Project

DIGINATIVEMEDIA - Digital native media in Spain: characterisation and trends // Cibermedios nativos digitales en España: caracterización y tendencias

Goal: Funded by the Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities of Spain, this coordinated project (ref. RTI2018-093346-B-C31) explores, both quantitatively and qualitatively, the digital native media in Spain. Accounting more than a thousand titles in 2018, they are a type of news media in clear expansion, amounting already more than a third of the total digital media in our country. Despite this growth, digital native media remains largely unexplored by scholar research. The present project fills this gap: it plans to identify and characterise the existing models of digital native news media, in order to provide strategic references both for the consolidation of this sector of the journalism industry, and for its knowledge by the international scholar community.

In brief, the general objective of the project is to study the market structure, business strategies, technological models, narrative formats, and innovation strategies in digital native media in Spain, to evaluate their regenerative potential in Spanish news media market. This project aims to carry out a detailed typological analysis of digital native media throughout Spain, with the purpose of characterising the diversity of their technological, economic and editorial models, and identifying the most successful variants. The project wants to explore in depth their structure and strategies, in order to identify and disseminate good practices that serve as a reference to the Spanish media industry.

Date: 1 January 2019 - 31 December 2021

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Project log

Javier Serrano-Puche
added a research item
Aunque la labor de verificación es un rasgo de buena praxis periodística, el fenómeno creciente de la desinformación ha dado lugar a la creación de medios específicos de verificación y a la formación de equipos de trabajo en medios ya consolidados. Este estudio explora qué percepciones tienen los internautas españoles sobre la información problemática que circula por la red. Además, ofrece un panorama del fact-checking, atendiendo a los actores principales y a la situación de esta rama de la profesión periodística en España. Palabras clave: medios digitales, medios nativos digitales, cibermedios, medios de comunicación, verificación de la información, desinformación, fact-checking.
Ramón Salaverría
added a research item
Cumplidos los primeros veinticinco años de periodismo en internet, este texto presenta un análisis de la evolución de los cibermedios en siete etapas: pre-web, experimentación, homogeneización, estancamiento, prioridad en las redes sociales, prioridad en los móviles, y robotización. Sobre este marco evolutivo, se analiza la expansión y progresiva consolidación de los medios nativos digitales. Tras dos crisis profundas, la Gran Recesión y la pandemia de Covid-19, lo que se dirime al cabo del primer cuarto de siglo es qué tipos de medios digitales prevalecerán ante el avance de la robotización.
Ramón Salaverría
added a research item
Teaching of digital journalism, or cyberjournalism, in Spanish universities is here to stay. Its long development since the first courses in this discipline were added to college curricula in the mid-1990s until the beginning of the 2020s, when the number of such courses exceeds 100, has led to the consolidation of this specialty. Based on a review of the syllabi of all courses related to cyberjournalism (n = 119) published online by Spanish universities, as well as a survey of their teachers (n = 51), the results of this study depicts the profile of teaching about digital journalism in Spain. The results confirm the relevance and academic strength of this discipline, albeit also revealing the difficulties faced by teachers in keeping their courses up to date in a context of rapid and continuous change in the journalistic profession. Resumen La enseñanza universitaria en España del periodismo digital, o ciberperiodismo, ha llegado para quedarse. Desde que, a mediados de los años 1990, se incorporaron las primeras materias sobre esta disciplina en los planes de estudios, hasta el comienzo de la década de 2020, cuando el número de asignaturas supera el centenar, se ha recorrido un largo camino, que ha conducido a la consolidación de esta especialidad. A partir de una revisión documental de los programas docentes de todas las asignaturas vinculadas al ciberperiodismo (n = 119) publicados online por las universidades españolas, así como de una encuesta a sus docentes (n = 51), este estudio revela el perfil de la enseñanza en torno al periodismo digital en España. Los resultados confirman la relevancia y el fortalecimiento académico de la disciplina, aunque ponen de manifiesto asimismo las dificultades de los docentes para mantener sus asignaturas actualizadas, en un contexto de rápidos y continuos cambios en la profesión periodística.
