Cultural tourism has been seen as one of the major growth areas in European tourism over the past decade, and is increasingly being seen as a major area of product development by tourism destinations in search of diversification. The desire for 'quality tourism', the need to find resources to support culture and the ready availability of cultural resources makes cultural tourism an attractive option for both urban and rural areas. In spite of this, there is still little understanding of what cultural tourism is, and relatively little information about the cultural tourism market.
The growth of 'mass cultural tourism' has been stimulated by the growing numbers of tourists consuming cultural attractions, particularly in historic cities. Whereas in the past destinations had the challenge of trying to sell themselves to visitors and generate interest among a broad public, just before Covid-19 the challenge became trying to manage a growing flood of tourists in search of culture. Cities also had to change their thinking about marketing (cultural) tourism, as residents in many places began to complain about 'overtourism', or even became 'tourismphobic'. This presentation considers the implications of the growing overlap between tourism and culture in recent decades, and asks whether we need to develop a new understanding of what cultural tourism is, and analyses the growing range of cultural practices it embraces.
Since 1991 the European Association for Tourism and Leisure Education (ATLAS) has been looking at the profile, the motivations and the needs of cultural visitors and tourists at different cultural attractions across Europe. This paper provides an overview of the major developments in the European cultural tourism market revealed by this research. There are currently a lot of assertions that cultural tourism is a growth market. Cultural tourism is certainly important. But one of the questions we should ask is whether the assumption that cultural tourism is growing is actually true. The problem is that people often look at the growth in supply of cultural products and confuse it with an increase in demand for cultural tourism. This is one of the central problems that we need to look at here. This paper addresses the basic questions of whether cultural tourism is a growing market, what are the driving forces behind the cultural tourism market. Who are the people that visit cultural attractions? What do they do? Where are they coming from? What are their motivations? By examining the trends over the past few years, we can also speculate about possible future developments in the cultural tourism field. If we look at the ATLAS research and try to examine whether cultural tourism demand is actually growing, I think this is a question which is still not resolved. Cultural tourism is certainly shifted from being an elite market into being a mass market. So over the very long term cultural tourism demand has grown, but if we look back ten or twenty years, then it is difficult to say that cultural tourism is growing any faster than other sectors of the tourism market. Our research indicates that cultural tourism accounts for just about the same proportion of international tourism now as it did 10 or 20 years ago.
This paper analyses the evolution of cultural tourism from the Grand Tour to the present, paying particular attention to the emergence of "Cultural Tourism 4.0" as a hybridised, creolised form of cultural consumption.
As Richards (2021) has noted, one of the most significant changes in the field of cultural tourism has been the shift from tangible to intangible cultural heritage (ICH) as targets for tourism experiences. The continuing imbalances in the UNESCO designations for World Heritage means that many areas of the world remain without significant cultural heritage sites. This has stimulated many countries, regions and cities to go in search of intangible heritage resources that can be valorised for tourism. UNESCO designations for World Intangible Heritage have increased significantly in recent years, as has the number of UNESCO Creative Cities framing different areas of intangible culture and creativity. This top-down process of stimulating intangible heritage tourism development is strengthened by bottom-up processes involving the creation of 'heritage from below' (Robertson, 2016). This combination of trends has vastly increased the articulation of tourism and intangible heritage, as du Cros (2012) predicted some time ago. Not only has debate raged about how to conserve the growing heritage of the past, but also discussions are emerging on the development of 'future heritage', or the conscious framing of cultural resources, also to include a more diverse range of cultural heritages in the tourist repertoire. Moreover, the pandemic generated by Covid-19 has created new dynamics about the intangible cultural heritage experiences for both the offer and the demand. In this regard, the transformation of the experiences into virtual experiences that rely on new channels and formats are also part of the current discussion due to the new drives of ICH that are shaping new tourism dynamics. This session organised by the ATLAS Cultural Tourism Group in association with the CULTSENSE Project will focus on the links between tourism and cultural heritage, and the challenges and opportunities that the intangibilisation of cultural tourism experiences imply.
