Archived project

Creation of a thematic network called "TOURISM, ENVIRONMENT, INNOVATION AND PRODUCTIVITY"

Goal: This project has as two main objectives: first, to empirically quantify the structural relationships between the implementation of ecoinnovative practices, that generate improvements in the quality of service, business competitiveness and management in the field of rural housing; and second, to develop new methodological approaches for assessing the effectiveness of public policies regarding the implementation and monitoring of quality plans and the quality of tourism environments in different types of destinations. In addition, this project investigates whether private investment in the implementation of ecoinnovative measures to improve service quality and the environmental sustainability of rural hotel establishments leads to product differentiation and whether this leads to improvements in productivity.

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Project log

Alejandro García-Pozo
added a research item
Rural tourism is currently one of the most dynamic segments of tourism demand, and rural accommodation is one of the accommodation choices most in demand. Based on various documentary sources, the goal of this article was to analyse aspects related to the qualitative evolution of this activity that have led to the rapid growth of this type of accommodation. Using a purpose-built database generated from the information obtained from our own survey, which was developed following other studies on this topic, we applied a partial least squares model to analyse the impacts on the environment in terms of the offer and their relationship with environmental management. The results show that the attitude of rural establishment managers has a decisive influence on the behaviour of their clients regarding ecological respect and a positive impact on water and energy consumption.
Alejandro García-Pozo
added a research item
The presence of the real estate investment trust in the Spanish real estate market since 2013 has led a significant number of the housing stock being offered for rent in the most popular cities around the country. In the specific case of the Costa del Sol, it is necessary to evaluate the participation of these companies in the establishment of a stable business fabric of housing for rent as well as in the development sector for home sales. In addition, its membership of international financial circuits means that the effect of financing the economy on urban environments has to be taken into account. In order to assess the weight of the real estate investment trust in the development of the Costa del Sol, we turned to data on housing developments for sale provided by the main Internet real estate portals are used, comparing their market share with that of other national and local players The main conclusion is that this type of company has not opted for professional marketing of housing offered for residential rental in the province, but nevertheless, they have become the leading companies in the real estate development sector in the province by number of homes offered. To achieve this objective, this document has first opted for a study of literature review that includes the contributions of Spanish and international social scientists on the processes of transmission of financial capital to the real estate sector, the characteristics of financial actors and their patterns of behavior, the factors that enable and facilitate their activity; as well as the transformations that have undergone today and that have allowed them to expand their investments, concluding with the economic and social consequences of all this. Likewise, this analysis has also been deepened with the main characteristics of RETTs have, also attending the main magnitudes and figures related to it, provided by Spanish public institutions. Finally, current data have been obtained on the new construction market of real estate of the Costa del Sol, using reports and statistics prepared by business study centers, and professional organizations in the sector. This information has allowed to know the number of homes built and put up for sale in recent years, as well as their geographical distribution or the nature of the real estate developer, which has allowed to show the main characteristics of this market. These contributions and the data on the number, location and origin of the real estate developer of new construction homes, confirm the influence that the international financial agents have on the real estate sector of the province of Malaga, with an important participation in the tourist sector, focusing its activity on the real estate development of housing sales, while it has a marginal role in the supply of residential rental housing. Taking advantage of the dynamics of the growth of the tourism sector, REITs have been the pioneers of the growth of the real estate sector in Malaga in the last four years, becoming the companies with the greatest market power and the greatest number of homes built in the sector, above those built by national and local housing developers. However, the goal set by the public sector for REITs to offer a professional rental housing stock has not been achieved.
Alejandro García-Pozo
added a research item
The aim of this paper is to analyse possible gender differences in the relative impact of human capital, personal and labour variables on wages in the Spanish hospitality sector. An expanded version of Mincer’s wage equation and data from the 2014 Wage Structure Survey are used. The results show significant gender differences in the estimates of all the variables considered in the hospitality sector. Nevertheless, no differences were found in the returns on educa-tion between men and women in the rest of private services sector. With regards women in the hospitality sector, human capital factors do not contribute significantly to increasing their wages. In addition, the evidence suggests that these women are subject to job insecurity and time-related underemployment situations, and also suffer from discrimination at work.