Javier Serrano-Puche
added a research item
The purpose of the study is to examine and compare digital users’ motivations for news exposure in three European countries (Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom) belonging to each of Hallin and Mancini’s media systems. For this research, a cross-national online survey (2020) of over 2,000 people in each country was used. The users’ assessment of the preferences for getting news (from sources that share, challenge or do not have a particular point of view) was analysed, as well as the influence of socio-demographic factors and interest in politics on those motivations. Our results show that a majority of digital users prefer unbiased news. With respect to the socio-demographic variables, a clear pattern can be discerned in the age variable, whereby the older they are, the greater the declared preference for unbiased news. On the other hand, those who show greater interest in politics do prefer reinforcing news. In terms of national differences, motivations for news exposure vary depending on the country studied. In Spain, in line with its belonging to the pluralist-polarised system, the preference for reinforcing news is higher than in Germany and in the United Kingdom.
Alfonso Vara-Miguel
added 4 research items
A pesar de los recientes esfuerzos de los medios de comunicación y empresas tecnológicas por generar mayor credibilidad pública, la confi anza de los internautas españoles en las noticias sigue cayendo y apenas un 43% de los usuarios confía habitualmente en la información que recibe, frente a un 32% de escépticos. La crispación política y social de los tres últimos años ha contribuido al descrédito institucional de los medios informativos en España, cuya credibilidad se ha desplomado ocho puntos desde 2017, pasando del 51% en aquel año al actual 43%. Esta es una de las principales conclusiones del informe Digital News Report España 2019 elaborado por la Facultad de Comunicación de la Universidad de Navarra, con base en 2005 entrevistas realizadas a internautas españoles durante el mes de enero y febrero de 2019. El estudio forma parte de la mayor investigación global sobre consumo de medios coordinada por la Universidad de Oxford en 38 países.
La pandemia originada en 2020 ha acelerado algunas de las tendencias que el mercado de los medios de comunicación españoles venía arrastrando en los últimos años. Entre ellas, la consolidación de las marcas tradicionales como referentes informativos de calidad, el declive en la audiencia y rentabilidad de los diarios impresos, la puesta en valor de los medios locales y regionales, la utilización del móvil como dispositivo más usado para estar informado o la consolidación del consumo de nuevos formatos informativos como el pódcast o los vídeos noticiosos.
La edición española del estudio mundial Digital News Report llega un año más, y van siete, para ofrecer la perspectiva española del cambiante mercado de las noticias digitales, y de las tendencias de una opinión pública que cada vez más se ve mediada por internet. Si el escepticismo de los usuarios españoles en relación con las noticias acaparó titulares en las primeras ediciones del Digital News Report, la confianza en los medios se recuperó en años posteriores, pero a principios de 2020 de nuevo se ha registrado una proporción de confianza en las noticias en general relativamente baja, el 36%, la menor en cinco años. La mitad de los encuestados españoles señalan que el Gobierno, los políticos o los partidos de su propio país son las principales fuentes de desinformación, un fenómeno que preocupa al 65%. Un 15% señala a los periodistas y a los medios de comunicación como principales responsables de la difusión de bulos.
Pilar Sánchez-García
added 2 research items
Digital transformations entail continually reviewing the various Communication models and processes. The influence of the media themselves as agenda setters for an ever more active audience and social networks that select and make certain content they receive viral are also affected by such a convergent context. This current research analyses a model called here the ‘triple agenda’ within the media themselves, in which the journalistic criterion of relevance and their audience’s preferences in the web and the networks travel along different paths. The proposal includes the users and the viral effect as influencing agents in the shape and selection of news, generating a news gap of interests between the media and their audiences. In order to test this model, we study an exploratory case in ElPaís.es, applying a content analysis to the information (n=420) distributed among the online front page, what is most read by the audience in its webpage, and the most viral in its Twitter account. The main objective is to check whether or not these three spheres of relevance operate independently, showing different informative interests f rom the thematic selection that the medium establishes f rom its agenda, its audience and its social networks. The results confirm that there is a gap in the informative interests of the three spheres analysed, especially between the agenda marked by the medium and the interests that are reflected in their web audience, which is more attracted to soft news and the clickbait technique; while there is a greater coincidence of interests between the newspaper’s front page and the users’ selection in their social networks.