Cultural Tourism is a key sector of the global tourism market, accounting for just under 40% of all international travel (UNWTO, 2018). Cities have played a central role in the recent development of the cultural tourism market, particularly as the focus of cultural consumption has shifted from high culture (Culture 1.0) to popular or everyday culture, and from tangible museums and monuments to intangible events and experiences, and from cultural tourism to creative tourism (Culture 4.0). The desire of tourists to experience the everyday life of the local has also driven a shift from distribution systems based on tour operations to collaborative economy platforms for accommodation and the curation of urban experiences. This has stimulated changes in urban space, with growing areas of cities being given over to mass cultural tourism practices. This has arguably led to touristification and gentrification effects, monocultural landscapes and growing penetration of cultural tourists into the interstitial spaces of everyday and private life. In some cities the perception of cultural tourism as a 'good' form of tourism is beginning to be eroded by these changes.
Cultural festivals can attract cultural tourists, extend the tourist season and add vibrancy to the cultural scene. However, there is relatively little research on how festivals affect tourist experience of the destination or outcomes such as satisfaction or repeat visitation. This study used the Event Experience Scale to measure tourist experiences at three cultural festivals in Hong Kong-the Lantern Festival, Dragon Boat Festival and the Cheung Chau Bun Festival. The findings show that tourist experiences of these festivals are distinct, and they positively affect destination image and behavioural outcomes. Relative to permanent attractions and tours, festival experiences elicit stronger affective, conative and novelty responses. Festivals also convey a stronger impression of Hong Kong as a destination exhibiting Chinese and traditional culture, but less as a global city. The festival experience is associated with positive outcomes, namely greater satisfaction, intention to recommend and intention to return.
In a year marked by Covid-19, the ATLAS Cultural Tourism Research Group (ACTRG) faced challenges in collecting data for the long-running survey of cultural attractions and events. As tourism and culture were two of the sectors most severely impacted by the Pandemic, cultural tourism all but disappeared in 2020. The group therefore adapted their data collection methods for 2020 and 2021. Initial results are reported on here.
The main objective of the study is to create a conceptual framework with a structural approach that can be broadly used in practical marketing, especially communication, and product development. In addition to this, the study consists of an inventory and analysis of available quantitative data on city tourism and culture and a qualitative survey of the supply side. . In chapter 1 the definition of cultural city tourism and the conceptual framework used in this study are presented. The focus of chapter 2 is on the quantitative data based on four data sources on cultural city tourism, namely TourMIS, IPK International, ATLAS and EUROBAROMETER. In chapter 3, 4, 5 and 6 the results of the qualitative market research are presented. A description of the research method, the response and the questionnaire are presented in appendix 4 and appendix 5 and the detailed outcome of the questionnaire is presented in appendix 6.
Since the early 1980s cultural tourism has undergone a tremendous growth. Parallel to this evolution the relationship between tourism and culture has created an increasing interest from academic researchers. From the beginning an important area of research has been the development of theoretical models helping to understand the phenomena, processes and structures related to cultural tourism. The present volume provides a toolbox of proven models for the analysis of the main aspects of contemporary cultural tourism, including supply and demand, product development, the impact of tourism on culture, sustainability policies, and the life cycle evolution of the market. After having been placed in the cultural tourism context each model is followed by an explanation and an application in the form of a case study. Suggestions for practical use and for further study complete the chapters. This handbook is very useful for lecturers, researchers and students in tourism and in cultural studies, as well as for professionals working in the tourism industry, the cultural sector and government service.
The different contributions to this volume not only reflect a wide range of different disciplinary viewpoints and geographic locations, but also contrasting views on the potential for cultural tourism to contribute to local development in the face of globalization. In the view of some, local authenticity is rapidly being replaced by global pastiche, and local communities seem powerless to stop this process. In the view of others, local communities still have the power to create new and authentic forms of culture, which can satisfy the visitor as well as strengthening local identity. This division seems to mirror wider debates about the rise of 'cultural pessimism' which Bennett (2001) argues is linked to environmental, moral, intellectual and political narratives of decline in the 'postmodern' world at the end of the 20 th century. Whether one adopts a pessimistic or optimistic view of cultural tourism depends to a large extent on one's standpoint. There has tended to be a clear division, for example, between those involved in the cultural sector, who have largely been suspicious of the 'disneyfication' effects of tourism, and those linked to the tourism industry, who see the economic injections provided by tourists as saving, rather than degrading culture. However, there is growing evidence of a more sophisticated approach in both the cultural and tourism sectors, which recognizes the need to prioritize cultural goals while accepting the necessity to keep cultures alive through development as well as preservation. In his analysis of the relationship between culture and tourism, Eduard Delgado (2001:105) observed that " the new cultural tourism has to base itself, above all, on the offering experiences with three basic elements: diversity, interactivity and context ". The question of diversity in particular has clearly been at the forefront
This bibliography is a work in progress rather than a comprehensive listing of cultural tourism research sources. All suggestions for additional references gratefully received. In line with the multilingual nature of ATLAS, we are happy to receive suggested references in languages other than English, preferably with an English language translation of the title. The latest revision includes references from the volume Rethinking Cultural Tourism (Edward Elgar, 2021).