Alejandro García-Pozo
added a research item
The increase in the price of housing for rent and ownership in the city of Malaga is causing a problem of accessibility to it for the most disadvantaged sectors of the municipality, coinciding at the same time with the expansion of the vacation rentals on housing. This phenomenon is characteristic of the Spanish tourist cities, with growths of this variable greater than the national average; and not only is it depressing family income already reduced in recent years, but they are influencing essential aspects of the urban morphology of the city such as its historical heritage and its commercial fabric. All this is producing a social and academic debate on what public policy proposals might be that could be made to limit the growth of the phenomenon.
Alejandro García-Pozo
added a research item
he objective of this study was to use the perceptions of internet users to analyse the effect of the social, economic and environmental dimensions of corporate social responsibility (CSR) implemented by hotel establishments in order to determine whether those dimensions are perceived by consumers. Our analysis was based on a sample, distributed by age, sex and province segments, obtained from the Andalusian population between 16 and 74 years of age who are users of travel websites (e.g., TripAdvisor, Booking) and hotels corporate websites. A questionnaire was used to investigate each latent factor related to the three main dimensions of CSR that may affect the perceptions of accommodation service consumers. The questionnaire was statistically validated and developed in previous economic studies in this field. The data were analysed using Partial Last Square (PLS) methodology. The results confirm the validity of the three dimensions analysed, although consumers appear to play more relevance upon economic and environmental factors than upon the social components of CSR.
Juan Antonio Campos Soria
added 10 research items
This article analyses the role of income in the decision of participating in the tourism demand within 1 year. The tourists who are participating can travel to domestic destinations only, abroad destinations only or to both of them. Such a substitution pattern is modelled using a bivariate probit model. The analysis is carried out to the regional level using a survey conducted in 15 European (EU-15) countries. In addition to the traditional socioeconomic variables, the analysis adds new variables to the outbound tourism demand modelling, such as the attributes of the place of residence. The results show that tourism demand is income elastic. However, there are marked differences in the income elasticities of the probabilities of travelling domestically or abroad. Above certain income threshold, the substitution pattern between destinations takes part. The probability of travelling domestically only remains constant, whereas the probability of travelling abroad keeps growing. Additionally, the article proves that income elasticities vary significantly and nonlinearly with income.
This paper examines the ways in which productivity in tourism businesses can be increased by studying the roles of changes in physical capital, human capital, innovation, and the competitive environment. Comprehensive results are obtained by using questionnaire-based interviews, business survey data analysis, and computable general equilibrium modeling. The results demonstrate the positive contribution that each of the productivity drivers can make to improving efficiency and welfare, notably increases in human capital and innovation. They also indicate that a combined strategy incorporating all of the drivers is more effective than independently formulated policies. Government organizations can collaborate to assist productivity increases, with specifically tailored measures for small businesses.RésuméProductivité du tourisme: indicateurs du Royaume-Uni. Cet article examine les façons dont la productivité des entreprises de tourisme peut être développée en étudiant le rôle des changements de capital physique, de capital humain, d’innovation et de milieu compétitif. On obtient des résultats détaillés en utilisant des enquêtes à base d’interview, des analyses de données d’enquête d’entreprises et le modèle du calcul d’équilibre général. Les résultats démontrent la contribution positive de chacun des moteurs de productivité pour améliorer l’efficacité et le bien-être, notamment la croissance du capital humain et de l’innovation. Les résultats indiquent aussi qu’une stratégie combinée qui incorpore tous les moteurs est plus efficace que des politiques formulées indépendamment. Les organisations gouvernementales peuvent aider la croissance de la productivité par moyen des démarches adaptées spécifiquement aux petites entreprises.
This paper describes the relationship between regional climate in the home area and the choice of taking holidays in the region of origin or abroad. This decision is simultaneously estimated with a bivariate probit model. The study combines the socioeconomic characteristics of European households with information on the region of residence, such as climate, which is defined according to a new annualized climate index. The estimated probabilities are analysed using GIS and nonparametric techniques. The results of modelling support the hypothesis that the climate in the region of residence is a strong determinant of holiday destination choice. They show that residents in regions with better climate indices have a higher probability of travelling domestically and a lower probability of travelling abroad.