Las transformaciones digitales conllevan una revisión permanente de los modelos y procesos de la Comunicación. En este contexto convergente también se ve afectada la propia influencia de los medios como fijadores de la agenda frente a una audiencia cada vez más activa y unas redes sociales que seleccionan y viralizan el contenido que les llega. La presente investigación analiza un modelo denominado aquí de 'triple agenda' dentro de los propios medios, en los que discurren de manera diferente el criterio periodístico de relevancia y las preferencias de su audiencia en la web y las redes. La propuesta incluye a los usuarios y el efecto de la viralidad como actores influyentes en la conformación y selección noticiosa, generando una brecha, o news gap, de intereses informativos entre el medio y su audiencia. Para poner a prueba este modelo, se recurre a un estudio de caso exploratorio en ElPaís.es, aplicando un análisis de contenido de sus informaciones (n=420), distribuidas entre la portada online, lo más leído por la audiencia en su web y lo más viralizado en su Twitter. El objetivo principal es comprobar si estas tres esferas de relevancia temática operan, o no, de forma independiente, mostrando intereses informativos dispares entre la selección temática que establece el medio desde su agenda, de su audiencia y de las redes. Los resultados confirman una brecha en el interés informativo de las tres esferas analizadas, especialmente entre la agenda que marca el medio y los intereses que reflejan su audiencia web, más atraída por las soft news y las técnicas del clickbait, mientras que existe una mayor coincidencia de intereses entre la portada periodística y la selección de los usuarios en sus redes sociales. Palabras clave Periodismo digital, brecha informativa, agenda setting, audiencia, redes sociales, clickbait.
Pilar Sánchez-García
added a research item
Hoy todo periodismo es digital. Superada la distinción entre medios digitales y analógicos, el nuevo ecosistema periodístico muestra dos modelos de medios emergentes: los nativos digitales y los no nativos. Los nativos cuentan con estructuras y técnicas adaptadas con naturalidad al entorno digital. Los no nativos, por su parte, derivan de marcas periodísticas tradicionales y cuentan con rutinas profesionales propias. A partir del estudio de un corpus de 2 874 medios digitales, Medios nativos digitales en España. Caracterización y tendencias revela los rasgos del actual mercado periodístico digital en España. Con foco en los nativos digitales, analiza la tipología de los cibermedios, su distribución geográfica y diversidad temática, los modelos de negocio, además de sus métodos en las redes sociales. También explica sus estrategias tecnológicas y narrativas, así como la aparición de nuevos perfiles profesionales. Fruto del proyecto de investigación DIGINATIVEMEDIA, coordinado desde las universidades de Navarra y Santiago de Compostela, esta obra muestra las claves de la regeneración del ecosistema periodístico en España.
Alfonso Vara-Miguel
added 2 research items
El consumo de noticias online difiere según las circunstancias y las características de las audiencias, configurando un entorno de actuación complejo y cambiante para los cibermedios. La diversificación y la adaptabilidad son una exigencia para aquellos medios que aspiran a mantener posiciones destacadas en el mercado y a seguir siendo relevantes y útiles para el público. Palabras clave: Consumo de noticias online, fuentes informativas, dispositivos móviles, confianza en los medios
Digital news publishers strive to balance revenue streams in their business models: as standard advertising declines, alternatives for sustaining digital journalism arise in the forms of sponsored content, user donations and payments—one-off purchases, subscriptions or memberships, public or private grants, electronic commerce, events and consulting. An exhaustive study found 2874 active online news publications in Spain, and it observed the adoption of such models in early 2021. Advertising remains the most popular source of income for digital news operations (85.8%) and most sites rely on just one or two revenue streams (74.5%). We compare the cases in our census by their origin (digital-native or non-native), geography (local/regional or national/global) and topic scope (generalist or specialized). We find that traditional, national and specialized online media have a broader and more innovative revenue mix than digital-native, regional or local and general-interest news outlets. The comprehensiveness of this pioneering study sheds light for the first time on the risk that the lack of diversification and innovation in funding sources may imperil the financial sustainability of some online news operations in Spain, mostly those with a smaller scope and no backing from a traditional business, according to the results we present here.
Ramón Salaverría
added 2 research items
Globalization is a multifaceted and complex phenomenon that does not reach equally to all global actors. In fact, the lack of technological capabilities to promote innovation has been an essential conditioning factor that has limited an equal diffusion worldwide of technology, research, and development, thus restricting the concrete growth opportunities of the least favored countries. While in the Global South many countries still struggle to jump on the wave of Information Society, Northern countries have been navigating the waters of innovation and technology disruption for decades. In this chapter, we discuss the multiple external factors, mainly political and economic, which have contributed to the relative lack of academic studies on the patterns of journalism in Latin America. Through its evolution, the Latin American region has become a laboratory of interesting ideas and initiatives that shed lights on how to confront the problems suffered locally and by the media ecosystem worldwide.