Rethinking Cultural Tourism by Greg Richards has just been published by Edward Elgar as the first title in their Rethinking Tourism series. It provides a radical re-haul of cultural tourism theory and practice, charting the development of the field from early high culture approaches to the recent emergence of everyday culture and mass cultural tourism. Based on 30 years of theoretical and empirical research, a practice-based model of cultural tourism is developed that provides a radical new view of the field and an innovative research agenda. ‘In this work, Greg Richards, the leading exponent of cultural tourism studies, brings together and integrates his many years of research and practical experience in the field. In contrast to the prevailing perception of mass tourists as passive consumers of proffered attractions, Richards stresses the active co-creation of cultural products, sites and events between cultural entrepreneurs and active visitors. – Erik Cohen, Emeritus Professor, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
On the 30 th anniversary of the ATLAS Cultural Tourism Project we will be re-visiting some of the central themes of the ATLAS research over the years. When the project was launched, cultural tourism was a relatively new segment of global tourism, but it rapidly developed from a niche market into a mass tourism product, driven by low cost flights and collaborative economy accommodation. In 2021 we will be looking at how the cultural tourism market has changed, and reviewing some key trends from recent editions of the ATLAS Cultural Tourism Research Project, for which surveys were undertaken in Prague and other locations in 2020 and 2021. Those involved in past and present editions of the ATLAS research project are welcome to present their thoughts on the development of cultural tourism, and other presenters are also invited to give their views. The themes covered in this track will include: Cultural tourism development trends Cultural tourism and regional development Collaboration and networks in cultural tourism New forms of cultural tourism New cultural tourism spaces Cultural tourism and the community Evolving cultures of tourism
This paper examines the costs and benefits of tourism for heritage cities. Richards, G. (2017) Heritage tourism: benefit or liability for cities? Are cities with a long history now suffering a quick death at the hands of tourism? Cartaditalia: Rivista di cultura italiana contemporanea, 2018, 395-415.
Heritage and tourism: A shared concern for locals and visitors? Pre-publication version of Richards, G. (2020) Heritage and tourism: A shared concern for locals and visitors? In Luger, K. and Ripp, M. (eds) World Heritage Management, urban planning and sustainable tourism. Vienna: Studienverlag. https://www.studienverlag.at/ ISBN 978-3-7065-6091-7. The importance of heritage in a touristified world With tourism to cities in Europe increasing by 20% a year (ITB 2019), cultural heritage is fast becoming a focal point for city residents and 'temporary citzens': visitors, tourists and workers. However, the increased volume of city use also produces qualitative change in relationships to heritage. Visitation in the form of cultural tourism has long been seen as a 'good' form of tourism, because visitors supply income to conserve the heritage they visit, and heritage provides the 'content' that attracts visitors. But the addition of visitors to already crowded city centres often produces more negative outcomes. This chapter draws from a number of recent publications on culture, tourism and cities to chart some of the changes taking place in the relationship between heritage and tourism and resident and visitor communities. Cultural heritage is an issue that affects large numbers of people. The recent fire at Notre Dame in Paris illustrated how a heritage site can be a concern not just for local residents, but for all those who have become involved with the site through visitation. The recent Eurobarometer research on Cultural Heritage reveals that 73% of the EU population lives near heritage monuments, works of art, heritage sites, traditional events or festivals that are related to Europe's culture and history (European Commission 2017). More than half the EU population consider themselves to be 'involved' with heritage in some way. The most frequent form of engagement wth cultural heritage for European citizens is visiting monuments, museums, festivals, concerts and other heritage sites and events (31%). Visits to heritage are particularly popular in the Netherlands (59%), Sweden (56%) and Denmark (49%). This form of engagement is also increasing, with Europeans making more visits to museums and galleries (+13% between 2013 and 2017) or a historical monument or site (+ 9%).
