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Purpose This study aims to explore the influence of different types of cleanliness information provided on the Airbnb platform (hosts’ sanitation labels, Airbnb cleaning protocol and previous guests’ reviews) on guests’ trust and behavioral intentions. Design/methodology/approach This study uses an online scenario-based experimental design. A two-step approach was applied to discover the proposed relationships by assessing the measurement model fit and validity of the constructs with confirmatory factor analysis and testing study hypotheses with structural equation modeling. Findings The results demonstrate that three types of cleanliness information (i.e. provided by Airbnb’s hosts, platform and customer reviews) had statistically significant effects on customers’ trust and behavioral intentions. Practical implications The research results provide practical recommendations for Airbnb hosts and peer-to-peer accommodation platforms on using several types of textual and visual cleanliness information to influence guests’ attitudes and behavioral intentions. Originality/value This study advances knowledge by introducing new factors affecting guests’ trust and behavioral intentions in peer-to-peer accommodation settings and differentiating the effects of different sources of cleanliness information and different types of guests’ trust.
Artworks, from paintings and photographs to sculptures and architectural features, have received prominent placement in hospitality spaces. Art in the servicescape or in advertising for sites can induce positive or negative effects depending on everything from style to color. This paper aims to discuss the impact of art on guests’ attitudes and behavioral intentions and advocate for further research on aesthetic impacts in hospitality. A mixed-methods approach was used to initially understand the impact of art on guests’ attitudes and behavioral intentions in the peer-to-peer accommodation setting. The results showed a major visual difference between guests’ attention to the colored paintings and black and white paintings, as well as indicated that colored pictures caused higher levels of attractiveness perception. The online structured interviews generated major themes related to attractiveness of the visual art in Airbnb settings and demonstrated that art influenced guests’ emotions and booking intentions. These themes provide emerging propositions for future research on the effects of different types of art in hospitality contexts.
Tourist transformation has recently received ample attention. Although personality traits are considered to be overall stable across time, there is evidence that personality might change under the influence of different environmental and contextual factors such as those offered in transformative travel experiences. This study developed and validated a scale to measure travelers’ personality changes after transformative travel experiences. The steps of the study include personality change scale item generation, scale purification, and construct validation with principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The study results indicated the validity of a six-dimensional tourist transformation scale that may be effective in capturing travelers’ personality change through travel experiences. Keywords: transformation, transformative experience, tourism, personality traits, self-change
Virtual reality has become a more common phenomenon in both destination marketing and on-site experience. The recent challenges such as overtourism and the COVID-19 pandemic have created a pressing need to examine virtual tourism as an alternative to traditional travel. This conceptual article aims at clarifying virtual experience in tourism, discussing the main antecedents and outcomes of virtual experience, and proposing a conceptual model of virtual tourism experience. The review of the literature revealed that virtual experience in tourism is influenced by factors related to information, quality, technology acceptance, and affective involvement and has significant effects on tourists’ attitudes and behavioral intentions. This paper contributes to knowledge and practice by classifying the main groups of factors influencing virtual tourism experience, introducing the conceptual model, discussing opportunities for future research, and providing recommendations for tourism practitioners.
Researchers often tend to use the words emotions, feelings, moods, and affect interchangeably, which creates confusion in both conceptual and methodological domains of tourism and hospitality research. However, the insights from neuroscience and psychology demonstrated that there are fundamental differences between these concepts, including their causes, duration, intensity, and outcomes. This research note aims to discuss conceptual and methodological aspects related to using emotions, moods, feelings, and affect, provide comprehensive definitions, and outline opportunities to capture them comprehensively in tourism and hospitality research.
Transformative experience has been the buzzword in recent years. Tourism and hospitality experiences in natural, historical, cultural, and authentic spaces are some of them. However, to this date, specific dimensions of transformation or its process have not been empirically identified. This study reviewed the literature on transformation, used open-ended questions to collect free-elicited responses on the meanings of transformation, collected expert opinion, and developed a 101-item scale reflecting different dimensions and the steps of the transformation process. The scale was validated with a sequential scale validation procedure; Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) were used to test the psychometric properties of the scale and model the constructs of the transformation process. A measurable definition of the transformation process is provided along with the tested model. A comprehensive model with antecedents, outcomes, and moderators of transformation is also suggested to further transformation research.