Digital media are constantly trying to provide attractive and useful content to their users. They have to do it with caution, in order to respect the identity of the publications and their business strategy. This implies constant editorial decision-making. To support these critical decisions, the most widespread tools today, those that allow a better analysis of audiences, are digital metrics. The metrics provide key performance indicators, generally named as KPIs, chosen according to the type of data required: quantitative or qualitative. Based on a qualitative study through questionnaires and interviews with journalists from seven native digital media in Latin America, this chapter analyzes to what extent and with what effects are metrics being used by digital media in this region to make strategic decisions. The results indicate that the adoption of metrics as criteria to guide the supply of news is still moderate in the region. However, a growing incidence of these analytical systems in newswork is detected, at least among digital native media.
Ramón Salaverría
added a research item
Since the beginning of the 21st century, Latin American media panorama is undergoing deep transformations. As in other regions of the world, an increasingly influential actor is emerging in the market: digital native publications. This chapter explores the increasing importance of digital native news media in Central America. Based on the analysis of a sample of 88 such publications, this study puts together the origins, current features and performance of the digital native media in the six Spanish-speaking countries of this area: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. The study concludes that, although the main part of the audience and the business remains in the hands of the legacy media, digital native publications are reshaping the media landscape of Central America. Thus, this chapter provides a comprehensive analysis of a phenomenon that is transforming the media within those countries, helping to better understand the present and possible future impacts of these new media actors in the public sphere of this region.
Ramón Salaverría
added a research item
Latin American journalism is currently experiencing some important transformations, with potential changes to how news is produced, shared, financed and consumed. This book provides a comprehensive overview of current journalism in Latin America, contextualized by global literature and regional empirical evidence. It is an important addition to our understanding of digital journalism and a must-read for those interested in journalism in Latin America.” Dr. Vanessa de Macedo Higgins Joyce, Texas State University, USA This book explores innovative approaches to digital and data journalism in Latin America, brought by both legacy media and newcomers to the industry, with the purpose of examining this changing media landscape. As part of the Global South, Latin America has shown significant influence in the promotion of data and digital technologies applied to journalism in recent years. In this region, news entrepreneurs are becoming an essential source of innovation in news production, circulation, and distribution. The book considers news media, particularly in Latin America, as an open set of practices intertwined in the evolution of technology. It discusses the transformation of the Latin American news media ecosystem and considers how it has shaped the industry despite local differences. The study fills a significant gap in academic scholarship by addressing the multiple external factors, mainly political and economic, which have contributed to the relative lack of studies on the patterns of journalism in this region. Ramón Salaverría is Associate Dean of Research at the School of Communication, University of Navarra, Spain, where he heads the Digital News Media Research Group. Author of over 200 scholarly publications, his research focuses on digital journalism and media convergence, both in national and international comparative studies. Mathias-Felipe de-Lima-Santos is a researcher at the University of Navarra, Spain, under the JOLT project, a Marie Skłodowska-Curie European Training Network funded by the European Commission’s Horizon 2020. Previously, he was a Visiting Researcher at the Queensland University of Technology, Australia. He researches changing journalistic practice with a particular focus on business models, data, and novel technologies.
Javier Serrano-Puche
added a research item
El clickbait es una estrategia utilizada en los medios digitales que busca llamar la atención a través de los titulares, apelando a las emociones y a la curiosidad de los lectores para que cliquen en la noticia. Para indagar en este fenómeno, esta investigación combina métodos cualitativos y cuantitativos en el análisis de los titulares de las portadas de los cuatro principales diarios nativos digitales en España: El Confidencial, El Español, eldiario.es y Ok Diario. Los datos obtenidos recogen la información publicada en estos medios durante una semana (n=2.505). Entre los resultados de la investigación destaca una alta presencia de titulares que contienen clickbait (el 48% del total de la muestra, alcanzando el 69,5% en el caso de las soft news). En cuanto a los recursos lingüísticos más utilizados, destacan las modificaciones morfosintácticas en los titulares (como la nominalización y el uso de dos puntos) y la exageración (adjetivación intensificadora). Finalmente, se concluye que un abuso de este tipo de técnicas va en perjuicio de la calidad periodística, pues reduce la función informativa de los titulares y puede, a largo plazo, generar frustración y desconfianza entre los lectores.