The once clear dichotomy between tourists and locals is becoming more vague as a wider range of travel and tourism practices emerge. This paper examines the role of people as 'tourists' in their own city as part of a social reproduction of tourism as a lifestyle or as a consumption strategy. Borrowing from the 'tourist in their own city' concept developed in 1997 by Van Driel and Blokker, it considers the extent to which the viewpoints of residents and other 'tourists' vary and coincide. Arguably our experience as tourists arguably gives us new viewpoints on our own city, and also to new views of the tourist as 'temporary citizens', or of locals 'tourist suppliers in their own city'. Using data collected from both 'tourists' and 'locals' in Barcelona, this analysis considers how the growing integration of everyday life and tourism is producing growing numbers of 'tourists in their own city'.
The hypothesis of cultural omnivorousness has been widely discussed and studied during the last 10-15 years within sociology of art. According to the hypothesis people who are active in some sphere of culture are not only interested in their “own” sphere of culture but are probably also interested in other areas of culture. The purpose of this study was to investigate, whether the omnivore hypothesis is tenable also in the case of cultural tourism, and especially to study possible differences among foreign tourists from different continents and regimes. The data came from surveys organized by ATLAS (Association for Tourism and Leisure Education). Thirteen alternative attractions or events were presented. Factor analysis was used as the tool to study omnivorousness. The results indicated relatively strong omnivorousness in attending cultural events and visiting attractions. Most omnivorous people were 50 years or over and highly educated. There were also some continent and regime differences. The tourists from poor and/or remote places were a little more omnivorous than tourists from other areas. It was also found that omnivorous tourists were omnivorous, because they attended not only visited more frequently popular attractions than other tourists but especially rare attractions.
O turismo cultural tem sido, nos últimos tempos, considerado a área de maior crescimento no turismo global e, cada vez mais, tem sido tomado como a maior área de desenvolvimento de produto pelos destinos turísticos em busca de diversificação. O desejo pelo "turismo de qualidade", a necessidade de encontrar recursos para apoiar a cultura e a pronta disponibilidade de recursos culturais torna o turismo cultural uma opção atrativa, tanto para áreas urbanas quanto para rurais. A despeito disso, há ainda pouca compreensão sobre o que seja o turismo cultural, bem como pouca informação sobre o mercado desse tipo de turismo. Esse capítulo procura apresentar um panorama do turismo cultural, a natureza do fenômeno, o perfil de seus participantes e as implicações do desenvolvimento do turismo cultural relativamente a destinos, particularmente, no futuro. A maior parte da informação contida nesse capítulo é baseada em pesquisa empreendida desde 1991 no âmbito do Projeto de Pesquisa de Turismo Cultural da Association for Tourism and Leisure Education (ATLAS). O programa de pesquisa começou como uma iniciativa européia, mas tem, desde então, expandido seu escopo, para cobrir o mercado de turismo no mundo. Podem ser encontradas mais informações sobre essa pesquisa em publicações anteriores (Richard 1996, 2001). DEFININDO TURISMO CULTURAL Uma vez que todas as atividades de turismo envolvem algum elemento de cultura, seja a visita a um localidade ou a um evento cultural, ou simplesmente o desfrutar da "atmosfera" de um destino em um café de rua, há uma tentação em considerar todo turismo como "turismo cultural". Conforme a Organização Mundial do turismo (OMT) comentou recentemente, "a definição de cultura é quase tão vasta quanto a do próprio turismo. Junto com o patrimônio arquitetônico e das artes, alguns países incluem em sua definição, por exemplo, a gastronomia, o esporte, a educação, as peregrinações, o artesanato, a contação de estórias, e a vida na cidade" (2004). Talvez reconhecendo que uma concepção de turismo cultural tão vasta torne extremamente difícil decidir sobre o que seja realmente o turismo cultural, a OMT propôs uma definição mais "estreita", a qual abarcava "movimentos de pessoas em busca de motivações essencialmente culturais, tais como excursões de estudo, teatralizações e excursões culturais, viagens para festivais e outros eventos culturais, visitas a localidades e monumentos, viagens para estudar a natureza, folclore ou arte e peregrinações. O aspecto central nessa definição é que o turismo cultural envolve "essencialmente motivações culturais". Nem todo consumo cultural feito por turistas é estimulado por motivações culturais-muitas viagens a eventos ou atrações culturais têm a cultura como um objetivo secundário. Se chover, o turista de praia troca a praia pelo museu. Turistas em dia livre pela cidade podem se deparar com um festival local, durante uma caminhada exploratória. Esses turistas culturais "por acidente" podem ser bem diferentes em termos da motivação e comportamento, em relação àqueles "aficionados por cultura", que saem de casa com a intenção de consumir manifestações culturais específicas. Uma complicação a mais é que nossas concepções de cultura estão mudando. No passado, turistas culturais podiam viajar basicamente para apreciar a "alta" cultura de um dado destino, particularmente museus, monumentos e festivais de arte. Nessa época, todavia, o produto turístico estava, cada vez mais, sendo acrescido de elementos de cultura "popular", como a gastronomia, o cinema, os esportes e a televisão. McKercher et al. (2002), por exemplo, apontam para a emergência de novas atrações culturais populares como o principal desenvolvimento no mercado de turismo cultural.