The conceptual model of health risk perceptions in tourism advances a systematic and theoretically integrated overview of the main factors affecting tourists’ risk perceptions and behavioral intentions and suggests that future research ought to understand these factors and their effects on travel behavior in different settings.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to clarify the concept of perceived risks, identify the main antecedents and outcomes of health risk perceptions, and propose a conceptual model of health risk perceptions in tourism. Design/methodology/approach: This paper provides a review of the literature on customer risk perceptions, along with their antecedents and outcomes, and proposes a conceptual model of health risk perceptions in tourism. Findings: Key findings reveal that the main factors of health risk perceptions can be broadly classified into cognitive, affective, individual, and contextual components. The proposed conceptual model of health risk perceptions provides a theoretically integrated overview of relationships between all groups of factors, tourists’ risk perceptions, and travel intentions. Originality/value: The paper contributes to theory by offering a new approach to health risk perceptions in tourism, which remain underexplored in previous studies. The literature review adds to the body of knowledge by introducing four main groups of factors affecting tourists’ health risk perceptions, while the conceptual model proposes relationships between these factors, tourists’ risk perceptions, and travel intentions.
La influencia de diferentes factores, incluidos los estados emocionales, sobre la lealtad se ha discutido previamente en la literatura. Sin embargo, la influencia de las emociones posteriores a la visita, evocadas por los estímulos emocionales, sobre la lealtad turística carece de atención empírica. El propósito del estudio es investigar los efectos de los estímulos emocionales posteriores a la visita en la lealtad al destino.
Purpose The influence of different factors including emotional states on loyalty has been previously discussed in the literature. However, the influence of post-visit emotions evoked by emotional stimuli on tourist loyalty lacks empirical attention. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of post-visit emotional stimuli on destination loyalty. Design/methodology/approach The study applied an online scenario-based experimental design to identify the impact of positive and negative affective pictorial stimuli on destination loyalty. A sample of 500 adult US residents who visited Orlando within the past 12 months was recruited to take part in the experiment. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the loyalty of three groups, two of which were manipulated with emotional stimuli, positive pictures and negative pictures and one control group with no pictures. Findings Results show that it is possible to influence visitor loyalty after visitation. Post-visit exposure to positive emotional stimuli generates higher levels of destination loyalty, while negative emotional stimuli generate lower levels of destination loyalty, in comparison with no stimuli scenario. Originality/value The study adds to the literature by providing support for the influence of post-visit emotional stimuli on destination loyalty, which lacked empirical attention, thus, far. As visitor experience lasts much longer than the visit itself, the study results are significant for increasing destination loyalty after the trip.
Satisfaction is one of the most studied constructs in many fields, including tourism. As an important marketing metric, satisfaction is typically measured with self-reported retrospective evaluations of travel experience. However, the memory-based approaches have numerous limitations related to social desirability, availability heuristics, previous knowledge, mood at the time of answering questions and do not reflect the moment-by-moment nature of visitor experience. The shortcomings and limitations of self-reported retrospective evaluations could be eliminated by introducing pre-visit, on-site, and post-visit instant components of experienced utility as measures of visitor experience. The experienced utility allows eliminating the majority of self-report biases, capturing the affective components of visitor experience, analysing relationships between anticipation, experienced, and remembered utilities, and applying emerging moment-based research techniques. Therefore, this manuscript proposes a measurable definition of experienced utility and appropriate measures to assess visitor experience.
The experienced utility allows eliminating the majority of self-report biases, capturing the affective components of visitor experience, analyzing relationships between anticipation, experienced, and remembered utilities, and applying emerging moment-based research techniques.
The relationship network of customer experience, including pre-visit, onsite, and post-visit components, antecedents, and outcomes.
Advantages and limitations of customer experience measures.
Purpose Tourism activities inherently include the liminoid state of mind that impels people to go out of ordinary behavior, some of which is inversionary. The purpose of this paper is to explore travelers’ cruise behavior as related to their needs while entering and experiencing a cruise trip. Design/methodology/approach A total of 395 vacationers were sampled and surveyed about their selected top three factors for cruising, motivations for cruising and needs while cruising. The sample was grouped into inversioners and rejuvenators to see if there was any evidence of liminoid behavior in cruising needs and what they may be. Findings The results show that the important reasons to choose cruises for vacation are aligned with past literature showing that people choose cruises for vacation mostly for the good value of the food and beverage bundled with good climate, entertainment appropriate for quality time with family and for rest and relaxation. In addition, the results on motivations to go on a cruise show that lower-level needs on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs have more importance than the higher-level needs. Research limitations/implications The current study was conducted on an online platform. Future research with panels of cruise travelers across all the stages of liminoid behavior, before, during and after a cruise trip, may provide valuable findings in terms of changes in needs and motivations. Practical implications The inversionary tendency of cruise travelers implies for the cruise industry the need to create an alternative (or inversionary) routine restoring the basic needs, while still providing enough opportunities for self-actualization that may foster balanced travel experiences for human growth and development. Providing a more balanced product and service offering may be strategic for the cruise companies because the activities geared for higher-level needs may provide memorable experiences and hence induce consumer loyalty after the trip is completed. Social implications The focus on eating and drinking during cruises may be providing cruise travelers with instant gratification during the span of the cruise. However, the consequences for the individual travelers, the industry, destinations and the environment may not be as gratifying. For a more responsible tourism, cruise travel may need an image makeover highlighting different packages within a cruise to better align with the desired needs of different segments of cruisers. Originality/value The study contributes to the understanding of the second or “transition” stage in liminal theory in tourism and is one of the first to examine the liminoid state of mind using a basic-needs approach for studying cruise traveler needs. Further, it contributes by exploring liminoid behavior of a group of people in the context of the same type of travel, cruise, rather than investigating liminoid behavior across different types of travel, thus allowing segmentation possibilities for the cruise industry.