Alfonso Vara-Miguel
added a research item
The decline of the news business model for print newspapers in many Western countries and the digital disruption caused by the Internet have influenced the rise of digital-born news media. These new media are different from legacy brands in terms of business models, distribution strategies, corporate organisation, and editorial priorities. It would be expected that the different nature of both legacy and digital-born news media has driven to two types of significantly different audiences. This article aims to analyse whether there are significant differences between the users of these two types of media, by comparing the online audiences of five European countries' (United Kingdom, Germany, France, Spain, and Italy) legacy and digital-born media brands in 2015 and 2019. The article will focus on four aspects: demographic and socioeconomics profiles (sex, age, income and level of education); interest in news; payment for online news; and media trust.
Ramón Salaverría
added 2 research items
Digital native news media are becoming a blooming phenomenon, expanding globally. Up until now, however, the scholar community has paid little attention to online-born media, compared to the high interest devoted to the legacy media brands. Drawing upon the extant literature on this emerging topic, this editorial summarizes the empirical and theoretical contributions of the thematic issue entitled "Digital Native News Media: Trends and Challenges." The author highlights that the studies selected for this thematic issue not only explore the innovative characteristics and opportunities of digital native media in thirty countries, but also provide a cautionary tale about their structural problems and limitations.
Digital-native news organizations have grown steadily in Spain since the mid-1990s and they have become established as a major force in the media market. Paradoxically, their biggest expansion coincided with the Great Recession (2008-2014). In fact, their numbers increased most during 2012-2013, when traditional media were cutting staff in response to the economic crisis, and unemployment rates in the media sector as a whole hit their peak. However, these digital-native news startups have yet to prove their sustainability and stability. This study uses our own database of 3,862 native and non-native digital news outlets in Spain and the Reuters Institute Digital News Report to analyze a number of characteristics of these media, such as the percentage that have gone inactive, the relative popularity of legacy brands vs. digital natives, multi-platform synergies, content subject matter, geographical location, ownership, and funding sources. Based on these quantitative parameters, this study reviews the structural strengths and weaknesses of digital-native media in the Spanish news market. Taking into account these findings, we conclude that the surge in digital-native news media observed in Spain during the Great Recession followed the pattern of creative destruction described by several economists.
Ramón Salaverría
added a research item
Universidad de Navarra rAmón SAlAverríA rsalaver@unav.es Universidad de Navarra Resumen Los infográficos predictivos, aquellos que retan a los usuarios a hacer una estima-ción subjetiva en torno a un fenómeno antes de permitirles averiguar el resultado, amplían las posibilidades de los medios digitales para atraer y retener a su audiencia. Estudios recientes sugieren, además, que visualizar las propias predicciones mejora la comprensión de la información y la probabilidad de recordarla. A partir de un estudio cualitativo de infográficos interactivos, el presente artículo identifica dos tipos de gráficos predictivos presentes en los medios digitales actuales: gráficos basados en la predicción por parte de los usuarios y gráficos predictivos basados en cálculos. Analiza sus estrategias de interacción y desafío a los usuarios, describiendo mode-los que pueden ser aprovechados tanto por investigadores como profesionales de la infografía periodística. Palabras clave: infografía periodística; contenido predictivo; medios digitales; experiencia de usuario; tipologías Recibido /
Pilar Sánchez-García
added a research item
La renovación de los perfiles periodís­ticos representa uno de los principales desafíos profesionales y formativos en las próximas décadas. Mientras los me­dios de comunicación asumen los nue­vos roles en un proceso cambiante de “ensayo y error”, la universidad investi­ga esas adaptaciones para trasladarlas, progresivamente, a su oferta en el aula. Este artículo se centra en la perspectiva investigadora y formativa con el obje­tivo de conocer cuáles son los perfiles periodísticos emergentes más reconoci­dos en el ámbito académico. Para ello se recurre a una doble metodología me­diante una revisión bibliométrica sobre 44 revistas (2000-2017) —que permite conocer qué perfiles son los más investi­gados y reconocidos— junto a un aná­lisis de contenido de la oferta de perfiles de 39 Grados en Periodismo en España señalados como “salidas laborales”. Los resultados reflejan que predominan las investigaciones en torno a tres perfiles —periodista multimedia-multitarea, community manager y periodista de datos—; se ofrecen las denominacio­nes, definiciones y funciones atribuidas académicamente a cada uno de ellos; y se confirma la limitada incorporación de perfiles emergentes como salidas la­borales expresamente recogidas en las webs de los Grados en Periodismo.