Alejandro García-Pozo
added a research item
This study carried out an empirical analysis of environmental innovations based on firm-level data from the Technological Innovation Panel (i.e. PITEC) 2014 database created by the Spanish Institute of Statistics. The main goal was to explore the determinants of eco-innovation in the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors. The methodology applied revealed that, although most of the proposed model’s determinants are significant for all sectors, the determinants’ effects are specific to each sector. Improvements of products and processes, organisational innovations, research and development, and public financial support for innovation activities are the main drivers for eco-innovation in all sectors. However, these determinants’ effects significantly vary across sectors. This study’s main conclusion is that international competition is quite important for eco-innovation and economic aid programmes are essential to the implementation of eco-innovation measures.
Juan Antonio Campos Soria
added 2 research items
The main aim of this study was to determine the impact of innovation on productivity in service sector companies — especially those in the hospitality sector — that value the reduction of environmental impact as relevant to the innovation process. We used a structural analysis model based on the one developed by Crépon, Duguet, and Mairesse (1998). This model is known as the CDM model (an acronym of the authors’ surnames). These authors developed seminal studies in the field of the relationships between innovation and productivity (see Griliches 1979; Pakes and Grilliches 1980). The main advantage of the CDM model is its ability to integrate the process of innovation and business productivity from an empirical perspective.
Purpose The purpose of this study was to estimate the capacity of the predominant activity of the Hotel and Restaurant (H&R) sector to create female employment in European Union (EU) countries. Design/methodology/approach The methodology used was conducted in two stages. First, a branch employment multiplier was calculated using the Leontief input-output tables (IOTs), which show the direct and indirect capacity of the activity to generate female employment. Second, a regression model was estimated to explain the determinants of the female employment multiplier in the H&R sector. It should be noted that the reliability and simplicity of the proposed model allows countries without IOTs, but with gender-disaggregated labor statistics, to easily estimate their own female employment multiplier. Findings The results show that the job-creation capacity of the H&R sector significantly varies across the EU countries, especially in relation to the female employment multiplier. Although international differences in gender wage gaps help to explain such multipliers, institutional factors and feminization rate also play a key role. Research limitations/implications The results may contribute to improving the actions of member states to stimulate the sustainable development of the tourism sector. Originality/value Based on previous literature, the finding that higher tourism expenditure may result in increases in tourism employment gives rise to another set of interesting questions. The most fundamental of these may concern the nature of the economic underpinnings of the growth of female employment. This paper contributes to this issue by conducting a specific analysis across EU countries using a homogenous and comparable methodology.
Juan Antonio Campos Soria
added 2 research items
En este paper estudiamos la existencia de relaciones de causalidad à la Granger entre crecimiento económico y desarrollo turístico con datos regionales españoles. Para ello recurrimos a datos mensuales del índice de producción industrial y a pernoctaciones de turistas residentes y no residentes en las 17 comunidades autónomas españolas durante el periodo 2002-2016. Como metodología econométrica se utiliza el análisis de causalidad Granger sobre paneles heterogéneos propuesto por Emirmahmutoglu y Kose (2011) en la que se tiene en cuenta la existencia de correlación transversal entre las unidades del panel mediante la generación de valores críticos con técnicas de bootstrap. Los resultados obtenidos muestran la existencia de una relación bidireccional entre turismo y crecimiento económico, siendo el turismo doméstico el que desempeña un papel relevante en esas relaciones de causalidad. Por último, al agrupar las distintas regiones en costeras y de interior se observa que la hipótesis TLEG recibe su apoyo de las regiones del interior mientras que en las regiones costeras es la hipótesis EDTG la que encuentra respaldo. This paper investigates the causal relationship between economic growth and tourism development across the Spanish regions using monthly data of the industrial production index and nights spent by domestic and international tourist. We use the bootstrap panel Granger causality approach proposed by Emirmahmutoglu and Kose (2011) which accounts for cross-sectional dependence and heterogeneity across regions. Empirical results reveal the existence of bidirectional causality, the domestic tourism being the main driving force behind them. The TLEG hypothesis finds support in internal regions while the EDTG hypothesis holds for the coastal ones.