The ATLAS Cultural Tourism Group has been operating since 1991, and the main activity of the group has been the development of the ATLAS Cultural Tourism Research Project. This project largely centres on surveys of visitors to cultural sites and events, and over the almost 30-year life span of the project we have collected more than 50,000 visitor surveys from sites on five continents. In 2020 the main activities of the group have focussed on the development of a new wave of cultural tourism surveys. A revised version of the basic version of the cultural tourism questionnaire was developed, which kept many of the features of the previous version but added a few new elements. These included revised questions on information sources, experience outcomes and perceived authenticity. As in previous rounds of the research, the questionnaire has been designed in a modular format, which makes it easier for participants to add their own questions at different points in the questionnaire. In contrast to previous research rounds the questionnaire will also be available in paper and digital format. A version of the survey is available on Qualtrics, so that visitors can be offered a digital version of the survey on a mobile device for face-to-face interviews or offered a survey link to complete post visit. This also provides a potential solution to the problem of interviewing visitors during the Covid-19 pandemic, because visitors can also be sent a link via email, removing the need for personal interviews. This enables research to be conducted using the mailing lists of cultural sites and events, so that even when sites are not open to the public the views of those who have visited in the past can be gathered. As in previous years the surveys are available in different language versions. We currently have English, French and Portuguese versions in both paper and digital format. We also have different versions of these questionnaires available for interviews on site or using a mailing list. As in the past, all participating institutions will be able to use their own data for research and publication purposes. Participants can also make use of data from other sites to enable comparative research. The conditions for the use of the data are set out in a data agreement that is signed by all participants. At the time of writing we have participating institutions from Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Ghana, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Portugal, Serbia and the UK. The largest number of participating institutions come from Portugal, where national research director Carlos Fernandes from Viana do Castelo is planning to attain national coverage with the surveys. This year will provide a particularly challenging environment for data collection, but it should also give some very illuminating results in relation to the effects of the pandemic on cultural tourism.
This paper develops a measurement scale for cultural experiences across different contexts, including attractions, events and tours, in Hong Kong. Four dimensions of experience (cognitive, conative, affective and novelty) are identified through structural equation modelling. The scale is applied to compare visitor- and context-related influences on the experience and on subsequent behavioural intentions. We find that the conative dimension of experience elicits the highest experience scores from visitors, but affective experiences are more significant in distinguishing between different experience contexts and visitor groups. The strongest experiences were attributed to event contexts, followed by tours, and finally permanent attractions. The experience is also enhanced when various sites are combined by visitors to provide a ‘destination journey’.
Purpose This paper aims to review the development of the relationship between culture and tourism over the past 75 years and outline some future developments over the coming 75 years. Design/methodology/approach This paper is based on a review of previous major work on cultural tourism. Findings Tourism and culture have been drawn inexorably closer over the years as culture has become one of the major content providers for tourism experiences, and tourism has become one of the most important income streams for cultural institutions. In the future, this is likely to change, as cultural institutions find it increasingly difficult to maintain their authority as the dominant producers of local, regional and national culture and as tourism becomes increasingly integrated into the everyday culture of the destination. Practical implications Cultural institutions will need to change their relationship with tourism as flows of tourists become more prevalent and fragmented. Social implications The authority of high cultural institutions will be eroded as tourists increasingly seek authenticity in the culture of everyday life and the ‘local’. Originality/value This study reviews the dynamics of the cultural field and sketches the long-term future development of the relationship between tourism and culture.
This is the 2019 update of the ATLAS Cultural Tourism bibliography, which is a work in progress rather than a comprehensive listing of cultural tourism research sources. All suggestions for additional references gratefully received. In line with the multilingual nature of ATLAS, we are happy to receive suggested references in languages other than English, preferably with an English language translation of the title. The latest revision includes references from the UNWTO report Tourism and Culture Synergies (2018).