Ramón Salaverría
added a research item
After embracing web and mobile technologies, the news media are ready to receive a third technological wave: the Internet of Things (IoT). This set of technologies has already begun to spread, through new devices based on artificial intelligence. One of the most affected areas by this new technological wave will be that of journalistic information. Robotic systems and IoT devices are bringing new modes of production, distribution and consumption of the journalistic content, taking the news media to a new paradigm: the ubiquitous journalism. This chapter grounds on a historical perspective to place the implementation of the IoT within the framework of technological innovations assimilated by journalism over the last quarter of a century. It describes the devices, applications and systems that the media are being incorporated into the production and consumption of news content, providing a general overview of the opportunities and challenges that IoT poses to journalism.
Ramón Salaverría
added a research item
Media organizations have been struggling to survive in the digital age. In order to get a chance to pull through while facing the threat of a post-truth era, data and investigative journalism seem to be more important than ever. The old model of highly competitive single newsroom environment evolve to a ‘new model’ of sharing information, sometimes on a global scale, dealing with new players. Thus, third-party organizations come in handy to help to overcome the lack of resources and skills within the newsrooms. This study conducted six (n=6) in-depth interviews with professionals working within thirdparty organizations, such as startups, studios or agencies in the five continents (Africa, Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania). The results show that the number of news outlets requesting their services have been reducing, with many organizations bringing these skills inside the newsrooms. The political context and media crisis also affect outsourcing by publishers. However, these organizations still believe they will be useful in the future with new technological capacities being requested, such as automation.
Ramón Salaverría
added a research item
¿Cuántos medios periodísticos digitales hay en las comunidades pirenaicas y cómo se distribuyen? ¿Cuál es su perfil informativo, lingüístico y empresarial? ¿Cuáles son sus principales retos y oportunidades? A partir de un mapa que sitúa más de 3.000 medios digitales de España, elaborado recientemente por el equipo de investigación del ponente, esta sesión analiza las particularidades de los medios digitales situados en el País Vasco, Navarra, Aragón y Cataluña.
Ramón Salaverría
added a research item
Keynote at INTERCOM 2019 - 42º Congresso Brasileiro de Ciências da Comunicação. Belém (PA), Brasil — 2-7 Sept. 2019.
Ramón Salaverría
added 2 research items
Trusting the audience to contribute data, a practice called crowdsourcing, is one of several procedures of contemporary data journalism. While previous research has embraced the idea of crowdsourcing as a transparent way of engaging the audience, the journalistic practice of crowdsourcing is currently still limited. The Spanish case is particularly illuminating of the gap between theoretical expectations and reality. Although online news media in Spain stands out because of its commitment to exploring interactive possibilities, and its audience is especially prone to comment on news, this qualitative study presents evidence that Spanish data journalists remain quite reluctant to embrace crowdsourcing as a research method. Based on semi-structured interviews with five Spanish data journalists, this paper explains the motivations behind this reluctance as well as the challenges of activating the audience.
Ramón Salaverría
added 2 research items
La investigación en torno a la narrativa periodística multimedia cuenta con algunos estudios empíricos, pero adolece todavía de una débil fundamentación teórica. El presente artículo propone una fundamentación transdisciplinar de la narrativa periodística multimedia, a partir de la Semiótica y de la Narratología. Mediante un método hipotético-deductivo se explican, en primer lugar, las bases del relato multimedia desde un modelo semiótico, basado en las categorías de ideación-composición-recepción. En segundo lugar, empleando la teoría narratológica, se describe el proceso narrativo multimedia desde la fase pre-compositiva, en la que los periodistas ensamblan los relatos, hasta la fase final de navegación por parte de los usuarios participativos. La combinación de ambos fundamentos teóricos permite dar cuenta de la naturaleza del relato periodístico multimedia, sobre la base de tres elementos: 1) coherencia sintáctica en el multilenguaje, 2) autoría abierta y colectiva, y 3) recepción participativa por parte de la audiencia.