Las diferencias existentes en España en términos de empleo, renta per cápita y PIB al considerar las distintas comunidades autónomas según datos de la Contabilidad Regional de España para varios años, permiten conformar un mapa macroeconómico a nivel regional muy heterogéneo. Por otra parte, las diferentes políticas autonómicas en el campo del desarrollo de la innovación empresarial hacen que los estímulos para el desarrollo de éstas sean dispares cuando consideramos empresas radicadas en diferentes regiones españolas. Además, los análisis que relacionan desde una perspectiva regional las actividades innovadoras orientadas a la sostenibilidad medioambiental de las actividades económicas de las empresas españolas y su incidencia sobre la productividad laboral son exiguas. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es analizar, para las tres regiones más pobladas y con mayor participación en el PIB nacional (Andalucía, Madrid y Cataluña), la incidencia sobre la productividad del trabajo de la introducción de medidas innovadoras de carácter medioambiental. La base de datos del Panel de Innovación Tecnológica (PITEC), constituye la fuente de datos utilizados en este trabajo. PITEC es una base de datos de tipo panel que permite estudiar las actividades de innovación tecnológica de más de 12,000 empresas españolas y en nuestro caso para el período comprendido entre 2008 y 2014. La metodología utilizada se basa en la utilización del modelo estructural CDM. En nuestro caso y por economía de espacio sólo se presenta la tercera etapa del modelo que la incidencia de la innovación de productos y de procesos sobre la productividad del trabajo en las empresas analizadas.
José Luis Sánchez-Ollero
added 2 research items
In the hotel accommodation market, hedonic pricing theory states that the price of a room is determined by a set of characteristics (e.g. structural, location and environmental) of the establishment. Set within the framework of this methodology, and using raw data from the Quality, Productivity and Competitiveness in the Hospitality Industry for Andalusia project (PO7/SEJ-02889), this paper discusses the impact on room pricing of hotels implementing environmental sustainability measures. A sample of 216 hotels (3-, 4- and 5-stars) in Andalusia was used. This sample is statistically representative of hotel accommodation in the region. A distinguishing feature of this study is the creation of a variable derived from the replies given by hotel managers to a questionnaire designed by the authors. The questionnaire presented questions about the measures the managers implemented in their establishments to improve environmental sustainability. The use of this variable in the semilogarithmic hedonic model suggests that the prices of hotel rooms are 4.51% higher for each environmentally sustainable measure implemented in the hotel; in some cases, the price increase could be as much as 31.57%. Moreover, this variable has the second highest weight in explaining variations in room prices regarding standardized coefficients. Other variables that were also introduced in the model yielded estimates consistent with those obtained in previous studies.
Environmental management involves costs and benefits. Traditionally, in studies primarily for manufacturing sectors, was attributed a negative impact of environmental regulation on productivity. However, more recent studies have documented that firms that have adopted environmental standard enjoy higher labour productivity than firms that have no adopted such standards. In this paper we analyze the good environmental practices and their impact on labour productivity. For this purpose, unlike previous works, we have proceeded to define the variable "good environmental practice" as an indicator of environmental management and introduce in a widely used production function.
José Luis Sánchez-Ollero
added 2 research items
The transport and storage sector, like other sectors of the Spanish economy, is experiencing the effects of the current economic crisis. The Annual Services Survey prepared by the Spanish National Institute of Statistics (INE) shows that between 2008 and 2013 there was an 11.9% reduction in turnover and an 18.3% reduction in paid workers in companies in sector. However, in the same period, there was a 7.8% increase in labour productivity. The main aim of this study was to determine the impact of factors related to innovation and the environment, among others, on labour productivity in the Spanish transport and storage sector. Few studies are available on this topic, which is most likely due to the scant statistical information available for the sector analysed. The structural analysis model used in this study was an extended version of the well-known Cobb-Douglas production function applied to data obtained from the Technological Innovation Panel (PITEC). PITEC is a panel type database (for 2003-2013), which was developed jointly by the Spanish National Institute of Statistics (INE) and the Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology.