Este informe es el resultado de la colaboración entre la Secretaría de la Comisión de Cultura de CGLU y el Instituto de Cultura de la ciudad de Barcelona (ICUB), en el marco de la implementación del programa Ciudades Líderes en Barcelona. El proyecto tiene como objetivo analizar la relación entre cultura y turismo desde la perspectiva de las políticas culturales y el desarrollo sostenible, identificando los elementos críticos que deben abordarse localmente y contribuyendo a la reflexión que este debate suscita a nivel internacional.
Executive summary of the report produced for the United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) on the relationship between cultural policies and tourism.
Cultuurtoerisme vormt al tientallen jaren een belangrijke groeimarkt (UNWTO, 2018). De wens om door lokaal erfgoed, artefacten en levensstijlen iets over andere culturen te leren, zorgt ervoor dat elk jaar honderden miljoenen mensen op zoek gaan naar culturele belevenissen. In het verleden was deze drijfveer grotendeels gebaseerd op wat culturen achterlieten-de fysieke, tastbare elementen van gebouwd erfgoed. Vandaag de dag vormen historische steden nog steeds een van de belangrijkste bestemmingen voor cultuurtoeristen, net als ten tijde van de 'Grand Tour' (Towner, 1985). Niettemin hebben de groei van steden en de toename van stedelijke creativiteit en diversiteit voor veel nieuwe aspecten van cultuurbeleving gezorgd. Cultuurtoerisme is niet alleen meer gebaseerd op tastbaar erfgoed uit het verleden, maar ook op hedendaagse cultuur en creativiteit, de aantrekkelijkheid van buurten en het dagelijks leven. In dit paper gaan we in op recent onderzoek naar cultuurtoerisme en in het bijzonder op de achtergronden van mensen die een cultuurvakantie ondernemen en hun activiteiten ter plekke. Op basis van data uit het ATLAS-onderzoeksproject (2014) over cultuurtoerisme en het onlangs verschenen UNWTO rapport (2018) waarin de relaties tussen cultuur en toerisme centraal staan, worden de motieven van verschillende typen cultuurtoeristen en hun 'interactie' met de lokale cultuur beschreven. De ATLAS data zijn verzameld aan de hand van enquêtes met bezoekers van culturele attracties in verschillende landen. De centrale vraag die in dit paper centraal staat is of we nog steeds kunnen praten over cultuurtoerisme als een coherent marktsegment, of dat er sprake is van toenemende fragmentatie waardoor het steeds moeilijker is geworden om 'de' cultuurtoerist te onderscheiden. Met andere woorden, wie zijn de cultuurtoeristen en wat trekt hen naar de plaatsen die zij bezoeken?
Culture and tourism were two of the major growth industries of the twentieth century, and in recent decades the combination of these two sectors into ‘cultural tourism’ has become one of the most desirable development options for countries and regions around the world. As the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) report on The Impact of Culture on Tourism (2009) noted, cultural tourism accounted for almost 360 million international tourism trips in 2007, or 40 per cent of global tourism. In value terms, the contribution of cultural tourism is even greater, since cultural tourists are estimated to spend as much as onethird more on average than other tourists (Richards 2007). However, the rapid growth of cultural tourism from the preserve of the elite Grand Tourists to a major industry in the last century has also caused problems. Growing numbers of tourists at major sites and in small communities has raised questions about the sustainability of this new form of mass tourism. In particular it has become harder for destinations to profile their culture among the welter of products on offer, each desperate to claim their uniqueness. There is a growing number of places in search of new forms of articulation between culture and tourism which can help to strengthen rather than water down local culture, which can raise the value accruing to local communities and improve the links between local creativity and tourism. Many places are therefore turning to creative development strategies, or different forms of creative tourism in the process (Richards 2011). This chapter examines why and how cultural tourism is being transformed into creative tourism.
This report examines how cultural policy can contribute to the management and development of tourism, and how tourism can contribute to supporting urban cultures. This review concentrates on the cities of Amsterdam, Barcelona, Copenhagen, Lisbon, Montreal and Rome, and seeks to add new perspectives to current debates on 'overtourism' and the growth of the sharing economy.
This book discusses various quantitative and qualitative methods in cultural tourism research. The book consists of 17 articles on the traditional quantitative approach, methodological triangulation, application of the grounded theory, visual methods, grand tour approach, collage technique, multi-method research on ethnic cultural tourism, photo-based interviews, ethnographic methodology, and application of actor network theory.
