Project

DeStoSimKaFe - CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT & COUPLED DETERMINISTIC/STOCHASTIC EVALUATION OF COLD DISTRICT HEATING FOR HEATING & COOLING SUPPLY

Goal: The main objective of the project is to increase the applicability and feasibility of an innovative and sustainable heat and cold supply based on cold district heating. In order to achieve this, the development of complex technical system solutions and methodical fundamentals for the simulation, conception, planning and long-term evaluation of such systems takes place. Furthermore, a stochastic model for the long-term evaluation of system solutions based on varying framework conditions and exogenous scenarios is being developed. Based on the developed system solutions and the technical/ecological evaluation, tailor-made products and services for cold district heating are developed, which are then incorporated into an economic evaluation method.

51% of the primary energy demand of the EU is currently used for heat and cold supply with a major increase in cooling demand expected for the coming decades. To achieve the goals of the COP21 agreement, steps towards a complete decarbonization of our heat and cold supply are mandatory and have to be initiated now to become effective in due time.

District heating and cooling are recognized as key technologies in this regard as they enable a smart integration of renewables, waste heat, thermal storage and consumer while providing a cross-sectoral (with electricity and gas) and cross-infrastructural (with waste water and industrial waste heat) linkage, leading to increased overall efficiencies and effectiveness and reduction of primary energy demand.

Cold district heating and cooling (CDHC) systems with a supply temperature of <30°C a) enable an easy integration of low-exergy sources like waste heat and renewables, b) minimize transport losses, c) significantly reduce primary energy demand compared to state-of-the-art solutions and d) are able to supply heat and cold with one infrastructure. Innovative grid topologies allow here for a high degree of flexibility in regard of supplying existing and newly built buildings, system extension as well as integration of new thermal sources respectively sinks and storages. First demonstration systems in Switzerland are proof for the potential of this technology and concept.

To access the full potential of this concept and to establish it as the go-to solution for heat and cold solutions due to its inherent characteristics of easy integration of low-exergy sources, flexible expansion options and supply of older buildings, basic knowledge and methods on operation, planning and evaluation have to be extended to allow for a complete and holistic development and evaluation of such systems. Currently, a lack of knowledge exists here in regard of a) technical and economic evaluation methods, b) methods for the development of complete system solutions including suitable business models, c) minimal requirements, area of application and limitations and d) sound measures for the long-term evaluation of CDHC concepts.

This project aims for improving the overall applicability of innovative and sustainable heat and cold supply based on CDHC concepts by concentrating and combining international and national expertise and practical experiences and by establishing the necessary basics in conceptualization, planning and long-term evaluation. This is achieved by a) evaluation of possible system solutions for different configurations and boundary conditions, b) development of a multi-domain co-simulation framework for evaluation of technical and economic benefits, c) development of a stochastic approach for long-term system evaluation in regard of changing external and internal factors and d) development of economic evaluation method for CDHC including archetypal business models and new services.

The results of this project are highly relevant for the further development and decarbonisation of Austrian district heating and cooling systems. Furthermore, they will support and enable the realization of innovative and sustainable thermal supply concepts based on low temperature sources. The consortium consists of a highly capable and interdisciplinary scientific team and experienced industrial partners, among the inventors and planners of the Swiss CDHC concepts. Renowned energy suppliers, cities and municipalities as well as founding agencies actively support this research project.