La industria del transporte es un sector económico de una enorme y creciente importancia estratégica para la industria, el comercio y la movilidad de las personas. De acuerdo con los datos del Ministerio de Fomento (2015), la participación en la economía del sector transporte para el año 2014 ha sido del 6,6% en servicios de mercado y del 5% en el Valor Añadido Bruto nacional, en ambos casos con tres décimas de evolución positiva con respecto al año anterior. Sin embargo, los trabajos académicos que hayan analizado el efecto de la implementación de medidas medioambientales en la productividad de las empresas de transporte son escasos, a pesar del uso intensivo de combustibles fósiles por parte de este sector y del interés que manifiesta la Unión Europea en la reducción del uso de dichos combustibles. Por lo anterior, el principal objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el impacto de la ecoinnovación sobre la productividad del trabajo en el sector del transporte y el almacenamiento en España. Los datos utilizados en las estimaciones de este trabajo proceden de la base de datos del Panel de Innovación Tecnológica (PITEC). PITEC es una base de datos de tipo panel, realizada conjuntamente por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística de España (INE) y por la Fundación Española para la Ciencia y la Tecnología (FECYT) que permite estudiar las actividades de innovación tecnológica de más de 12,000 empresas españolas y en nuestro caso para el período comprendido entre 2008 y 2013. Nuestra muestra no balanceada incluye 1306 observaciones de 225 empresas del sector transportes. La metodología utilizada se basa en la utilización del modelo estructural CDM. La principal ventaja de este modelo trietápico es que aúna las relaciones entre la inversión en I+D, la generación de conocimiento innovador y la productividad de las empresas.
Juan Antonio Campos Soria
added 2 research items
Este artículo contrasta si los hogares españoles ahorran parte de su renta para prevenir posibles imprevistos en el futuro. Para ello, se utiliza una variable ficticia indicativa del período en que se reduce el subsidio de desempleo, pues implica un aumento del riesgo de renta soportado por los hogares. A partir del modelo de ciclo vital con incertidumbre sobre la renta y utilizando los datos de la Encuesta Continua de Presupuestos Familiares, se obtiene que los hogares españoles ahorran por motivo precaución, pero sólo para aquéllos cuyo sustentador principal es de mediana edad, y sobre todo para los hogares restringidos a la liquidez.
The aim of this paper is to analyze — from a global perspective — the main relationships existing between service quality and businesses competitiveness. To this end, a simultaneous equations model is presented. This model enables distinguishing between the external and internal effects of quality on competitiveness, and empirically verifies a set of hypotheses of great significance for the hotel industry. The data used to empirically verify this model were gathered from hotels owned by a national hotel company in Spain. The client survey carried out by the hotel — in the form of questionnaires — was the basis for creating the service quality indicators and establishing their most relevant dimensions. The quality indicator was created for each hotel based using Structural Equation Modelling (S.E.M.). On the other hand, the economic and financial data pertaining to the hotels served to create competitiveness indicators for each of them. The sign and value of the coefficients estimated by the model presented lead to a series of conclusions regarding the complex sequence of direct and indirect causal relationships between quality and competitiveness. The estimation obtained was used to empirically verify a set of key hypotheses regarding the competitiveness of these hotels and to propose measures designed to improve it.
Alejandro García-Pozo
added a research item
In recent years, respect for the environment has been taken into account by tourists as a factor in their purchasing decisions. The concept of eco-innovation has gained an important role in adapting the tourism product to this new demand. Using a previous database already compiled by the authors, this paper has two aims: to address the effect of implementing environmental measures on labour productivity in the Andalusian hotel industry; and to show how its implementation has evolved during a period of deep economic crisis in all the productive sectors in Spain (2008-2012). For this purpose, the variable ei was defined as indicator by which to measure the eco-innovation and was introduced in a standard Cobb-Douglas production function. The two estimates of the production function for 2008 and 2012 show that the introduction of eco-innovative measures had a positive and significant influence on labour productivity, despite the fact of the economic crisis reduced the productivity growth observed for each additional eco-innovative practice implemented by the hotels from 8.15% in 2008 to 7.45% in 2012.
Alejandro García-Pozo
added 3 research items
Can the implementation of eco-innovation measures improve apparent labour productivity in hotel establishments? Based on data from a sample of 173 hotel establishments with three or more stars, this article suggests that these measures improve apparent labour productivity. We define the variable “eco-innovative” as an indicator of environmental management and introduce it in a widely-used production function with a set of control variables that represents some characteristics of the hotels for which we have information. The econometric results indicate that the implementation of additional eco-innovative practices increases labour productivity on average by 8.15%. However, the results also suggest that this increase occurs as a function of a certain level of investment in these types of environmental measures, after which level the variation in apparent labour productivity may become negative. The results obtained have managerial implications that should encourage hotel managers to reconsider their level of commitment to the implementation of eco-innovative practices.