With tourism to cities in Europe increasing by 20% a year (ITB), cultural heritage is becoming becoming a focal point for local residents and 'temporary citzens', or visitors. However, the increased volume of city use also produces qualitaitve change in relationships to heritage. Vsitation in the form of cultural tourism has long been seen as a 'good' form of tourism, because visitors supply income to conserve the heritage they visit, and heritage provides the 'content' that attracts visitors. But the addition of visitors to already crowded city centres often produces more negative outcomes. This presentation draws from a number of recent publications on culture, tourism and cities to chart some of the changes taking place in the relationship between heritage and tourism and resident and visitor communities. Cultural heritage is an issue that affects large numbers of people. As the recent Eurobarometer research on EU citizens reveals, 73% of the population lives near heritage monuments, works of art, heritage sites, traditional events or festivals that are related to Europe's culture and history. More than half the EU population consider themselves to be 'involved' with heritage in some way. This makes local populations extremely important stakeholders in in heritage conservation and use. The recent UNWTO report (2018) on Tourism and Culture Synergies has therefore underlined the need to involve a wide range of stakeholders, including representatives of culture, tourism, local communities and administrations, in developing positive synergies between heritage and tourism. Cultural tourism, just as tourism in general is also growing rapidly across the world. It is estimated that there are now over 500 million international cultural tourists every year, and there is probably an even larger number of domestic cultural tourists. As cultural tourism grows, the content of the cultural experiences sought by and provided for tourists has also changed.
This paper examines recent research on cultural tourism to draw a picture of the people who consume and engage with culture in the destination. Drawing on material from the ATLAS Cultural Tourism Research Project and the recent UNWTO review of Culture and Tourism Synergies, it reviews the motivations and drivers of cultural tourists and the different ways in which they encounter and interact with culture. In particular, we focus on recent trends towards the consumption of the 'local' and 'everyday culture' that is stimulating more integrated styles of cultural tourism. The basic question posed is whether we can still talk about cultural tourism as a coherent market segment, or if the fragmentation evident in recent years has now made it increasingly difficult to identify 'the cultural tourist'.
Cultural tourism has been identified as a major growth area in European tourism. Culture is increasingly being used as a promotional tool because cultural tourism is identified as a growing area of upmarket consumption, which can support economic as well as cultural regeneration, and aid wider tourism policy goals, such as spatial diffusion of tourism. Recent research on cultural tourism in Europe underlines the diverse nature of cultural resources used for tourism, contrasting with the narrow social profile of cultural tourism participants. There are now signs of a growing mismatch between supply and demand, as the growth in cultural tourism provision begins to outstrip the growth in demand.
This review article traces the development of cultural tourism as a field of research over the past decade, identifying major trends and research areas. Cultural tourism has recently been reaffirmed by the UNWTO as a major element of international tourism consumption, accounting for over 39% of tourism arrivals. Cultural tourism research has also grown rapidly, particularly in fields such as cultural consumption, cultural motivations, heritage conservation, cultural tourism economics, anthropology and the relationship with the creative economy. Major research trends include the shift from tangible to intangible heritage, more attention for indigenous and other minority groups and a geographical expansion in the coverage of cultural tourism research. The field also reflects a number of 'turns' in social science, including the mobilities turn, the performance turn and the creative turn. The paper concludes with a number of suggestions for future research directions, such as the development of trans-modern cultures and the impacts of new technologies.
A transnational study of European cultural tourism demand and supply indicates a rapid increase in both the production and consumption of heritage attractions. Although heritage tourism demand has been fueled by rising income and education levels, there has also been a significant supply-induced element of demand. In particular, those engaged in cultural production play a key role in exploiting the cultural capital concentrated in the major historic centers of Europe. Spatially localized production of heritage is intimately linked with socially limited consumption of heritage tourism by groups within the “new middle class”, rendering attempts to spread tourism consumption through heritage promotion difficult.RésuméProduction et consommation du tourisme culturel européen. Une étude de l'offre et la demande du tourisme culturel européen indique une augmentation rapide dans la production et consommation des attractions patrimoniales. Quoique la demande pour le tourisme patrimonial soit alimentée par des niveaux montants de revenus et d'instruction, il y a un élément significatif de la demande qui est provoqué par l'offre. En particulier, ceux qui sont engagés dans la production culturelle jouent un rôle clé dans l'exploitation de la capitale culturelle concentrée dans les grandes villes européennes. Le patrimoine localisé est étroitement liéà la consommation socialement limitée du tourisme patrimonial par la ⪡nouvelle classe moyenne⪢, ce qui rend difficile des tentatives pour augmenter la consommation du tourisme par la promotion du patrimoine.