Date: 1 September 2018 - 31 August 2020

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Project log

Ingo Leusbrock
added a research item
In der Europäischen Union, werden 51 % des Endenergiebedarfes für die Wärme- und Kälteversorgung verwendet (Fleiter, et al., 2017). Gleichzeitig wird zukünftig eine signifikante Zunahme des Kältebedarfes erwartet. Folglich ist zur Erreichung der Pariser Klimaziele eine vollständige Dekarbonisierung der Wärme- und Kälteversorgung erforderlich, die jetzt mittels unter anderen innovativer Energieversorgungskonzepte einzuleiten ist. Wärme- und Kältenetze werden hier als Schlüsseltechnologie betrachtet, da sie durch intelligente Vernetzung von Erneuerbaren Energieträgern, Abwärmequellen, nergiespeichern, Wärmeabnehmer und der Kopplung mit anderen Energieversorgungsnetzen (Strom, Gas) und Infrastruktur (Abwasser, Abwärme) eine Steigerung der Gesamteffizienz und Wirtschaftlichkeit sowie die Reduktion des Primärenergiebedarfes in der Wärme- und Kälteversorgung ermöglichen. Kalte Fernwärme (KaFe) kann durch ihre Versorgungstemperaturen von unter 30 °C wesentliche Vorteile in sich vereinen. Einerseits können niedrig-exergetische Wärmequellen wie Abwärme oder Erneuerbare nutzbar gemacht werden, anderseits werden Transportverluste fast vollständig eliminiert, signifikante Primärenergieeinsparungen gegenüber konventionellen Fernwärmekonzepten erreicht und mit der gleichen Infrastruktur Wärme als auch Kälte bereitgestellt. Derartige, innovative Netztopologien erlauben ein hohes Maß an Flexibilität hinsichtlich Versorgung von Bestands- und Neubau sowie den Ausbau und Integration neuer Quellen, Senken und Energiespeicher. Bevor das Potential dieser Technologie, hinsichtlich a) der Einbindung unterschiedlichster niederexergetischer Quellen, b) einer laufenden und flexiblen Erweiterung und c) der Versorgung von Bestandsobjekten, voll ausgeschöpft und plan- bzw. umsetzbar wird, sind wissenschaftlich fundiertes Grundlagenwissen und Methoden notwendig, die eine ganzheitliche Konzeption und Bewertung solcher Systeme ermöglicht. Das übergeordnete Ziel dieses Forschungsvorhabens ist die Anwendbarkeit und Umsetzbarkeit innovativer und nachhaltiger Wärme- und Kälteversorgung auf Basis Kalter Fernwärme zu ermöglichen, indem die methodischen und simulationstechnischen Grundlagen für die Konzeption, Planung und langfristige Bewertung solcher Systeme entwickelt werden. Dazu erfolgt einerseits die Evaluierung möglicher Systemkonzepte für unterschiedlichste Anlagenkonfigurationen und Rahmenbedingungen, die Entwicklung eines domäneübergreifenden Co-Simulationsframeworks zur Bewertung der technoökonomischen Bewertungsmethodik und die Entwicklung eines Modellansatzes zur Langzeitbewertung mit variierenden Rahmenbedingungen.
Hermann Edtmayer
added a research item
This poster presents the development and application of an urban building energy simulation model to analyse an existing 5th generation district heating and cooling network (5GDHC) in Zürich, Switzerland with regard to possible sector coupling potentials. We evaluated, how the heat energy production through large industrial heat pumps and the total thermal capacities of the 5GDHC network can provide flexibilities for power to heat applications.
Hermann Edtmayer
added a research item
In this paper the development and application of an urban building energy simulation model is presented to analyse an existing 5th generation district heating and cooling network (5GDHC) with regard to possible sector coupling potentials. It was evaluated, how the heat energy production through large industrial heat pumps and the total thermal capacities of the 5GDHC network can provide flexibilities for power to heat applications. In a first step a multi model dynamic simulation was set up using the simulation environment IDA ICE. A previously developed urban energy simulation model formed the basis to implement the special requirements of the investigated 5GDHC network. This was followed by the calibration of the multi model simulation utilising the monitoring data of the existing 5GDHC network. In a second step the flexibilities of network sub areas were systematically investigated using step response tests. This was done with respect to key performance indicators like heat-up time or electrical energy consumption as a function of different boundary conditions like indoor comfort or outdoor air temperature. The third step comprised of a cumulative network analysis using different heating setpoint control strategies to optimise the operation of the network regarding heat production costs.
Hermann Edtmayer
added a research item
In this presentation the topic of sector coupling is discussed with a specific focus on utilising extra profits for the operation of an existing 5th generation district heating and cooling network (5GDHC) in Zürich, Switzerland. It was investigated, how the heat energy production through large industrial heat pumps and the total heat capacities of the 5GDHC system can provide flexibilities for power to heat applications. The intention was to take advantage of the European electricity day ahead market or provide grid stabilisation services to the electricity balancing market of the respective country to obtain a lower heat energy retail price for the customers of the 5GDHC network. Therefor in a first step the special requirements of a 5GDHC system were implemented into a previously developed co-simulation tool for large district heating systems. Followed by the modelling of the investigated network using the tool IDA ICE. In a second step the system flexibilities were systematically investigated with respect to key performance indicators like heat capacity, response behaviour or electrical energy consumption as a function of the thermal comfort in the connected buildings. It was also investigated, how a sliding average control strategy using the electricity price signal and the indoor room tempertare can contribute to utilising extra profits for the network.
Hermann Edtmayer
added 5 research items
Concept development and deterministic/stochastic evaluation of cold district heating 51% of the EU's final energy demand is used for heating and cooling. In order to achieve the Paris climate targets, a complete decarbonisation of the heating and cooling supply is therefore necessary, which is to be initiated by means of innovative concepts. Heating and cooling networks are regarded as a key technology, as they enable an increase in overall efficiency and a reduction in primary energy requirements through intelligent networking of renewables and waste heat sources, storage facilities, heat consumers and through coupling with other energy supply networks (electricity, gas) and infrastructure (waste water, waste heat). Cold district heating or anergy networks can harness low-energy heat sources such as waste heat or renewables through supply temperatures of <30°C, almost completely eliminate transport losses, achieve significant primary energy savings compared to the state of the art and provide both heat and cooling with the same infrastructure. Innovative