This book contains some contributions from the VI International Conference on Tourism, Economics and Environment that took place at Malaga, Spain. The book includes a collection of case studies and best practices linking sustainability to tourism. The topics addressed represent an overview of the most contemporary problems affecting the tourism sector. Contents: Low cost airlines and tourism: analysis of the case of Easyjet from the perspective of complex networks and its management implications Flickr: tool for a market analysis of tourism consumption New tourism uses for defence heritage: tourism enhancement of historic castles and fortresses Application of the concept "tourism cluster" in urban planning. A proposal for Calp Old Town Tourism development and high-speed railway in Andalusia Sustainable tourism and management of national parks in Spain: unfinished business The tourist explotation of natural areas observed under law 30/2014, of 3 december, regarding national parks Carbon footprint management as an opportunity for differentiation for the rural accommodation sector Tear down that green fence: traditional uses of the territory standing up against natural protection and ecotourism in the Spanish Pyrenees Design of an input-output table for the touristic supply chain in Spain Aanalysis of the ethical behavior of local politicians in Spain through its influence on holiday dwelling prices Theoretical identification of drivers and barriers for setting up EMS in SMES in China VAT and the Tourism sector Feed-in tariff policies and their impact on development of the European photovoltaic sector, between other papers.
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is implemented unevenly in the Spanish tourism industry. The country’s hotel infrastructure is not an exception. Many researchers have focused on finding out to what extent the implementation of CSR is ideal from a hotel management perspective and what its effects and consequences are. To a lesser extent, this work has analyzed how and how much consumers rate socially responsible actions, particularly those associated with the environment, society and the economy. This work aims to analyse from a consumer perspective, the influences that certain environmental, economic and social actions have and if these have a bearing on purchase intention. A reflexive model is used to confirm hypotheses and the partial least squares technique is used, because it does not require the variable normality factor and it is suitable for research models whose objective is to predict the effects of some variables on others. The main conclusion of this study is to establish the effects of CSR on consumer perception, considering different factors of major importance. To be specific, intervention where the factors are concerned ought to enhance the perception of the social, economic and environmental dimensions. All the relationships found between the different factors stand out, except for social dimension (the one with lowest intensity), which is not only significant but also serves to definitively validate our model.
Juan Antonio Campos Soria
added 2 research items
This paper analyses and quantifies the main interrelationships between service quality and the competitiveness of hotels, distinguishing between external and internal effects. The external effects were evaluated according to customer satisfaction, its influence on the sales volume and the client's willingness to pay. The internal effects of quality on competitiveness were estimated using average direct costs. The sign and value of the estimated coefficients were used to examine a set of hypotheses for improving the competitiveness of hotels. The direct, positive effect of high service quality on competitiveness is a particularly important finding.
This article contributes to a better understanding of tourists’ attitudes to environmental support when they make their holiday plans. Modelling these decisions is a challenge because although environmental concerns are heterogeneous across countries, they also depend on the individual characteristics of the tourists from each country. This article uses a multilevel approach, using a two-level structure, in which individuals are nested into countries. This approach may be helpful for understanding the contextual and compositional effects simultaneously. The estimates from a two-level random intercept logistic model and the post-estimation analysis, based on non-parametric techniques, demonstrate that the effects of country vary randomly, and that there is significant variance in the level of tourists´ environmental support within and between countries. Regarding the contextual effect, the post-materialist hypothesis explained most of the heterogeneity between the EU-27 countries. The affluence hypothesis was rejected and the challenge response hypothesis was only partially supported. The results from the compositional effect support the attribution hypothesis, demonstrating that the environmental concern of tourists is higher when travelling domestically than abroad.