In the past, studies of tourism and the environment have tended to concentrate on the ‘natural’ environment; these studies did not pay attention to the role of culture in creating environments for tourism, and mediating the way in which tourists consume environments. Recent critical studies of the tourism phenomenon have begun to redress this balance, by pointing to the way in which the production and reproduction of ‘nature’ is highly culturally determined (Urry, 1996).
Culture and heritage constitute vital resources for tourism development, and tourism in turn makes an important contribution to cultural development. This paper considers the key trends in the cultural and heritage tourism markets, including the development of demand, the elements of culture and heritage included in the tourism product, the role of the cultural producers and the effects of globalisation and localisation. Future directions for the development of cultural and heritage tourism are also considered. Cultural and heritage tourism constitute important segments of global
Cultural tourism has been identified as one of the most important of the global tourism markets. Europe hosts a vast treasure house of cultural attractions and the level of competition between cities, regions and nations to attract cultural tourists is increasing. This book reviews the cultural tourism market in Europe, based on recent surveys. It analyses the way in which cultural attractions are produced for and used by cultural tourists and pays attention to specific types of cultural attractions including museums, art galleries, monuments and heritage attractions and the management, marketing and cultural issues surrounding them. In part I, the development of cultural tourism and cultural attractions is discussed. In part II, case studies of European cultural attractions are presented. The book contains 13 chapters and a subject index.
This paper outlines the discussion surrounding the definition of cultural tourism and also asks the question whether the term 'cultural tourism' is still appropriate to cover the wide variety of activities that now tend to be included under this broad umbrella. It also considers why cultural tourism has grown in recent decades, because the way in which cultural tourism has developed has arguably coloured the question of definition.
This bibliography is a work in progress rather than a comprehensive listing of cultural tourism research sources. All suggestions for additional references gratefully received. In line with the multilingual nature of ATLAS, we are happy to receive suggested references in languages other than English, preferably with an English language translation of the title. The latest revision includes references from the UNWTO report Tourism and Culture Synergies (2018).
Attractions are vital sub-elements in all whole tourism systems, and yet their study suffers from lack of theoretical depth and empirical foundation. This paper presents an empirical exploration of the attraction system model, based on a survey of over 6,000 tourists to cultural attractions. The results provide strong support both for the general structure of the model and for the idea that tourists are “pushed” towards attractions by their motivations. Visitation is shown to be strongly related to motivation, attraction markers, use of different media, and touristic characteristics. Potential areas of development for the model are suggested, including more consideration of the relationship between agency and structure.RésuméSystèmes d’attractions touristiques: une étude de comportement culturel. Les attractions sont des sous-éléments essentiels dans tout système de tourisme à part entière, et pourtant les études à ce sujet manquent de profondeur théorique et de fondation empirique. Cet article présente une exploration empirique du modèle du système d’attractions basée sur un sondage de 6.000 touristes à des attractions culturelles. Les résultats appuient fortement la structure générale du modèle et l’idée que les touristes sont «poussés» vers les attractions par leurs motivations. Le nombre de visiteurs est fortement lié à la motivation, aux indications d’attractions, à l’usage des différents médias et aux caractéristiques touristiques. On suggère des possibilités de développement pour le modèle, y compris plus de considération de la relation entre agence et structure.
In recent decades, tourism and culture have become inextricably linked partly due to the increased interest in culture, particularly as a source of local identity in the face of globalization, the growth of tourism and easier accessibility of cultural assets and experiences. Furthermore, cultural tourism has been viewed as a desirable, ‘good’ form of tourism for nations and regions to develop, because it generates cultural, social and economic benefits. Synergies between tourism and culture have therefore long been noted. The UNWTO report on Cultural Heritage and Tourism Development (2001) argued that: “Culture and tourism have a symbiotic relationship. Arts and crafts, dances, rituals, and legends which are at risk of being forgotten by the younger generation may be revitalized when tourists show a keen interest in them. Monuments and cultural relics may be preserved by using funds generated by tourism. In fact, those monuments and relics which have been abandoned suffer decay from lack of visitation.” Today, the relationship between tourism and culture is being rapidly transformed by changing lifestyles, new forms of culture and creativity and the development of new technologies. The culture related to tourism has become less tangible, more accessible and has been developed in a more bottom up fashion than in the past. This has created challenges and opportunities for countries around the globe in developing and utilizing the many synergies between tourism and culture.