network typologies allow a high degree of flexibility with regard to the supply of existing and new buildings as well as the expansion and integration of new sources, sinks and storage facilities. This is impressively demonstrated by the first demonstration plants with simple system configuration in Switzerland. The DeStoSimKaFe project: Before the potential of this technology can be fully exploited and planned or implemented, scientifically sound basic knowledge and methods must be developed to enable a holistic conception and evaluation of such systems. Among other things, there is a lack of basic knowledge for assessing the benefits, methods for developing holistic system solutions and business models, knowledge about minimum requirements, areas of application and application limits, and scientifically sound methods for long-term assessment. The overall objective of the project is to enable and increase the applicability and feasibility of innovative and sustainable heating and cooling systems based on cold district heating. In order to achieve this, complex technical system solutions and methodical and simulation fundamentals for the conception, planning and long-term evaluation of such systems are developed. Furthermore, a stochastic model for the long-term evaluation of system solutions is developed on the basis of varying framework conditions and exogenous scenarios. Based on the developed system solutions and the technical/ecological evaluation, tailor-made products and services for cold district heating will be developed, which then flow into an economic evaluation method. The project is funded by the Austrian Climate and Energy Fund within the framework of the Energy Research Programme 2017.
Hermann Edtmayer
added a project goal
The main objective of the project is to increase the applicability and feasibility of an innovative and sustainable heat and cold supply based on cold district heating. In order to achieve this, the development of complex technical system solutions and methodical fundamentals for the simulation, conception, planning and long-term evaluation of such systems takes place. Furthermore, a stochastic model for the long-term evaluation of system solutions based on varying framework conditions and exogenous scenarios is being developed. Based on the developed system solutions and the technical/ecological evaluation, tailor-made products and services for cold district heating are developed, which are then incorporated into an economic evaluation method.
51% of the primary energy demand of the EU is currently used for heat and cold supply with a major increase in cooling demand expected for the coming decades. To achieve the goals of the COP21 agreement, steps towards a complete decarbonization of our heat and cold supply are mandatory and have to be initiated now to become effective in due time.
District heating and cooling are recognized as key technologies in this regard as they enable a smart integration of renewables, waste heat, thermal storage and consumer while providing a cross-sectoral (with electricity and gas) and cross-infrastructural (with waste water and industrial waste heat) linkage, leading to increased overall efficiencies and effectiveness and reduction of primary energy demand.
Cold district heating and cooling (CDHC) systems with a supply temperature of <30°C a) enable an easy integration of low-exergy sources like waste heat and renewables, b) minimize transport losses, c) significantly reduce primary energy demand compared to state-of-the-art solutions and d) are able to supply heat and cold with one infrastructure. Innovative grid topologies allow here for a high degree of flexibility in regard of supplying existing and newly built buildings, system extension as well as integration of new thermal sources respectively sinks and storages. First demonstration systems in Switzerland are proof for the potential of this technology and concept.
To access the full potential of this concept and to establish it as the go-to solution for heat and cold solutions due to its inherent characteristics of easy integration of low-exergy sources, flexible expansion options and supply of older buildings, basic knowledge and methods on operation, planning and evaluation have to be extended to allow for a complete and holistic development and evaluation of such systems. Currently, a lack of knowledge exists here in regard of a) technical and economic evaluation methods, b) methods for the development of complete system solutions including suitable business models, c) minimal requirements, area of application and limitations and d) sound measures for the long-term evaluation of CDHC concepts.
This project aims for improving the overall applicability of innovative and sustainable heat and cold supply based on CDHC concepts by concentrating and combining international and national expertise and practical experiences and by establishing the necessary basics in conceptualization, planning and long-term evaluation. This is achieved by a) evaluation of possible system solutions for different configurations and boundary conditions, b) development of a multi-domain co-simulation framework for evaluation of technical and economic benefits, c) development of a stochastic approach for long-term system evaluation in regard of changing external and internal factors and d) development of economic evaluation method for CDHC including archetypal business models and new services.
The results of this project are highly relevant for the further development and decarbonisation of Austrian district heating and cooling systems. Furthermore, they will support and enable the realization of innovative and sustainable thermal supply concepts based on low temperature sources. The consortium consists of a highly capable and interdisciplinary scientific team and experienced industrial partners, among the inventors and planners of the Swiss CDHC concepts. Renowned energy suppliers, cities and municipalities as well as founding agencies actively support this research project.
 
Lorenz Leppin
added a research item
District heating plays a central role in the Austrian energy supply scheme and already covers 25% of the national heat demand. On a European level district heating was identified as one of the key technologies to transition towards a decarbonized, efficient, sustainable and fossil-free energy system. The historic development of district heating systems shows a decrease in supply temperatures and an increase in the use of renewable energy sources in the system. Cold heat is characterized by supply temperatures below 30°C. That makes it particularly suitable for using renewable energy sources and low-temperature heat from other local sources. Another positive side effect is that heat losses in the grid are minimized and novel polymeric materials for piping can be used. The high degree of flexibility allow for expansion and later integration of additional sources, sinks and storages. Compared to conventional district heating networks (2nd and 3rd generation) a high reduction in primary energy consumption is expected.