Juan Antonio Campos Soria
added 2 research items
The aim of this article is to estimate the contribution of different types of gender segregation on the wage gap in the hospitality sector. Matched employee-employer data is used. The data source includes information on 181 hotels and 121 restaurants in Andalusia. These contributions are obtained assuming both equal returns of the observable variables for men and women and different returns. The main results are the following ones. Industrial, vertical and establishment segregation increase wage differential. Horizontal and category segregation diminish it. These estimations are robust to the empirical specification. El objetivo de este artículo es estimar la contribución de los distintos tipos de segregación de género en la diferencia salarial en la hostelería. Se emplean datos emparejados trabajador-establecimiento. La base de datos incluye información de 181 hoteles y 121 restaurantes de Andalucía. Estas repercusiones se obtienen suponiendo rendimientos iguales de las variables observables para hombres y mujeres y rendimientos distintos para cada colectivo. Entre los principales resultados cabe resaltar los siguientes. La segregación industrial, vertical y de establecimiento aumentan la diferencia salarial. La segregación horizontal y de categoría contribuyen a disminuirla. Estas estimaciones son robustas a la especificación empírica considerada
This article estimates the contribution of different types of gender segregation to the wage difference between men and women in the hospitality industry. Matched employer-employee data from a sample of hotels and restaurants in Andalusia are used to this end. The data source includes information on 181 hotels and 121 restaurants. Impacts on the wage gap are obtained for two empirical specifications. In the first, equal returns of observable variables are assumed for men and women and, in the second, returns are assumed to be different for each gender. The authors find that industrial and vertical segregation - and to a lesser extent establishment segregation - increase the wage differential. However, horizontal and category segregation help to diminish this, although the impact of the latter is not very substantial. Regarding occupational segregation, women predominate in worst-paid jobs, but their wages drop less than men's earnings. These estimations are robust to both empirical specifications.
Alejandro García-Pozo
added 2 research items
This study analyzed the determinants of eco-innovation in a sample of companies drawn from several sectors of economic activity in Spain and studied similarities and differences in their activity. The analysis used information obtained from the Technological Innovation Panel (PITEC) database created by the Spanish Institute of Statistics. The methodology used showed that although all the variables used in the model were significant for all sectors of activity, their effects were specific to each sector. The attitude of companies towards eco-innovation was always more significant in the industrial sector than in the service sector. Belonging to a business group, spending on R&D per employee, the introduction of product innovations, and size of the business according to the number of workers have significantly greater effects in the industrial sector than in the service sector. The effect of public economic support and subsidies is much more important in the industrial sector than in the services sector. The main conclusion of this study is to emphasize the special importance of institutional factors in eco-innovation and, in particular, economic aid programs for the implementation of eco-innovation measures.
This paper analyses the impact of factors related to innovation and the environment, among others, on labour productivity in the Spanish transport sector. The methodological approach used in this study was based on the CDM structural model. The main advantage of this model is its capacity to integrate investment in R&D and the generation of knowledge and production innovation. The data used in the estimations were obtained from the Technological Innovation Panel (PITEC) database. PITEC is a panel-type database jointly prepared by the Spanish National Institute of Statistics (INE) and the Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology (FECYT). The econometric results show that reducing the environmental impact has a statistically significant and positive effect at all stages of the innovative process and above all on labour productivity of transport firms, where the improvement of labour productivity can reach 8.35% compared to non-ecoinnovative companies. This finding could alert firms in the transport sector to the need to improve their activities by adopting environmentally proactive attitudes.
Alejandro García-Pozo
added a research item
A total of 30.93% of Spanish service sector companies consider the reduction of their environmental impact to be a significant objective when they invest in R&D. This article analyses the achievement of this objective as a determinant of process innovations and their impact on business productivity. A CDM structural model was used to quantify the associations between investment in R&D, the introduction of process, product, and organizational innovations, and productivity. The model was applied to a sample of Spanish service sector companies whose data were obtained from the Technological Innovation Panel database. The econometric results suggest that reducing the environmental impact has a statistically significant and positive effect on the following aspects: Firstly, on the probability of engaging in R&D activities in companies and on R&D intensity; secondly, on the likelihood of firms making innovations; and thirdly, on service company productivity. In the latter case, eco-innovative companies show an 11% increase in productivity compared to non-ecoinnovative companies.
Alejandro García-Pozo
added a project goal
This project has as two main objectives: first, to empirically quantify the structural relationships between the implementation of ecoinnovative practices, that generate improvements in the quality of service, business competitiveness and management in the field of rural housing; and second, to develop new methodological approaches for assessing the effectiveness of public policies regarding the implementation and monitoring of quality plans and the quality of tourism environments in different types of destinations. In addition, this project investigates whether private investment in the implementation of ecoinnovative measures to improve service quality and the environmental sustainability of rural hotel establishments leads to product differentiation and whether this leads to improvements in productivity.