and raising their attainment and outcomes. Arianne Shahvisi and Rishen Catteree each focus on teaching to instil an awareness in their students of the considerable social power they will have as future doctors. They argue that decolonising education and the curriculum must involve helping students to understand where they are coming from with regard to their unconscious racial frameworks. Annie Richardson and Nadia Edmond provide reflections on research and theory in each of their articles, speaking to decolonising the curriculum in intercultural primary school teacher-training, and in early years education. In each of their articles Marina Trowell and Eleftherios Zenerian see decolonising the curriculum at the university as a route to greater inclusion for creating a firmer sense of connection and belonging for students who feel marginalised by dominant discourses in what they are being asked to learn. Natasha Gohlan and Ashna Mahtani each share an article from the perspective of alumni. They reflect on the supremacy of "whiteness" in the curriculum that they experienced in their studies. They call on the need for future teaching content and practice to be decolonised and transformed particularly through student voices and their relatable experiences. Helen Johnson rounds off this collection of articles with a provocative poem. In this we are able to step into the mindset of a character: one who moves from conscious denial; to conscious realisation of their embedded racism.
Marlon Lee Moncrieffe
added a research item
In these times of political and economic uncertainty and rising populism, it is vital that universities directly challenge the thought that underlies xenophobia, division, discrimination, and assumptions of superiority. We cannot assume that the underlying processes that enabled the violence of imperialism and continue in propagating privilege, structural injustice and exclusion will dissipate without a concerted effort from universities as repositories of critical thinking. It is our contention that in majority-white institutions such as ours, the tendency to leave racial injustice unnoticed or unchallenged is great. It is considered more acceptable in places such as ours to suggest that racism is not an issue here and that less efforts need to be made to forefront issues and systems of injustice and ignorance, however ‘unwitting’ these may be. Through this publication we wish to give voice to all in our university community who in the course of their daily practice seek to highlight and mitigate against these injustices, using the tool that we all hold in common as a way of making the changes that we wish to see, namely, the educational curriculum. Through this publication we wish to present some of the work in our university community that seeks to highlight and mitigate injustices through the curriculum. In doing so we hope to encourage all colleagues to undertake similar processes of decolonisation and inclusion.
Marlon Lee Moncrieffe
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AUTHORS Dr Marlon Moncrieffe (School of Education) is a former primary school teacher, now working in Initial Teacher Education. His research is framed by the theoretical lenses of critical multiculturalism and narrative inquiry. Dr Yaa Asare (School of Applied Social Sciences) has a background in community development. She teaches on courses that explore race and ethnicity and her current research is on motivations for migration. Dr Robin Dunford (School of Humanities). Teaches globalisation and global ethics in the humanities programme at the University of Brighton. His research draws inspiration from decolonial theory. ABSTRACT A renewed call to 'decolonise' the university curriculum has marked a shift in thinking about education and what should form the canon of curriculum content. It has been amplified further here in the UK by the 'Rhodes must fall' campaign. However, fresh approaches and opportunities for advancing practice in teaching and learning with an aim to diversify the university curriculum for teaching and learning are not without challenges. Our chapter reflects on the meaning of decolonising the curriculum and on attempts to decolonise the curriculum at both institutional and subject-specific level. In this article which is in three sections, we use examples from our own practice to reflect on some of the challenges of decolonising the curriculum and opportunities for sharing good practices amongst colleagues.
Marlon Lee Moncrieffe
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See https://www.bera.ac.uk/blog/arresting-epistemic-violence-decolonising-the-national-curriculum-for-history A renewed call to ‘decolonise’ the curriculum has marked a shift in thinking about education and what should form the canon of curriculum content. My examination and interpretation of the National Curriculum for Key Stage 2 history (education for children aged 7 to 11 years old) considers its aims and contents, and motives for teaching and learning the ‘master narrative’ of mass-migration and settlement to the British Isles.
Marlon Lee Moncrieffe
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This project re-emphasises the meaning of decolonising the curriculum at both institutional and subject-specific level. It provides evidenced-based examples.