Purpose The purpose of the current study is to profile Orlando and Florida culinary fans and compare them to culinary critics on several factors, including sociodemographics, psychographics, and travel behavior characteristics, and to identify potential factors that explain visitors' tendency to promote or criticize the cuisine of a destination. The study also seeks to identify the image attributes that explain the likelihood to visit for culinary fans and critics. Design/methodology/approach Online survey responses from 4,082 participants were analyzed using Qualtrics for survey design and Amazon's Mechanical Turk for data collection. Findings Demographic differences between culinary fans and critics were identified and significant relationships between perceptions of a destination's cuisine and various elements of the visitor experience were found. Research limitations/implications The current study extends the literature on the characteristics of culinary tourists by showing a significant relationship between perceptions of a destination's cuisine and various elements of the visitor experience, such as destination image, satisfaction, number of past trips, and revisit intentions. Future studies should look at a greater number of distinct and geographically diverse destinations to test the generalizability of the current study's findings. Practical implications The results of this study provide implication for destination marketers in general and for those of Orlando and Florida in particular, especially in using cuisine as a potential core offering rather than a peripheral tourism product. Originality/value This study is believed to be the first to compare culinary fans and culinary critics, thereby extending the literature and demonstrating several differences between the two groups.
A considerable amount of literature describes concepts that predict theme park visitor behavior. Although previous studies made an effort to measure the impact of several variables on theme park visitors’ loyalty, there is a lack of empirical attention on the impact of some consumption variables such as previous experience, perceived queuing quality, waiting time, using of virtual queuing, and the role of anticipating and remembering the visit. The current study introduces several new experience concepts that were not previously discussed in the literature: the amount of pleasure from anticipation, visiting, and remembering the experience, and time allocation for waiting in lines, amusement activities, and food consumption. Factors that explain these variables, as well as factors that explain perceived value, queuing quality, satisfaction, and loyalty were investigated through survey data from a cross-sectional study. The results demonstrate that the previous theme park experience has a significant influence on customer loyalty and explains the amount of pleasure visitors receive from anticipation, remembering, and the actual visiting experience. Another important finding is related to the role of virtual queuing, which has relationships with perceived value, perceived waiting time, perceived queuing quality, satisfaction, loyalty, as well as the amount of pleasure from anticipation, visiting, and remembering the theme park visit. Theoretical and managerial implications and future research directions are discussed.
In psychology, the peak-end rule has been used to describe the effects of emotional factors on live experiences. However, it has yet to be examined in the contexts of events and conferences. This study investigated the influence of conference presentation order, excitement following peak experience, previous conference experience, and time since one’s last visit on conference satisfaction and loyalty. Although no significant differences in satisfaction and loyalty were found with regard to the order of presentations, previous experience and time since last visit were found to have significant effects on attendees’ outcomes. End-of-conference peak experiences exhibited the strongest influence on loyalty.
The concept of customer experience has received increasing attention in different disciplines. However, the pathway for handling experience has not been clearly set forth due to divergent conceptualizations and insufficient measures of customer experience. This study critically analyzes empirical and conceptual literature on experience, provides a holistic definition of experience, proposes an experience model with four main components (emotional, cognitive, sensorial, and conative), and suggests using a combination of several measures to capture the totality of tourism experience at pre-visit, onsite, and post-visit stages. These suggestions provide important implications for researchers and practitioners by offering new ways to explore customer interaction with tourist products, detect affective and sensory components leading to important consumption outcomes, investigate individual impacts of anticipation, onsite experience, and recall, as well as analyze effectiveness of destination marketing practices.