Research about multimedia news storytelling contains several empirical studies, but these lack a theoretical foundation. This article proposes a transdisciplinary foundation of multimedia news storytelling, based on semiotics and narratology. First, the bases of multimedia news storytelling are explained using a hypothetical-deductive methodology and the semiotic categories of ideation-composition-reception. Second, based on narratology, the multimedia storytelling process is described, starting from the pre-compositive stage, in which journalists assemble the stories, to the final stage of navigation by the participatory users. The combination of both theoretical foundations allows us to explain the nature of multimedia news storytelling, based on three elements: 1) syntactic coherence between the multiple languages used, 2) open and collective authorship, and 3) participatory reception by the audience.
Ramón Salaverría
added 11 research items
Innovation in communication technologies has generated changes not only in the way journalists work but also in how the audiences of a journalistic company are known and perceived. Today, many media use web analytics to examine the profile of their audiences and thus generate content that matches up their preferences and interests. Based on in-depth interviews with journalists from four digital native media of Latin America, this article analyses the extent to which web metrics are used when defining and recognizing users’ profiles. Likewise, it is investigated how the metrics, if used, influence the decision making and the construction of the digital native media agenda.
Esta investigación tiene como objetivo caracterizar cómo interactúan los jóvenes adultos con las noticias, en qué medida su consumo se ve condicionado por la presencia de publicidad y si se preocupan por la cesión de datos personales. Para ello, se toma como punto de partida el «Digital News Report Spain 2018», informe elaborado a partir de un cuestionario sobre consumo de medios digitales a un panel nacional de 2.023 internautas; de ellos, 293 son jóvenes de 25-34 años, que pertenecen a la generación «millennials». Estos datos se completaron con un estudio cualitativo, realizando dos grupos de discusión con personas de esa franja de edad residentes en la Comunidad Foral de Navarra. Entre las conclusiones de la investigación se señala que los jóvenes adultos se interesan por las noticias, a las que acceden de manera prioritaria por dispositivos móviles. Este interés es mayor cuando el contenido les afecta directamente o si empatizan con la temática de la noticia. Por otra parte, el entorno familiar y las rutinas sociales condicionan su manera de informarse. Siguen accediendo a medios tradicionales, aunque los consideran ideologizados. La publicidad la perciben como molesta, si bien no hay conocimiento ni un uso generalizado de bloqueadores. Finalmente, valoran negativa-mente los servicios de personalización actuales, aunque ceden algunos datos personales a los medios si le facilita el acceso a la información.
In recent years, journalism in Latin America has been undergoing profound transformations. Confronting the stagnation or even decline of a large part of the big media industry, hundreds of digital native publications are surging up to challenge the traditional journalism landscape of this region. From the Caribbean to Patagonia, all 20 Latin American countries are witnessing the emergence of innovative online media projects that, in some cases, have already reached a high degree of consolidation. This chapter analyzes the origins, models and challenges of this emerging Latin American journalism. Firstly, it shows the historical evolution of these digital native media outlets. Then, their current characteristics are analyzed, focusing on their innovative ways to explore sustainable business models. Finally, the challenges for the future consolidation of these emerging digital media are examined.
Ramón Salaverría
added a project goal
Funded by the Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities of Spain, this coordinated project (ref. RTI2018-093346-B-C31) explores, both quantitatively and qualitatively, the digital native media in Spain. Accounting more than a thousand titles in 2018, they are a type of news media in clear expansion, amounting already more than a third of the total digital media in our country. Despite this growth, digital native media remains largely unexplored by scholar research. The present project fills this gap: it plans to identify and characterise the existing models of digital native news media, in order to provide strategic references both for the consolidation of this sector of the journalism industry, and for its knowledge by the international scholar community.
In brief, the general objective of the project is to study the market structure, business strategies, technological models, narrative formats, and innovation strategies in digital native media in Spain, to evaluate their regenerative potential in Spanish news media market. This project aims to carry out a detailed typological analysis of digital native media throughout Spain, with the purpose of characterising the diversity of their technological, economic and editorial models, and identifying the most successful variants. The project wants to explore in depth their structure and strategies, in order to identify and disseminate good practices that serve as a reference to the Spanish media industry.